Computer History Exhibits
Signs and Placards
master copy on Haring
First floor: Stanford CSD history
Basement: Technology timelines
Floor 2: Early computing
Floor 3: The sixties
Floor 4: The seventies
Floor 5: Galaxy game
A joint project of Stanford Faculty, Staff
and The Computer Museum History Center
Questions to [email protected] or 725-8363
Computer History Exhibits
case
f1
case
f2
case1
case 11
case2 case3
case5 case4
Basement:
Timelines
First floor:
Early Stanford
CSD history
2nd: 50’s:Univac & Whirlwind
3rd: 60’s: IBM 360 & DEC PDP-6
4th: 70’s: Aple II & Cray
Fifth floor:
Galaxy
game
A joint project of
Stanford Faculty, Staff, & The Computer Museum History Center
.
Questions to [email protected] or look at http://www-cs.stanford.edu (museum)
Computer History Exhibits
Opening Talks in room B1, Nov. 5th, 5:30 pm
Donald Knuth: George Forsythe and the
Development of Computer Science
Gordon Bell: Values & Issues in Preserving
Historical Computer Artifacts
Serra street
B1
Entrance to
Basement
Lecture Hall
First floor
Basement
Exit to
outside
display case 1
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 1
Platter from General Precision
Librascope L 4800 head-per-track Disk Unit
Stanford AI Lab DEC PDP-6, November 1967
Storage capacity per side ca. 1,120,665 words of 36 bits
Capacity per unit (10 inner sides of 6 platters)
11,206,650 words or ca. 48 M bytes.
Total 5484 heads (and tracks). Total weight 5200 lbs
Rotational speed 900 rpm, Avg. access time 35 msec.
Transfer rate 1.6 m sec/word or 2.7 M byte/sec
Startup current 300 amps, Startup time 5 minutes,
thermal stabilization 2 hours
Cost $300,000 ($1,420,000 today)
The photograph shows the unit with the disks and the electronics bay
(2000 lbs) removed.
Courtesy of Martin Frost
Dark areas are due to
a head crash in 1969.
Platter from
General Precision
Librascope L 4800
head-per-track
Disk Unit
Stanford AI Lab
DEC PDP-6
November 1967
Courtesy of Martin Frost
Storage capacity per side
~1,120,665 words of 36 bits
Capacity per unit
(10 inner sides of 6 platters)
11,206,650 words or
~48 M bytes.
Total 5484 heads (and tracks)
Rotational speed 900 rpm
Avg. access time 35 msec.
Transfer rate 1.6 m sec/word
or 2.7 M byte/sec
Startup current 300 amps
Startup time 5 minutes,
thermal stabilization 2 hours
Weight 5200 lbs
Cost $300,000 ($1,420,000 today)
Total Tracks (and Write-Read heads): 5484 (includes 300 spares)
Bits/Track: 80,256 Bits/Sector: 66
Sectors/Rev: 1216
based on CPI
1997 159.1 159.6 160.0 160.2 160.1 160.3 160.5
1967 32.9 32.9 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4 33.5 33.6 33.7 33.8 33.9 33.4
Dark areas are due to
a head crash in 1969.
Apple Macintosh
Hard disk unit
ca. 1989
5 platters, 10 sides
one head per side
Capacity 20 Megabytes
SONY Corporation
3.5” Floppy disk drive
ca. 1991
High density, double sided
one head per side
Capacity/floppy 1.4 Megabytes
Courtesy of SUMEX
With disk in protective,
low friction carrier.
Courtesy of SUMEX
8” Floppy disk
first use ca. 1965
Single sided disk
Capacity/floppy ca. 150 Kilobytes
Courtesy of Vaugn Pratt
Apple Macintosh
Hard disk unit
ca. 1989
5 platters, 10 sides
one head per side
Capacity 20 Megabytes
SONY Corporation
3.5” Floppy disk drive
ca. 1991
High density, double sided
one head per side
Capacity/floppy 1.4 Megabytes
Courtesy of SUMEX
With disk in protective,
low friction carrier.
