Communication Technology
By
Bhupendra Ratha, Lecturer
School of Library and Information Science
Devi Ahilya University, Indore
Email: [email protected]
What is the Communication?
A word communication has been drives from the Latin
word “Communicare” which means to
communicate, the word used for exchange the
information.
Communication needs languages as the channel for
communication between two or more than two
person.
Basic requirements and Process of a
good communication
Language
Sender
Message
Receiver
Channel
Channels of communications

Body language
 Oral communication
 Verbal communication
 Audio-visual communication
 Mass communication
 Tele-communication
 Wireless communication
Types of communications

One to one communication

Centralized communication

Circular communication

Free flow communication
One to One
Hy, Raj
How are
you
Fine, I hope
you also
fine
Centralized communication
Circular communication
Free-Flow communication
Communication Technology

Use the modern technology for communicate
the information by different channels and
medias are called communication technology
such as electronic telegraph, telephone, radio,
TV, computer, wireless and networking etc.
Tele-communication
Tele-communication is the part of Information and
Communication Technology because in the very
short time we can get information at the
international level. It is the process of exchange
the information to long-distance
Characteristics of Tele-communication

Any one can use the Tele-communication
technology for exchange the information.
 The message may be send in coding language
which understand only sender and receiver.
 Information are easily exchange in the
different format such as text, numerical,
graphical, audio-visual etc.
Cont…

It can exchange information globally or each
and every area of the world.
 Save the time, money and human power.
 It make the privacy of message.
History of Tele-communication


3000 BC Smoke signals, Drums, Pigeon etc.
490 BC Heliographs

1837 AD Telegraph by Samuals F B Morse

1876 AD Telephone by Allexander Grahmbell
Cont…

1894 AD Radio by Marconi

1926 AD T. V. by J. L. Baird

1963 AD Audio tape by Phillips com.

1969 AD Internet by ARPANET
Cont…

1977 Fiber optical telephone cable.

1980

1981 Walkman by Sony comp.

1990
WWW by Terner Lee
html
Tele-communication media
Bounded/Cable media
Boundless/Wireless Media
Coaxial Cable
Radio Wave
Twisted-Pair Cable
Microwave
Fiber-Optical Cable
Satellite
Bounded/Cable Media

When connect the telecommunication component with
the cable and exchange the information they call
bounded/cable media.

There are three types of cable media very commonly
used and they are;
1. Coaxial Cable
2. Twisted-Pair Cable
3. Fiber-Optic Cable
Coaxial Cable


Coaxial cable gets its name because two conductors
share a common axis; the cable is most frequently
referred to “coax”. A type of coaxial cable that we
may be familiar with is our television cable. Its
components are as follows;
A center conductor
 An outer conductor
 An insulation layer
 A plastic encasement (Jacket)
A Center conductor

A center conductor, although usually solid
copper wire is sometimes made of standard
wire.
A outer conductor

A outer conductor forms a tube surrounding
the center conductor. This conductor can
consist of braided wires, metallic foil or both.
The outer conductor, frequently called the
shield, serves as a ground and also protects
the inner conductor from EMI.
An insulation layer

An insulation layer keeps the outer conductor
space evenly from the center conductor.
A plastic encasement (Jacket)

A plastic encasement protects the cable from
damage.
Classification of Coaxial Cable

Thinnet :- 0.25 inch (6mm) 610 feet

Thicknet :- 0.50 inch (13mm) 1650 feet
Twisted-Pair Cable

Twisted pair cable is popular very much
because of its inexpensiveness and ease of
installation. A basic twisted pair cable consists
of two strands of copper wire twisted together.
The twisting reduces the tendency of the cable
to radiate radio frequency noise that interferes
with nearby cables and electronic components,
because the radiated signals from the twisted
wires tend to cancel each other out.
Classification of TPC

Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable (STPC)

Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable (UTPC)
Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable (STPC)

Shielded Twisted-Pair Cabling consists of one
or more twisted-pair of cables enclosed in a
foil wrap and woven copper shielding. Early
LAN designer used STPC because the shield
performed double duty, reducing the tendancy
of the cable to radiate EMI and reducing the
cables sensitivity to outside interference
Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable
(UTPC)

UTPC doesn’t incorporate a braided shield into
its structure. However characteristics of UTPC
are similar in many ways to STPC, differing
primarily in EMI.
Fiber-Optical Cable

The center conductor of a fiber-optic cable is a fiber
that consist of highly refined glass or plastic designed
to transmit light signals with little loss.

A glass core supports a longer cabling distance, but a
plastic core is typically easier to work with.

