GAMES AND SIMULATIONS PART II
SEMINAR:
THE TRAINING OF CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND SKILLS
Wintersemester 2001 / 2002
Nina Krentzlin und Julia Meyer
Prof. Dr. Jürgen Beneke
GAME THEORY
HISTORY OF GAME THEORY
1944:
”THEORY OF GAMES AND ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR”
BY JOHN VON NEUMANN AND OSKAR
MORGENSTERN
1994:
JOHN NASH, JOHN C. HARSANYI AND REINHARD
SELTEN RECEIVED THE NOBEL PRIZE IN SCIENCE
GAME THEORY
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APPLICATION OF GAME THEORY
INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH DIRECTION
OWN METHODS AND MODELS
RESULTS HAVE BEEN APPLIED TO VARIOUS DIFFERENT
DISCIPLINES
GAME THEORY
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GAME THEORY STUDIES ARE USED
ANIMAL KINGDOM
ECONOMICS
MODERN COMPUTER GAMES
GAME THEORY
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STRATEGIC THINKING
THINKING STRATEGICALLY IS THE KEY TO OUTWITTING AN
OPPONENT THAT IS ATTEMPTING TO DO THE SAME THING WITH
YOU
THE SCIENCE OF STRATEGIC THINKING IS CALLED
GAME THEORY
GAME THEORY
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EXAMPLE
A CLASSIC EXAMPLE IS THE TWO PERSON ZERO-SUMS GAME,
ROCK-PAPER SCISSORS:
SAME OPTIONS
EACH DECISION IS MADE INDEPENDENT AND SIMULTANEOUSLY
EACH WIN COINCIDES WITH THE LOSS OF THE OTHER PLAYER
GAME THEORY
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GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
PLANSPIELE
DEFINITION OF SIMULATION GAMES
“EFFECTS FROM A TEACHING METHOD WERE ANALYSED ON A
MODEL, BY REQUIRING SUBJECTS THAT HAD LEARNED THE
METHOD TO APPLY IT TO DECISION MAKING IN SIMPLIFIED
SITUATIONS.
THE SITUATION OFTEN INVOLVED A CONFLICT OF INTEREST.
THE DIFFERENCE TO SIMULATIONS:
THE PERSON OR AS THE CASE MAY BE, THE ”CONFLICT” IS IN
THE FOREFRONT.”
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 1
WOLFGANG MICKEL: HANDBUCH ZUR POLITISCHEN BILDUNG. BONN, 1999
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HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN OF SIMULATION GAMES
ROLE GAMES, IMPROVISATION, RECOGNITION GAME, CASE
STUDY AND STRATEGY GAMES
1000 BC.: WAR-CHESS, SANDBOX GAMES, CARD GAMES
CHESS WAS ORIGINALLY A MILITARY GAME
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 2
2
HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN OF SIMULATION GAMES
FIRST DEVELOPMENT IN THE 1950’S
TRAINING FOR MANAGER AND SPECIALISTS
POLITICAL
COMMUNAL
PEDAGOGIC
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 3
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PLANSPIELE
MILITARY STRATEGY GAMES
NATURAL SCIENCES STRATEGY
GAMES
SOCIO ECONOMIC STRATEGY GAMES
BUSINESS ECONOMIC STRATEGY GAMES
PRODUCTION
STRATEGY
GAMES
COMPANY
STRATEGY GAMES
FINANCIAL
STRATEGY
GAMES
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 4
HÖGSDAL, BERNDT: PLANSPIELE. BONN, 1996.
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CHALLENGE UNLIMITED, SIEMENS
1. JUNE - 14. JULY 2000
12, 867 ENGINEERS
SIEMENS QUALIFICATION AND TRAINING
THE RUHR UNVERSITY OF BOCHUM
LEADING PROVIDER OF E-LEARNING SOLUTIONS IN GERMANY,
M.I.T GMBH
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 5
2
CHALLENGE UNLIMITED, SIEMENS
STRATEGY GAME FOR RECRUITMENT OF NEW EMPLOYEES
A COMBINATION OF WORK PLACEMENT ADS AND AN
ASSESSMENT CENTER
PLANSPIEL=SIMULATION OF AN ECONOMIC SITUATION
USED FOR REQUIRING KNOWLEDGE OF BUSINESS ECONOMICS
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 6
2
CHALLENGE UNLIMITED, SIEMENS
EVALUATIONS WERE MADE OF HOW ONE PROCEEDED AND WHAT
RESULTS ONE ACHIEVED
A PROFILE FROM THE APPLICANTS IS CREATED
FRUSTRATION TOLERANCE AND WORKING STYLE WAS TESTED
ONLY 8% OF ALL COMPANIES USE SIMULATIONS VIRTUAL
ASSESSMENT CENTER
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 7
2
ECONOMIC-STRATEGY GAMES
USED FOR FURTHER EDUCATION-PURPOSES
37% OF ALL GERMAN COMPANIES USE STRATEGY GAMES
PARTICIPANTS ARE REQUIRED TO RUN A FICTITIOUS
COMPANY
THESE GAMES ARE USEFUL TO TEACH MORE ABOUT THE
COMPANY
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 8
2
ECONOMIC-STRATEGY GAMES
BUSINESS-SURROUNDINGS ARE CREATED BY A COMPUTER
THE WINNER IS THE PARTICIPANT WITH THE LARGEST
MARKET POSITION OR THE HIGHEST STOCK CAPITAL
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 9
2
ECONOMIC-STRATEGY GAMES
TWO TYPES OF STRATEGY GAMES:
DISTANCE-STRATEGY-GAMES:
TEAMS PLAY AGAINST ONE ANOTHER, LAST SEVERAL
MONTHS, MEMBERS FROM DIFFERENT COMPANIES.
