WASH One-day Training:
Information Management
for WASH Co-ordination
Prepared by Paul Currion for
UNICEF, Global WASH Cluster Lead,
with support from ECHO
Session One:
COURSE
INTRODUCTION
Our Learning Objectives
•
•
•
•
•
Explain how information adds value to co-ordination
(particularly the Cluster approach) through the ‘Virtuous
Circle’ of information management
Assess what information is needed by the WASH
Cluster, where that information can be found, and how it
can be used
Manage WASH Cluster data effectively (including dealing
with security issues) based on good practice
Be aware of global WASH IM tools, and develop
information products that support co-ordination applying
Create successful dissemination strategies, overcoming
common obstacles to information sharing
Your Learning Objectives?
•
Are there any other learning objectives you
can think of?
•
What are your expectations in attending
this training?
•
Write these down on a flipchart page and
“park” them.
The Cluster Approach



In what ways is the cluster approach different
from previous co-ordination?
In the cluster approach, what are the critical
elements of successful co-ordination?
How might the cluster approach influence
how and why we share information?
The Role of Cluster Leads

Establishment and maintenance of appropriate humanitarian
coordination mechanisms

Coordination with national/local authorities, State institutions, local
civil society and other relevant actors

Participatory and community-based approaches

Attention to priority cross-cutting issues (e.g. age, diversity,
environment, gender, HIV/AIDS and human rights)

Emergency preparedness, planning and strategy development
Can you give examples of each sort of activity from your own
experience?
Who is responsible for co-ordination in your country, and particularly coordination of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene issues?
Principles of Partnership
Equality
Transparency
Result-oriented coordination
Responsibility
Complementing
Partnership in your country

How are these principles
working in your country?

How would you strengthen
them in your own work?

How does the Cluster
approach fit your environment?

Which mechanisms or
institutions may be unique to
your country?
What is information?
What different types of information do you
 Receive,
 Work
with, and
 Distribute?
What information do we have?
 Are
these “information” or “information
products” - and what's the difference?
 Could you receive any of this
information in the form of a different
information product?
 What do you do with each of these
types of information, and how do you
use it?
Session Two:
THE ROLE OF
INFORMATION IN COORDINATION
What is Information Management?
How would you define:
“information management”?
Consider:
Relationships
Processes
Objects
Events
Outputs
Impacts
Information Management
A
definition:
“Information management is the range of
processes by which information is handled
by individuals and organisations. These
processes aim to define, collect, process,
analyse, present, distribute and record
information. The combined result of these
processes is to make the work of the
organisation more effective.”
Key Things to Remember
1.
2.
3.
Information Management is
active, not passive – a range
of processes over time, not a
single event.
These processes deal with
information from raw data
collection through to
dissemination of final outputs.
IM should make the
organisation more effective – if
it doesn’t, then why expend
resources on it?
The Virtuous Circle of IM
Collect
Data
Information
Activity
Apply
Process
Knowledge
Share
Why do we need information?
 Are
you information managers?
 Why
do you need the information you’ve
listed?
 How
do your activities change when you
receive new information?
A message
from
Bangladesh
The ability of the WASH cluster to
gather information, to extract and
process it, in the form of maps and
analysis documents and to feed this to
WASH cluster members was singularly
the most powerful achievement. The
ability to undertake this information
processing and packaging rapidly and
to hold this up to agencies as a mirror to
confront them with the realities of
coordination or lack of is crucial in
order to influence their decision
making.
Richard Luff, WASH Cluster Co-ordinator
What do these maps show us?
Review two maps showing:

The incidence of diarrhoea after Cyclone Sidr

The availability of health care in Bangladesh
These maps show different things - but if we compare them,
what do they tell us?
What might the diarrhoea map tell us from a WASH
perspective?
Adding Value to Co-ordination
Provide useful information products
Help end users to understand the situation
Act as an ‘honest broker’
Develop a common overview of the situation
Increasing accountability - verify and
monitor
Provide systematic approach in chaotic
situation.
How does information management
add value to co-ordination?
Review the IDP matrix from Batticoloa:
How does this product add value to co-ordination
process?
Without this product, would agencies have any way of
collecting this data?
Is there anything missing from the spreadsheet that
would increase its value?
What other ways do information managers add value?
How to add value to co-ordination
 Data collection
 Data processing
 Information sharing
 Creating a knowledge base
Session Three:
MANAGING DATA
What is Data made of?
1.TIME element - i.e. the date or
duration of the event
2.SPATIAL element - i.e. the location
or passage of the event
3.ATTRIBUTE elements - i.e. the
substance of the data
Why are each of these important?
An
Example of
Data
123 displaced
families
= ATTRIBUTE
arrived in Barisal
= SPATIAL
On 1 December
= TIME
Where does data come from?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What key data do you work with?
What data do you already have access to?
Where does your data come from – internal or
external sources?
What forms do you receive data in?
Do you have to adapt them to make it useful?
Are there any patterns to the your sources – in
particular, are they mainly internal?
Does ease of access influence what data you
use?
An Example of Data Mining
Review the Shelter District Summary and consider:

What are the key things that this spreadsheet (from the
Emergency Shelter Cluster) shows us?