5” Floppy disk drive
Shugart Corporation
first use ca. 1977
Single sided disk
Capacity/floppy 360 Kilobytes
Courtesy of Vaugn Pratt
Courtesy of SUMEX
8” Floppy disk
first use ca. 1965
Single sided disk
Capacity/floppy ca. 150 Kilobytes
Courtesy of
Digital Equipment Corporation
Model 846 single platter disk cartridge
from SUMEX DEC PDP-11, ca. 1972.
Cut open to show disk
The 2 reading heads were mounted on slides in the drive and
entered the unit through the small port in the rear.
Larger units were composed of multiple, up to 11, platters
Storage capacity per side, using 200 formatted tracks,
ca.1.1 Megabytes of 8 bits
Capacity per unit 2.2 Megabytes. Rotational speed 2400 rpm.
Average seek time for head movement 60 msec.
Rotational latency 12.5 msec. Transfer rate 0.312 Megabyte/sec.
Courtesy of Tom Rindfleisch, SUMEX
display case 2
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 2
Lightning Calculator, ca. 1930.
The Lightning Adding Machine Company, Los Angeles CA
This calculator belonged to Prof. George Forsythe.
This American calculator copies the design of the Pascaline, first
designed by Blaise Pascal in 1642.
The pen is used to add or subtract digits in any of 8 decimal
conditions by rotating one of the disks. A lug on each wheel
creates a carry when the 9 digit is passed. This improved version
had a single lever to reset all digits to zero.
Courtesy of the Estate of George and Sandra Forsythe and
The Computer Museum.
George Elmer Forsythe
Founding Chairman of the Stanford
Computer Science Department 1965-1972
born 1917 in State College, PA
graduated from Swarthmore College 1937
PhD in Mathematics from Brown University 1941
at Stanford University 1941-1942, 1957-1972
Air Force meteorologist 1942-1945
at UCLA’s Institute for Numerical Analysis to 1957
with John Herriot, formed the Division of Computer
Science within the Mathematics department in 1961
Director of the Computation Center 1961-1965
died 1972 at Stanford, CA
George Forsythe supervised 17 PhD theses at Stanford.
Many of his students became professors themselves
and several became department chairs in turn.
The complete tree of Forsythe’s academic descendants
is available on the web pages describing these exhibits,
at http://www-cs.stanford.edu, and then click on museum.
courtesy of Cleve Moler and Jim Varah
Polya Hall
Home of the Stanford
Computer Science Department 1963- Oct.1979
Named for George Pólya (1887-1985)
Prof. of Mathematics
Polya: 13 Dec.1887- 7 Sep.1985 [Don Knuth]
display case 3
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 3
IBM Card Programmed Calculator (CPC)
A CPC was Stanford’s computer from 1953-1956.
The tall box is the arithmetic unit, which used 1500 vacuum tubes
and had 8 registers of 4 digits and 1 register of 5 digits. Digits were
represented by 4 bits each, requiring 2 vacuum tubes per bit.
The box on the right contained 4 mechanical accumulators of 12 digit
words and 2 of of 16 digits, and 48 words of mechanical storage.
Mechanical storage was implemented in the form of wheels, which
were positioned by solenoids, and had contacts for readout.
Instructions were read from cards, placed into the center unit, at a
rate of up to 150 per minute. Through wiring a plug board placed in
the arithmetic unit certain cards could be skipped, giving some
control over program flow.
The CPC was not yet a von Neuman machine architecture.
The central unit also had a printer, which could print 120 columns of
numeric output at 150 lines per minute (lpm), but only 40 columns of
letters at 100 lpm.
Results could also be punched on the rightmost unit, on up to 50
cards per minute. Another wiring board selected the card columns.
Wiring Plug Board, ca. 1960.
IBM Corporation, NY.
On pre-Von Neumann computers programs were wired. Placing the
wires into plug boards allowed fast changing of programs and offline program preparation.
The wires routed the impulses obtained from cards to start and
increment counter wheels, to transmit carry im-pulses to other
wheels, and to set indicators for negative numbers or overflow.
Printers had similar wheels, but embossed, which were rotated
before striking the paper.
This panel controlled a collator, a machine for merging two sets of
sorted cards according to the contents of sequencing fields. The
fields could be in different columns.
Courtesy of The Computer Museum History Center
Data processing cards were invented by Hermann Hollerith of the
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Commonly known as IBM cards they
were used for data and program storage from 1890 up to the 1980’s.
They had 80 columns, and up to 4 holes out of 12 positions could be
punched out per column, allowing first 12, later 64, and eventually
256 distinct characters codes per column. More holes weakened them.
The size of the card was based on the dollar bill of that time, so
that they might be carried in standard wallets. Dollar bills are
now smaller in size and in value.
Silver certificate dollar bill from 1920 courtesy of Voy and Gio Wiederhold
Early Computers at Stanford
Type
arrived-retired
IBM CPC
Mar.1953-56
IBM 650
Jan.1956-62?
Burroughs 220 Jun.1960
Location speed(+/x) Memory Prim.language
msec Words/bytes
Elec.Lab. 760K/13M 48
wired board
Elec.Lab. 2.2K/19K
2KW
SOAP
Encina 200/3300 10KW
Balgol
shared with First National Bank of San Jose (overnight check processing)
IBM 7090
Burroughs 5500
DEC PDP-1
DEC PDP-6
IBM/360-50
IBM/360-50
IBM/360-67
Feb.1963?-67
Mar?.1963-68
1964 Aug.1965
Jun.1965
Dec.1965-7x
May 1967-
Pine Hall
Pine Hall
Pine Hall
AI lab
SLAC
Med.Sch.
Pine Hall
4.4/25
32KW
~5/18bits 64KW
~4/36bits
4/16
256Kb
4/16
1.128Kb
1.5/6
500Kb
installed as an IBM/360-65 because of an inadequate timesharing system
IBM/360-75
IBM/360-91
1968
DEC PDP-10
1969? -85?
DEC system 2040 1976-1977
DEC system 2050 1977-19
SLAC
SLAC
AI lab
LOTS
LOTS
0.75/3
0.2/0.4
1.0
0.5
1Mb
2Mb
128KW
256KW
FORTRAN
Algol
LISP
PL/1 subset
Algol W,
FORTRAN
FORTRAN
FORTRAN
LISP, SAIL
Early Faculty at Stanford
1953 Jack Herriot, Alan Peterson, codirectors computation center
Remington-Rand Univac Flip-Flop Assembly
Model 1818A, serial 001348. Manuf’d for the U.S. Navy, Oct.1960.
Courtesy of David Hermreck, Potomac, MD.
Two?-bit highly reliable plug-in electro-mechanical memory unit.
It uses relays, composed to form flip-flop storage cells, similar to
the exposed AEC unit shown. The access time was about 1/2 sec.
To avoid corrosion, all joints were soldered to be airtight, and
then the unit was filled with nitrogen gas, through the valve on the
side. All contacts are gold plated.
Similar flip-flop units, but not sealed, were used for the IBM CPC
(Card-Programmed Calculator) shown above, used at Stanford
from1953 to 1956. The CPC could hold 9 words of 4 4-bit digits in
vacuum tube circuits, and 48 words of 10 digits in relay storage.
The CPC was hence not a von-Neumann machine architecture;
programs remained external. Computation was driven by sets of
cards, fed through a card reader at up to 2.5 instructions/second.
Primary Programming Languages Taught at Stanford
<Tentative Draft, tell us what you know>
Language
Board wiring
Assembler
Algol 58
FORTRAN
Algol 60
Algol W
FORTRAN
ALGOL 60 +
PASCAL
C
Java?
years
1953-56
1956-60
1960-65
1963-67
1963-68
1968-75
1975
1976-77
1978-91
1991-today
future?
compiler
none
SOAP II
Balgol
FORTRAN II
Algol
Wirth’s
FORTRAN IV
SAIL
machine
IBM CPC
IBM 650
Burroughs 220
IBM 7090
Burroughs 5500
IBM/360
IBM/370
DEC 10
LOTS DEC-10
Apple Macintosh
Information courtesy of Claire Stager, Eric Roberts, ...
display case 3
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 3
DEC-10 system Memory Controller Board,
modified for LOTS, the Stanford
Low-Overhead Time Sharing System, 1977
By 1976 semi-conductor memory prices had dropped to the
extent that large number of display terminals could each have
their own buffer in a timeshared system. The buffersizes were
adequate for 40 lines of 80 = 3200 characters each, requiring
about 320, 000 bytes for 100 terminals. This was more than
provided for in the original controller design, so that boards for
LOTS were modified to allow high-order addressing.
On PCs and workstations today, the entire display image is
buffered, omitting the need for a hardware charcter generator,
but requiring up to a Megabyte per display.
Courtesy of Ralph Gorin
ACME system status panel, 1966
Designed by Robert Flexer and Klaus Holtz
For the time-sharing and real-time data acquisition system in
The Medical school, ACME, status indicators were provided on
each of the 30 terminals, to reduce user frustration. The white
ACME IS ON light was pulsed periodically, so that it would decay
if the system went down. YOU ARE ON signaled each time slice
allocated. The WAITING FOR YOU light indicated that input was
expected from the terminal or a data-acquistion port, and the
SPECIAL RUN ON light warned users that a high demand data
acquisition task was in progress, reducing the performance for
all others.
Courtesy of Gio Wiederhold
display case 4
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 4
SAIL User Manual
June 1973
Editor: Kurt VanLehn
Stanford AI Laboratory
The SAIL language was,
with LISP 1.5, the
primary programming
language at the Stanford AI
Laboratory, and used, a.o.,
for its research in robotics.
Courtesy of Gio Wiederhold
The SAIL language was
derived from Algol 60,
expanded with
• direct access to PDP-10
I/Ofacilities,
• control over external
interrupts
• macro-capabilities
• sets and lists
• data structures for
associative search
•multi-processing
The last three augmentations were derived from
LEAP, developed in 1969 by
Jerry Feldman and Paul
Rovner on the Lincoln Labs
TX-2.
DataDisc Display System
1971: The DataDisc (DD) used the disk you see here to store
and continuously generate 32 video channels that were used
as display screens on monitors around the Stanford AI Lab.
1972: The DD video channels were routed through a crossbar
switch to any combination of 56 DD display terminals in the
building. Users could view the same channel from multiple
monitors, or multiple channels on one monitor.
1982: More and more DD channels had become very streaky and
annoying, so the DD disk was replaced with RAM memory using
the big 64Kbit chips in the “newDD” system designed at SAIL.
Here you see the DD’s small read amplifier cards mounted
around a circle. On the other side, arranged in a spiral,
are the disk heads, which you can see in the shiny mirror in
the back, which is the DD disk itself! (Note the dark lines on the
outer portion of the disk -- from head crashes which disabled only
selected channels.) One new DD memory board, holding four
video channels, is to the right.
display case 5
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 5
display case 6
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 6
Monroe Decimal Calculator. ca. 1930
Inventor: Frank Stephen Baldwin 1839-1925.
This 10-key calculator provided accurate manual computation.
Its operator was called a computor.
Each complete forward turn of the large crank on the right will add the
value set into the 8 x 10 keys into the bottom register of the carriage.
The top register counts the turns. Subtraction is achieved by turning
the crank in reverse.
To multiply the Repeat button is pressed and the crank turned as often
as needed for the low-order digit. Then the carriage is moved to the
right with the handle in front, so the next digit of the factor can be
cranked in.
The crank on the carriage is for resetting result and counter registers.
Division is performed by subtracting the divisor left to right.
Courtesy of Gio Wiederhold
Monroe Decimal Calculator,ca.1930
Inventor: Frank Stephen Baldwin 1839-1925.
This 10-key calculator provided accurate manual
computation. Its operator was called a computor.
Each complete forward turn of the large crank on the right
will add the value set into the 8 x 10 keys into the bottom
register of the carriage. The top register counts the turns.
Subtraction is achieved by turning the crank in reverse.
To multiply the Repeat button is pressed and the crank
turned as often as needed for the low-order digit. Then the
carriage is moved to the right with the handle in front, so
the next digit of the factor can be cranked in. The crank on
the carriage is for resetting result and counter registers.
of Gio
Wiederholdthe divisor left to right
Division isCourtesy
performed
by subtracting
Marchant Electric Calculator, ca. 1950.
Marchant Calculator Comp. , Oakland CA.
This calculator was used by Prof. George Forsythe,
founding chairman of the Stanford Computer Science
department.
This calculator replaced the human power required in earlier
machines (see the Monroe calculator) with an electric motor, a
single on/off relay and a number of mechanical clutches. The
key on the side determines the number of turns for
multiplication. Division was automated by entering the
divisor in the keys and continuing subtraction until the the
dividend was fully reduced. The carriage would then shift left
and division continued.
Courtesy of the Estate of George and Sandra Forsythe.
Mathematical Tables from the
Handbook of Chemistry&Physic, 1949
Chemical Rubber Publ. Company, Cleveland OH.
Calculators were used together with mathematical
tables for scientific computation.
The proportional parts entries on the right-hand
side of the base tables helped in interpolation to
gain 6-digit accuracy in these computations.
This book was used at the NATO Air Defense
Center in Holland by Gio Wiederhold in 1957 to
predict short-range free-flight missile trajectories.
A group of 12 computors, working in pairs for
cross-checking, took up to three weeks to obtain
one result.
Courtesy of Gio Wiederhold
Automatic Calculator, model SW
Friden, Inc, San Leandro CA. 1956
This machine further automated calculation by allowing
a multiple digit factor to be entered in the small panel on
the right. Multiplication continues right to left, while the
carriage shifts left, until all digits have been consumed.
The result is appears on top.
The Friden company also produced a calculator which
could do square roots.
A side panel and top cover have been removed to
provide an impression of the complexity of mechanical
computation. This type of calculator represents the endof-the-line for mechnical digital calculation.
Courtesy of Robert Floyd
display case 7
Stanford CSD Trophies
ACM Programming Contests
19xx, 19xxx, 19xx
Stanford CSD Trophies
ACM Programming Contests
19xx, 19xxx, 19xx, 19xx
display case 7
The Stanford Arm
Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
Hand-Eye Project, 1969
The arm contains 6 joints, and was configured to approximate human
reach, but with a different joint structure. A pair were mounted on a
table and operated in concert with a camera, which scanned the table
surface for objects, as blocks, which then could be stacked. Specified
tasks were then accomplished without further camera feedback. The
claw provided force feedback.
display case 11
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
size (44, 43.5, 43.5, 45) x 42.5”
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 11
display case 21
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 21
display case 22
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 22
Electric Key Punch
IBM Corporation, 1923.
Input and output for data processing was mainly by
cards that were punched with holes in any of 12 row
(X,Y,0-9) positions in one of 80 columns.
Any column could contain one of the 10 digits or an
X (above the 2- key) for minus. Letters are entered by
typing a digit (1-9) and X, Y, or zero. The EBCDIC encoding in IBM mainframes is still a derivative of this
scheme; elsewhere it has been replaced by ASCII.
In this model, the addition of a solenoid to drive the
punches which perforated the cards greatly reduced
fatigue and increased the speed of data preparation.
Courtesy of IBM Research, Yorktown
NY
display case 31
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 31
display case 32
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 32
Console panel from
an IBM/360-40
computer
Announced April 1964,
first delivered 1965.
Courtesy of
The Computer Museum
The table held the console printer
of the ACME system, an IBM/360-50G
with 1M. later 2Mb, auxiliary memory,
performing timeshared real-time data
acquisition and computation at the
Stanford Medical School.
The IBM/360 architecture was
to cover the spectrum from
modest to large machines, and
data-processing as well as
scientific computation. The
principal designers were
• Gene Amdahl,
• Fred Brooks, and
• Gerrit Blaauw.
The 8-bit byte, 32-bit word
architecture is still used in
today’s IBM mainframes.
It influenced greatly the later
RCA Spectra, XDS S , Ryad,
and Univac 9000 computers,
and to lesser extent the DEC
VAX and Intel architectures.
