PERSIAN PERIOD
539-334 BC
YHD Coin 333 BC
First Coin from Jerusalem
Material: Silver
Silver: ¼ inch in Diameter
I. Synopsis of this Period
II. Scriptural synopsis of this Period
III. Persia in scripture
IV. Discussion on the Persians and Persian Era:
A. The Collapse of Babylon and rise of Persia.
a. Nabonidus
1. His own inscription of his deeds (ANET,
pg. 308)
2. Was a fanatic of the moon god, Sin.
3. Was despised by the Priests of Marduk
and the people of Babylon
4. His last days as King and first days as
POW
Nabonidus cylinder with prayer for himself and son Belshazzar
IV. Discussion on the Persians and Persian Era:
A. The Collapse of Babylon and rise of Persia.
a. Nabonidus
b. Cyrus the Great
i. Biblical References
1. Daniel 1:21; 6:28; 10:1
2. 2 Chronicles 36:22-23; Ezra 1:1-4; 6:3-5
3. Isaiah 41:2-3, 25-26; 45:13; 46:11
IV. Discussion on the Persians and Persian Era:
A. The Collapse of Babylon and rise of Persia.
a. Nabonidus
b. Cyrus the Great
i. Biblical References
ii. Controversy over Biblical references to
Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II)
1. Hard to accept
2. Rabbis of the Talmudic age
b. Cyrus the Great
i. Biblical References
ii. Controversy over Biblical references to
Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II)
iii. Possible solutions to this controversy
iv. Extra-Biblical References
1. Cyrus Cylinder:
Cyrus Cylinder
b. Cyrus the Great
i. Biblical References
ii. Controversy over Biblical references to
Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II)
iii. Possible solutions to this controversy
iv. Extra-Biblical References
1. Cyrus Cylinder:
2. An inscribed brick of Uruk
3. Herodotus:
4. Xenophon, a disciple of Socrates:
5. Aeschylus Greek soldier and playwright:
6. Ctesias, Greek Physician of Artaxerxes II.
IV. Discussion on the Persians and Persian Era:
A. The Collapse of Babylon and rise of Persia.
a. Nabonidus
b. Cyrus the Great
i. Biblical References
ii. Controversy over Biblical references to
Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II)
iii. Possible solutions to this controversy
iv. Extra-Biblical References
v. The Capture of Babylon
vi. The Return of the Jews
IV. Discussion on the Persians and Persian Era:
A. The Collapse of Babylon and rise of Persia.
a. Nabonidus
b. Cyrus the Great
c. Cambyses
d. Darius I
a. Name
b. Biblical References
c. Extra-Biblical References
The Behistun “Place of the God”
Darius I 520 BC, Esther 1:21-22
IV. Discussion on the Persians and Persian Era:
A. The Collapse of Babylon and rise of Persia.
a. Nabonidus
b. Cyrus the Great
c. Cambyses
d. Darius I
a. Name
b. Biblical References
c. Extra-Biblical References
d. Battle of Marathon
IV. Discussion on the Persians and Persian Era:
A. The Collapse of Babylon and rise of Persia.
a. Nabonidus
b. Cyrus the Great
c. Cambyses
d. Darius I
e. Xerxes
IV. Discussion on the Persians and Persian Era:
A. The Collapse of Babylon and rise of Persia.
a. Nabonidus
b. Cyrus the Great
c. Cambyses
d. Darius I
e. Xerxes
a. Name
b. Biblical Refernences
c. Extra Biblical References
IV. Discussion on the Persians and Persian Era:
A. The Collapse of Babylon and rise of Persia.
a. Nabonidus
b. Cyrus the Great
c. Cambyses
d. Darius I
e. Xerxes
a. Name
b. Biblical Refernences
c. Extra Biblical References
d. The Man
e. His Campaigns of War
THERMOPYLAE
“Hot Gates”
Goat Pass to Thermopylae
IV. Discussion on the Persians and Persian Era:
A. The Collapse of Babylon and rise of Persia.
B. Jews in Judea in the fourth century.
a. Textual Evidence
b. Archaeological Evidence
IV. Discussion on the Persians and Persian Era:
A. The Collapse of Babylon and rise of Persia.
B. Jews in Judea in the fourth century.
a. Textual Evidence
b. Archaeological Evidence
c. The return of Exiles to Judah and the
Rebuilding of the Temple.
d. Symptoms of the disintegration of the
Persian empire:
THE ELEPHANTINE LETTERS
WALL OF NEHEMIAH
Escavated by Kathleen Kenyon
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PERSIAN PERIOD 539-334 BC