Which of the columns spreadsheet are also useful for
WASH Cluster?

Where did the data in those columns come from? Is
there any data that we do not have a source for?

There’s a lot of information useful for Shelter coordination – what other data would you like to see from
the point of WASH?
Making Assumptions About Data
Review the note on Latrine Repair Costs and consider:

What was the key proxy indicator for latrine damage?

What assumptions were made about that indicator, and
were they correct?

What other assumptions might have been made, and
how would they affect our calculations?

How could these costings be improved?
Comparing Data for Analysis
Review the 2 maps - Unions unsuitable for tube
wells and Diarrhoea in Bangladesh.



How might we compare these two?
How would you use them to support coordination?
Are there any WASH-related issues in your
country which would benefit from this sort of
analysis?
Are you (Data) Prepared?
Review the Minimum Datasets sheet.
Are there any essential WASH baseline
datasets in your country that are not on this
list?
 Who holds them and how accessible are
they?
 If they do not exist, how might we develop
them?
 How might we be better prepared for the next
emergency, in terms of data and information?

What are Data Standards?
What do you understand by the term ‘data
standards’?
Can you give examples that are used in daily
life?

What are the characteristics of these standards?
 Who produces them, and who uses them?
 What are they used for?

Why are data standards important, and why
have they developed?

1.
Why do we
need Data
Standards?
2.
3.
To share data
within and between
organisations
To compare
different sets of
data to improve
analysis
To capture the
critical attributes of
transactions for
accountability
How do Data Standards work?
• Standards are common languages
for discussing and sharing data. They
can make your organisation:
– More efficient, saving time and
money
– More effective, improving quality
and accuracy
Introducing Geocodes
 Are
geocodes used in your country, or are
there any equivalents?
 Why are they useful? In what situations
might they be used?
 How might humanitarian organisations
make use of geocodes?
 What obstacles to their use might exist in
your country?
Why we use Geocodes
all data has a spatial element –
geocodes enable us to use this for
analysis
 Geocoding allows us to compare data
from different organisations more
easily
 Geocoding overcomes common
problems of different spellings of place
names, different languages, and name
changes
 Almost
A Filing Cabinet for Everybody
Government
Agencies
NGOs
UN
agencies
Where’s Your Filing Cabinet?
How do you store information in their
organisations?
What do all these different types of storage
have in common?
Are they accessible? If not, why not?
Why secure information?

Why Secure Information?
– making sure that sensitive
information is dealt with appropriately
 Integrity – making sure that nobody
tampers with information without
somebody noticing
 Backup – making sure that if things go
wrong, there is an alternative
 Security
Session Four:
THE INFORMATION
WE NEED
The information we need?
on demand rather than supply –
what do people need to know?
 Focus
 Are
there any constraints on what
information is actually available?
 How
will you prioritise what information is
most important for the operation?
What information would you
need to know for effective
WASH co-ordination?

What does that information
tell us, and what decisions
would it support?

At what level the information
is likely to be found, and what
form you would expect to find
it in?

Given that we have limited
resources, are there particular
datasets which we should
prioritise?

Who has the Information we need ?
Internal
Remote
Personal
External
What about other Clusters?






Health
Camp Management
Shelter
Education
Protection
ALL?
Ways of Sharing Information 1




What different ways do you share information?
Are we sharing at all points along the scale? If
not, what types of information sharing might fit?
Do different organisations use different methods
of sharing information?
Are we using the full range of options available
to us? If not, how might we address that?
Ways of Sharing Information 2





Who do you share information with?
Are there patterns to your information-sharing?
What do these patterns show about networks in
your country?
Does this help us to identify which organisations
– have useful information, or
– might need help accessing information?
Are there weaknesses in the network - and ways in
which those weaknesses could be addressed?
If you don’t share information…
Benefits of Sharing Information
Creates a shared understanding of the
situation
 Enables organisations to make projects
more effective
 Makes wider range of resources available
to organisations
 Builds relations between organisations
 Contributes to a culture of openness and
accountability
 Helps to optimise the allocation of
resources

Factors that prevent sharing
 What
factors might prevent information
sharing in the field?
 What solutions might we find to address
these constraining factors?
Data Security Issues
Privacy
 Security
 Sensitivity
 Confidentiality
 Quality