CORE Memory planes from IBM/360 series
IBM Corporation, ca. 1964
Ferrite-core memories were first developed during the early 1950’s for
use in the SAGE air-defense system. Each tiny doughnout-shaped core
stored a single bit of information (1 or 0) by means of the clockwise or
counterclockwise direction (around the hole) of the core’s internal
magnetization. Tiny electric wires strung through the core holes were
used to write and read information. Ferrite-cores soon replaced all other
computer memory technologies because of their superior reliability and
speed. The ferrite-core memory planes shown here were used in IBM
System/360 computer beginning in 1964. A memory consisted of many
core planes interconnected with electronic red-write circuitry. System/360
memories provided read-write cycles of 0.75 to 2.5 microseconds and
capacities of thousand bytes to 1 million bytes. Manufacturing costs of
ferrite cores were less than 0.1 cents each, but a fully wired core memory
with all support circuitry cost 1 to 2 cents per bit. Semiconductor
memories gradually replaced ferrite-core memories after the first allsemiconductor memory was introduced on the IBM System/370-145 in
1970.
Courtesy of IBM Yorktown Heights
CORE Memory planes from IBM/360 series
IBM Corporation, ca. 1964
Ferrite-core memories were first developed during the early 1950’s for
use in the SAGE air-defense system. Each tiny doughnout-shaped core
stored a single bit of information (1 or 0) by means of the clockwise or
counterclockwise direction (around the hole) of the core’s internal
magnetization. Tiny electric wires strung through the core holes were
used to write and read information. Ferrite-cores soon replaced all other
computer memory technologies because of their superior reliability and
speed. The ferrite-core memory planes shown here were used in IBM
System/360 computer beginning in 1964. A memory consisted of many
core planes interconnected with electronic red-write circuitry.
System/360 memories provided read-write cycles of 0.75 to 2.5
microseconds and capacities of 16 Kilobytes to 1 Megabyte.
Manufacturing costs of ferrite cores were less than 0.1 cents each, but a
fully wired core memory with all support circuitry cost 1 to 2 cents per bit.
Semiconductor memories gradually replaced ferrite-core memories after
the first all-semiconductor memory was introduced on the IBM
System/370-145 in 1970.
The IBM/360 implementations differed
~rel. micro-code
mcycle
model perf. storage
time
360-20* .25 main memory
2msec
360-30 1 capacitor cards
0.75msec
360-40 3 printed transformers 0.62msec
360-50 10 balanced capacitor 0.5msec
360-65 20 balanced capacitor 0.2msec
360-75 50 hardwired, overlap 0.195msec
360-91* 200 hardwired, pipelined 0.060msec
in the technologies employed:
integer
datapath planned maximum
add time
width
memory
memory
20msec?
1 byte
16K (D)
64K (F)
12msec
1 byte
32K (E)
64K (F)
10msec? 2 bytes
64K (F)
128K (G)
4msec
4 bytes 128K (G)
256K (H)
1.5msec
8 bytes 256K (H)
512K (I)
.75msec
8 bytes 512K (I) 1Mbyte (J) *
.2msec
8 bytes 1Mbyte(J) 2Mbyte (K)*
* subsequent to April 1964 announcement
Notes from Pugh, Johnson, Palmer:
pp 338: -92=15x -70
p 640 total range 200:1
CACM vol 221.1 1978
A single operating system was planned
as well. However, it became soon obvious
that the smaller machines would drag
down the larger ones, and 64K became
the minimum size for IBM-OS, smaller
machines used a system called DOS.
Stanford developed new (ACME), or
augmented IBM’s operating systems
(Wylbur and Orvyl).
display case 41
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 41
Apple Corporation
Apple I I +
Designed originally 1977
Magnavox 12” b-w TV,
used as computer display
The early Apple
computers used TV sets
to display about 20 lines
of 40 characters each.
Computer courtesy of
The Computer Museum,
TV c.o. Voy & Gio Wiederhold
VisiCorp
User Guide for
VisiCalc Electronic
Worksheet
program, 1981.
Inventor Bob Frankston
at Software Arts, Inc, 1979.