The fiber is coated with a cladding that reflects
signals back into the fiber to reduce signal loss. A
plastic sheath protects the fiber.
Cont…

Fiber optic network cable consist of two
strands separately enclosed in plastic sheaths.
One strands sends and the other receivers.

Two types of cable configurations are
available;
1. Loose configurations.
2. Light configurations.
Loose configurations

Loose configurations incorporate a space
between the fiber and the plastic encasement,
this space is filled with a gel or other material.
Tight Configurations

Tight configurations contain strength wires
between the conductor and the outer plastic
encasement.
Comparison of cable media
Cable type
Cost
Installation
Less than
TPC
Inexpensive /
easy
10 mbps
500 m
Twisted Pair Lowest
Fairly easy
100 mbps
100 m
Highest
Expensive /
Difficult
100mbps
to above
10 km
Coaxial
Fiber-Optic
Capacity
Range
Boundless/Wireless Media

When the information transmission without
cable media they are called boundless/wireless
media.

There are many types of wireless media ;
1. Radio wave
2. Microwave
3. Satellite
Radio wave

In radio transmission a radiating antenna is
used to convert a time-varying electric current
into an electromagnetic wave, which freely
propagates through a no conducting medium
such as air or space. In a broadcast radio
channel, an omnidirectional antenna radiates a
transmitted signal over a wide service area.
Microwave

Microwave is the most important media of
telecommunications. The transmission path of
microwave links can be established between
two land-based antennas or tower.
Satellite

In 1954 the satellite technique has established.
It is also most important media of
telecommunication. Easily and authentic data
transmission by this media. Most
telecommunication satellite have been placed
in Geostationary Orbit (GEO), a circular orbit
35,785 km above the earth.
Modes of Telecommunications

Serial and parallel
 Simplex, Half duplex and full duplex
 Modulation-demodulation
 Radio wave
 Microwave
 Satellite wave
Serial and parallel

In serial communication, only one bit transmitted
at a time and it is the suited for slow and long
distance communication, whereas in parallel
transmission group of bits as transmitted at a time,
which is suited for high speed and short distance
communication.
Simplex, Half duplex, Full duplex
Television
Simplex
Half duplex
Or
Computer
Full duplex
and
Computer
Modulation-demodulation
Analog
Input
A/D
Converter
(Modulation)
Digital
Signals
Digital
Input
Signals
D/A
Converter
(Demodulation)
Digital
Input
Signals
Analog
Output
Mode of Radio wave
communication
Electronic
signal
Master
Station
Electromagnetic
signals
Mode of Microwave communication
Transmitter
Repeater
Receiver
Output
signals
Input
signals
Atmospheric signals
(Air and Surface)
Master
Station
Mode of Satellite Wave
Communication
Output
signals
Satellite
Input
signals
Master
Station
Master
Station
Component of Telecommunication

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The basic components are follows;
Sender/Transmitter
Message
Language
Media
Receiver
Other Component of
Telecommunication

Modem
 Repeater
 Hub
 Bridge
 Router
 Switch
 Brouter
 Gateway
Modem

MODEM is contraction of Modulator/
Demodulator, which allows a computer to
transmit the information over a telephone line
to another computer.
 The modem converts the digital signals into
analog signals and analog signals to digital
signals.
Repeater

A networking component that extends a
network by boosting the signal so that it can
travel farther along the cabling.
 A repeater is a form of digital amplifier that
works at the physical layer of OSI mode for
regenerate of signals.
Hub

Hub is also called wiring concentrators,
provide a central attachment point for network
cabling.
 Hubs can be divided in three categories;
1. Passive Hub
2. Active Hub
3. Intelligent Hub
Bridge

A network component used either to extend or
to segment networks. Bridges work at the OSI
data link layer. They can be used both to join
dissimilar media.
 Bridges come in three basic types;
1. Local bridges
2. Remote bridges
3. Wireless bridges
Router

Router works at the network layer of OSI
model for networking to move packets
between using their logical addresses are the
destination host.
Switch

Bridge with more efficiency is called switch. A
switch may act as a multi-bridge to connect
devices in a LAN. Switch has a buffer for each
link to which it is connected.
Brouter

Any network device having the capabilities of
both a bridge and a router. Usually, a brouter
will act as a router for one protocol and a
bridge for all other protocols. Brouters are not
common in network.
Gateway

Gateway is used to connect the different protocol
based networks (like TCP/IP, Apple Talk etc,) A term
for a broad category of network components that
allow communication between different networking
architectures and different protocols. Gateways
generally operate at the higher levels of the Open
Systems Interconnection.
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Communication Technology - Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya