Knowing the Tenses
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
Present
Not THAT kind of present!
AR
-o, as, a, amos, an
Comprar- to buy
ER/IR
-o, es, e, emos/imos, en
Escribir- to write
 Yo compro
 Yo escribo
 Tú compras
 Tú escribes
 Él, ella, usted compra
 Nosotros compramos
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes
compran
 Él, ella, usted escribe
 Nosotros escribimos*
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes
escriben
*The i will change to an e with an ER verb
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
The use of present tense
Translated as “I do something”
Examples
 Nosotros corremos todos los jueves por la noche.
 We run every Thursday night.
 Yo compro comida por mi perro.
 I buy food for my dog.
NOTE: It is ok to translate ‘yo compro’ in this case as ‘I’m buying’.
Spanish just doesn’t use the ‘ing’ tense as often as English does.
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
The ‘ing’ tense: “-ando” and “-iendo”
*use with estar*
ER/IR
-iendo
AR
-ando
Volar- to fly
Nacer- to be born
 Yo estoy volando
 Yo estoy naciendo
 Tú estás volando
 Tú estás naciendo
 Él, ella, usted está volando
 Él, ella, usted está
 Nosotros estamos volando
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes están
volando
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
naciendo
 Nosotros estamos naciendo
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes están
naciendo
DeSoto Fall 2011
The use of “-ando” and “-iendo”
Translated as “I am doing something”
Examples
 Estoy lavando las ventanas.
 I am washing the windows.
 ¿Qué estás haciendo?
 What are you doing?
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
Present Perfect
That’s still the wrong present…
AR
-he, has, ha, hemos, han +
past participle
Tomar- to take
ER/IR
-he, has, ha, hemos, han +
past participle
Vivir- to live
 Yo he tomado
 Yo he vivido
 Tú has tomado
 Tú has vivido
 Él, ella, usted ha tomado
 Él, ella, usted ha vivido
 Nosotros hemos tomado
 Nosotros hemos vivido
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes han
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes han
tomado
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
vivido
DeSoto Fall 2011
Using the present perfect tense
Translated into “I have done something”
Examples
 ¿Has probado el café?
 Have you tried the coffee?
 Nosotros no hemos visitado nuestros padres este año.
 We haven´t visited our parents this year.
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
Present perfect indicative + Past participle
Examples
 Yo me he cepillado los dientes.
 I have brushed my teeth.
The past participle may be used as an adjective
 La puerta está abierta [[irregular verb]].
 The door is opened.
NOTE:
The indicative [he, has, ha, hemos, han] will change with the tense.
These examples are present perfect tense, there is also present
perfect subjunctive, [haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayan]
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
Preterite
AR
-é, aste, ó, amos, aron
Terminar- to finish
ER/IR
-í, iste, ío, imos, ieron
 Yo terminé
 Yo descubrí
 Tú terminaste
 Tú descubriste
 Él, ella, usted terminó
 Él, ella, usted descubrió
 Nosotros terminamos
 Nosotros descubrimos
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes
terminaron
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
Descubrir- to discover
descubrieron
DeSoto Fall 2011
Using the preterite tense
Translated as “I did something”
Examples
 Yo canté por tú.
 I sang for you.
 Nosotros hacimos el trabajo.
 We did the job.
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
Past Imperfect
AR
-aba, abas, aba, ábamos, aban
Hablar- to speak
ER/IR
-ía, ías, ía, íamos, ían
Sorprender- to surprise
 Yo hablaba
 Yo sorprendía
 Tú hablabas
 Tú sorprendías
 Él, ella, usted hablaba
 Él, ella, usted sorprendía
 Nosotros hablábamos
 Nosotros sorprendíamos
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes
hablaban
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
sorprendían
DeSoto Fall 2011
Using the past imperfect tense
Translated as “I used to/would do something”
Examples
 Cuando eran niños, jugaban en el parque.
 When they were kids, they would play in the park.
 Yo me sentía mál cuando él mentía.
 He would make me feel bad when he used to lie.
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
Preterite VS Past Imperfect
The preterite tense is for
actions that are over and
done with that happened in
the past
The past imperfect tense is
for habitual actions or
descriptions that happened
in the past
 Yo barrí el piso
 Cada semana barría el piso
 I swept the floor
 Every week I would sweep
the floor
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
Future
AR
-é, ás, á, emos, án
Estudiar- to study
ER/IR
-é, ás, á, emos, án
Ir- to go
 Yo estudiaré
 Yo iré
 Tú estudiarás
 Tú irás
 Él, ella, usted estudiará
 Él, ella, usted irá
 Nosotros estudiaremos
 Nosotros iremos
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes irán
estudiarán
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
Using the Future tense
Translates to “I will do something”
Examples
 Mamá cenará enchiladas ésta noche.
 My mom will cook enchiladas tonight.
 Él le escribirá una carta
 He will write her a letter
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
Present Subjunctive
AR
-e, es, e, emos, en
Grabar- to record
ER/IR
-a, as, a, amos, an
Beber- to drink
 (Que) yo grabe
 (Que) yo beba
 (Que) Tú grabes
 (Que) Tú bebas
 (Que) Él, ella, usted grabe
 (Que) Él, ella, usted beba
 (Que) Nosotros grabemos
 (Que) Nosotros bebamos
 (Que) Ellos, ellas, ustedes
 (Que) Ellos, ellas, ustedes
graben
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
beban
DeSoto Fall 2011
Using the Present Subjunctive tense
Translates to “I (hope, wish, etc.) that I may do something”
Examples
 Dudo que nosotros
completemos las tareas.
 I doubt that we will finish the tasks.
 Deseo que tú decidas
en lo que te vestirás.
 I wish you would decide
what you´re going to wear.
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
Present Perfect Subjunctive
AR
Haya-as-a-amos-an + past
participle
Arreglar- to fix
ER/IR
Haya-as-a-amos-an + past
participle
Sufrir- to suffer
 (Que) yo haya arreglado
 (Que) yo haya sufrido
 (Que) tú hayas arreglado
 (Que) él, ella, usted haya
arreglado
 (Que) nosotros hayamos
arreglado
 (Que) ellos, ellas, ustedes
hayan arreglado
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
 (Que) tú hayas sufrido
 (Que) él, ella, usted haya
sufrido
 (Que) nosotros hayamos
sufrido
 (Que) ellos, ellas, ustedes
hayan sufrido
DeSoto Fall 2011
Using Present Perfect Subjunctive
Translates to “I (hope, wish, etc.) that I have done something”
Examples
 Ojalá que ellos hayan ganado.
 I hope that they have won.
 Espero que tú hayas limpiado tu cuarto.
 I hope that you have cleaned your room.
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
Conditional
That’s the right
kind of present!
AR
-ía, ías, ía, íamos, ían
Dar- to give
ER/IR
-ía, ías, ía, íamos, ían
Traer- to bring
 Yo daría
 Yo traería
 Tú darías
 Tú traerías
 Él, ella, usted daría
 Él, ella, usted traería
 Nosotros daríamos
 Nosotros traeríamos
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes darían
 Ellos, ellas, ustedes
traerían
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
Using the conditional tense
Translated as “I would do something”
Examples
 Ella caminaría en el parque pero tiene
miedo.
 She would walk in the park but she is afraid.
 Me dijo que escribirías una carta a mamá.
 You told me that you would write a letter to
Mom.
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
¡Por favor no confundan Condicional e
Imperfecto!
The conditional tense means “I would”
Imperfect means “I would” as in “I used to”
Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
Eastern New Mexico University
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Created for ENMU Tutoring/Supplemental Instruction
DeSoto Fall 2011
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Spanish