All commands were
single letter codes,
combined with arrow keys
and functions.
Courtesy of Gio Wiederhold
Conventional programming,
languages as BASIC and
PASCAL were made available
for the Apple, but had limited
acceptance.
The innovative interactive
VisiCalc spreadsheet program
for the Apple II and, later, the
IBM PC, transformed personal
computers to useful business
tools, and greatly broadened
their market.
Visicalc was in turn replaced
by Lotus, due its intuitive
point-and-click interface.
UCSD
Apple PASCAL 1.1
Developer Kenneth Bowles
1979
Graphic extensions by
Apple Corporation.
Manual by Arthur Luehmann
and Herbert Peckham,
McGraw-Hill 1981
Courtesy of Gio Wiederhold
Pascal was defined in 1972 by
Prof. Niklaus Wirth and implemented in 1978 with Kathleen
Jensen at the ETH in Zürich,
Switzerland for the CDC 6000.
The intent was to have a clear
and effective language for
teaching. Its simple type
structure was in part a
reaction to the complexity
introduced with Algol 68.
Pascal became rapidly very
popular and was also widely
used in commercial practice.
It was the language used for
teaching at Stanford CSD
from 1979 to 1991.
display case 42
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
Computer History Exhibits
Installation in Progress
Watch this Space
display case 42
Courtesy of Bill Pitts, with assistance by Ted Panofsky.
The Stanford version added three types of space: no gravity,
anti-gravity, and uncharted space.
The original version used 4 keyboard keys to control each of
the two the spaceships: spin one way, spin the other, thrust,
and fire. Solar gravity will cause the ships to destruct if no
action is taken.
Galaxy is is a reprogrammed version of Spacewar!, which
was conceived in 1961 by Martin Graetz, Stephen Russell,
and Wayne Wiitanen and first realized on the PDP-1 at M.I.T.
in 1962 by Stephen Russell, Peter Samson, Dan Edwards,
and Martin Graetz, together with Alan Kotok, Steve Piner,
and Robert A. Saunders using PdP-1 assmbley language. It
very became popular at most Artificial Intelligence research
centers and is now available in a simulated version on the
web:
http://lcs.www.media.mit.edu/groups/el/projects/spacewar/.
The Galaxy game was probably the first commercial
computer game built. It was installed in the Tresidder Union
Coffee House from 1971 to 1978. A single PDP-11
minicomputer is used to drive two separate game screens
with two players each.
Bill Pitts & Co., 1971
The Galaxy Game
The Galaxy Game was the first commercial video game. Installed in Tresidder
Union in September 1971, the game was quickly and enthusiastically
embraced by the Stanford community, with players often waiting for over an
hour for their next turn.
Galaxy Game is a reprogrammed version of Spacewar!, which was conceived
in 1961 by Martin Graetz, Stephen Russell, and Wayne Wiitanen and first
realized on the PDP-1 at M.I.T. in 1962 by Stephen Russell, Peter Samson,
Dan Edwards, and Martin Graetz, together with Alan Kotok, Steve Piner, and
Robert A. Saunders using PDP-1 assmbly language. It very became popular at
most Artificial Intelligence (AI) research centers and is now available in a
simulated version on the web:
http://lcs.www.media.mit.edu/groups/el/projects/spacewar/.
Spacewar was a magical game that captivated everyone that played it.
However, since time on the mainframe computers required to support
Spacewar was billed to users at rates of several hundred dollars per hour,
Spacewar was usually played only by system programmers when the
mainframe was idle; times like 2am!
In late 1970, Digital Equipment Corporation introduced the PDP-11
minicomputer. Finally, there was an affordable computer with the power to run
Spacewar!. So, Bill Pitts (a recent Stanford grad and AI alumni) and his high
school buddy Hugh Tuck formed Computer Recreations, Inc. in June of 1971 to
build coin operated Spacewar machines.
Bill, a computer hacker, did the programming and electrical stuff, and Hugh, a
mechanical engineer, designed the enclosures. After three and a half months
of labor, Spacewar was about to be delivered to the masses. However, at this
time (1971), the concept of "war" was a very bad thing on campus. Astute
marketeers that they were, Bill and Hugh decided to change the name to
Galaxy Game.