Session Five:
TURNING
INFORMATION INTO
PRODUCTS
RULE #1: START AT THE END,
AND WORK BACKWARDS
1
2
3
What decisions will this product support,
and who will be making those decisions? If
you’re not sure, how can you find out?
Will the product provide them with
information that they already have? If yes,
will it add value to that information?
If no, through which channels can you
acquire this information? Do you have
access to these channels? If not, how can
you get access?
RULE #2: REMEMBER YOUR
AUDIENCE
1
2
3
Are you clear about who are the end users
for each information product? Have you
targeted your product towards them?
How does your audience shape your
product - their language, their technology
level, their understanding of the issues?
How might end users use the information
you provide, versus how do you want them
to use that information? How will you bring
these two uses together?
RULE #3: SHOW, DON’T TELL
1
2
3
Have you made your information product
as simple as possible, using the minimum
amount of data for the maximum impact?
Have you used graphs, charts or maps to
help end users visualise the information
more easily?
Does your product make the information
user-friendly? If not, can you explain to
users what you have presented and why?
On Every Product…
TITLE
DATE
SOURCE
CONTACT
DISCLAIMER
Analyse This!



What should we try to show in information
products?
What are the best ways of adding value to this
information?
What sort of analyses will the WASH cluster
need?
1. Needs Analysis
2. Capacity Analysis
3. Gap Analysis
Knowledge Management 1
Why is it important to make sure that knowledge is more evenly
distributed?

What is the situation in your country and in your specific
organisation?

Are there archives, information centres or online resources that
enable people to access a range of documents relating to (for
example) environmental issues relating to WASH?

How accessible are they to people outside the organisation, and
are there ways of increasing this accessibility?

What might the consequences be of knowledge being
inaccessible to other cluster members?

Knowledge Management 2

How could the WASH Cluster members in your country share
knowledge with each other before an emergency occurs?

Are there organisations (particularly third-party organisations
such as universities or research organisations) which might be
able to act as guardians for building a group knowledge base?

What would be the best way to set it up – as a physical library,
on online catalogue, a dedicated knowledge management
officer?

Who would have access to this knowledge base, and how
would it be managed?
The Importance of Maps
You’ll be looking at 5 maps
from Bangladesh:
i. Distribution of Diarrhoea
Cases
ii. Barisal Sidr Storm Surge
Impact
iii. Barguna Water Supply
iv. Bagerhat Sadar NFI Map
v. Barguna Latrine Repairs
What does each map
show?
What sort of coordination could be
carried out using it?
In what ways would you
improve each map?
Successful Dissemination
Targeting
Coverage
Frequency
Feedback
Putting products in people’s hands
What ways are there for getting information to
end users?
 What are the advantages and disadvantages
of each of these methods?
 Which of these methods do you use in your
work, and why?
 How do each of them address the
dissemination criteria from the last slide?
 Are you missing any opportunities to
communicate with other actors?

Session Six:
WASH CLUSTER IM
TOOLS
Turning Analysis into Products
1. Needs Analysis
2. Capacity Analysis
3. Gap Analysis
Why
IM
tools?
1. How will tools support co-ordination?
2. What are the potential limitations of tools?
3. What areas do you think these tools would
be most useful in?
WASH Cluster IM Tools
i. IRA (Initial Rapid Assessment)
ii. WASH Cluster Survey Tool
- Rapid Assessment Tool (RAT)
- Comprehensive Assessment Tool (CAT)
- Monitoring Tools
iii. Agency Reporting Template
iv.Data Collation and Reporting Tool
Survey Tool
• Create and
customize data
collection forms
• 3 different
approaches:
– Rapid
Assessment
– Comprehensive
Assessment
– Monitoring
Tools
Comprehensive Assessment Tool
• Customize data
collection forms
• Choose from a
global set of
indicators
• Create a locally appropriate
format
• Prioritise WASH
requirements
Data Collection and Reporting Tool
•
•
•
A database with easy data entry
Import data from all the assessment tools
Create generic reports based on data
Data Tool Reports
• MAPS
• TABLES
Session Seven:
WRAPPING UP
Learning Objectives – again!





Explain how information adds value to co-ordination
(particularly the Cluster approach) through the ‘Virtuous
Circle’ of information management
Assess what information is needed by the WASH Cluster,
where that information can be found, and how it can be
used
Manage WASH Cluster data effectively (including dealing
with security issues) based on good practice
Be aware of global WASH IM tools, and develop
information products that support co-ordination applying
Create successful dissemination strategies, overcoming
common obstacles to information sharing
Questions & Answers
Does anybody have any
other questions?
Are there any issues that
we parked that still need
answering?
Are we already thinking
about how we can apply
what we’ve learnt?
WHERE NEXT?
www.humanitarianinfo.org
(OCHA humanitarian info)
www.humanitarian.info(gener
al info management)
www.humanitarianreform.org
(Clusters and Issues)
But first – please fill out an evaluation form!
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