The first version of Galaxy Game, packaged in a walnut veneered enclosure,
incorporated a PDP-11/20 computer, a simple point plotting display interface,
and a Hewlett Packard 1300A Electrostatic Display. The PDP-11/20 (with 8K
bytes of core memory and an optional hardware multiply/divide unit) cost
$14,000 and the display cost $3,000. Coin acceptors and packaging brought
the total cost to approximately $20,000.
Galaxy Game was priced at 10 cents per game or 25 cents for 3 games. If at
the end of the game your ship still survived and had some fuel left, you got a
free game. Perhaps Bill and Hugh were not the most astute of businessmen .
Bill Pitts & Hugh Tuck, 1971
The Galaxy Game
Bill Pitts,
October 29, 1997
A second version of Galaxy Game, with a more powerful display interface
enabling the PDP-11 to drive four to eight consoles, was developed to
amortize the cost of the computer over several consoles. This version was
installed in the Coffee House at Tresidder Union in June 1972, where it
remained in operation until May 1979. Throughout its tenure at Tressidder,
Galaxy Game was heavily used. Ten to twenty people gathered around the
machines most Friday and Saturday nights when school was in session.
After removing Galaxy Game from Tressidder (because the display
processor had become very unreliable) the machine was disassembled. The
computer and displays were stored in an office and the fiberglass cases
were stored outdoors for the next eighteen years. Sometime in April 1997,
Les Earnest (the former Director of the Stanford AI Lab) received a phone
call from Bill Pitts. Bill was about to throw away some old PDP-11 stuff, and
he was wondering if Les might know of a good home for old computers. Les
mentioned that the new Computer History Exhibits might be interested.
So, Bill fired off a couple of emails in the direction of Stanford and then
finally, a reply! Yes, the Computer History Exhibits would like Galaxy Game
as an operating exhibit.
To get Galaxy Game operating again would be no small feat. The call for
help went out. The biggest job would be to build a new display processor
using the original design schematics. Ted Panofsky, who had designed and
built the display processor way back when, soon received a call from Bill.
Could Ted please take complete responsibility for building and delivering a
fully functional display processor in eight weeks? For free, of course. Ted
said he'd been waiting 25 years for just such an opportunity! Yes, he would
love to!
So, with Ted's generous contribution of time, energy, and smarts, and help
from Doug Brentlinger, Paul Mancuso, and Victor Scheinman, the Galaxy
Game is back. By the way, the original display processor's poor reliability
resulted from using early vintage Texas Instruments wire wrap IC sockets.
Ted was not the one that selected them.
Both versions of Galaxy Game were based on the the Stanford AI Lab's
PDP-10 version of Spacewar. Galaxy Game is a faithful PDP-11 reimplementation of the AI Lab's PDP-10 Spacewar. Except, I don't seem to
recall any coin acceptors on the PDP-10
Money spent in playing thie Galaxy Game will only be used for the
maintenance of the Co,mputer History Exhibits
The Computer History Exhibits thank Bill Pitts, Ted Panofsky,
Doug Brentlinger, and Paul Mancuso for their effort in restarting
the Galaxy andkeeping it going.
Contributors
Hector Garcia-Molina, Mark Horowitz, Joe
Oliger, Carlos Tomasi, Gio Wiederhold
We also acknowledge departmental
support for installation infrastructure
Special Thanks To
Doug Brentlinger, Diane Forsythe, John
Goldschmidt, Ralph Gorin, Andrew
Kacsmar, Oussama Khatib, Jill Knuth,
Verena LaMar, Paul Mancuso, Robert
Miller, Zae Ozaki, Ted Panofsky, Bill Pitts,
Victor Scheinman, Eileen Schwappach,
Marianne Siroker
Organizing Committee
Zoe Allison, Gwen Bell, Les Earnest,
Martin Frost, Penny Nii, Bernard Peuto,
Len Shustek, Gio and Voy Wiederhold
Descargar

No Slide Title