SEMINAR-STRATEGY GAMES:
PARTICIPANTS ARE ALL TOGETHER, LAST SOMETIMES TWO
SEMINAR DAYS, DECISIONS MUST BE MADE MUCH MORE
QUICKLY
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 10
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ADVANTAGES
QUICK LEARNING
PARTICIPANTS CAN TRY OUT NEW MODELS RISK FREE
ECONOMIC-KNOWLEDGE CAN BE APPLIED AND PRACTICED
PARTICIPANTS LEARN HOW TO THINK IN TERMS OF
NETWORKS
DIRECT CONTACT WITH COMPETITION CAN BE TESTED
WITHOUT CONSEQUENCES
HAVING FUN WHILE LEARNING
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 11
2
DISADVANTAGES
COMPILING OF MATERIALS AND THE RELEASE OF GAME
ORGANIZATION CAN BE MANIPULATED
EXTENSIVE TECHNICAL PREPARATION
IT’S ONLY POSSIBLE WITH GROUPS AS LARGE AS 20
SOME PLAYERS MAY TAKE THE GAME TOO SERIOUSLY
ROLE IDENTIFICATION IS DIFFICULT ESPECIALLY WHEN
PLAYERS COME FROM DIFFERENT CULTURES AND
BACKGROUNDS
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 12
2
THE FUTURE
SIMULATION GAMES HAVE BECOME MORE REALISTIC
INCREASES IN COMPUTER PERFORMANCE
THE STRATEGY GAME CABS
(COMPUTER AIDED BUSINESS SIMULATION),
IS ABLE TO MODULATE THE CAR INDUSTRY MARKET
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 13
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ADVANCES: PLANSPIELE ALSO TRAIN SOFTSKILLS
AN EXAMPLE IS THE ”AEDIFICIUM” GAME FROM THE AINOS
COMPANY:
EACH PLAYER IS GIVEN A ROLE AS AN EMPLOYEE OR
MANAGER IN A FICTITIOUS COMPANY
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 14
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ADVANCES: PLANSPIELE ALSO TRAIN SOFTSKILLS
A CONVENTIONAL ASSESSMENT CENTER COSTS BETWEEN
600 AND 800 EUR PER APPLICANT PLUS TRAVEL EXPENSES
INTERNET TESTS LIKE CHALLENGE UNLIMITED COST ALMOST
NOTHING WHEN ENOUGH PARTICIPANTS ARE INVOLVED
SIMULATION GAMES
PLANSPIELE 15
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ROLE - PLAY
DEFINITION:
ROLE-PLAY IS A METHOD OF HUMAN INTERACTION, IN WHICH
REALISTIC BEHAVIOUR IN AN IMAGINARY SITUATION IS
EXPECTED.
THE ROLE PLAY IS A LEARNING GAME, IN WHICH REALITY IS
SIMULATED.
ROLE - PLAY
MAIER, NORMAN R.F.: ROLLENSPIELPRAXIS IM FÜHRUNGSTRAINING. STUTTGART, 1975
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HISTORY:
THE MOST FAMOUS TREATISE ABOUT ROLE-PLAY IS A PSYCHO
DRAMA BY J.L. MORENO (1889-1974).
NOWADAYS GROUPS THEY RARELY SPEAK ABOUT THERAPY,
BUT RATHER ABOUT TRAININGS OF BEHAVIOUR, STRATEGIES,
CONFLICTS AND UNDERSTANDINGS OF ROLES
ROLE - PLAY
(HTTP://WWW.SOCIALNET.DE/REZENSIONEN/0111SCHALLER_MUELLERMEHRING.HTML)
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ADVANTAGES
ENABLES TO EXPRESS HIDDEN FEELINGS
ENABLES TO EMPATHIZE WITH OTHERS AND UNDERSTAND
THEIR MOTIVATIONS
OFFERS PRACTICE IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BEHAVIOUR
CHANGES ATTITUDES
CLOSES GAP BETWEEN TRAINING AND REAL LIFE SITUATIONS
ROLE - PLAY
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DISADVANTAGES
SIMPLIFICATIONS CAN MISLEAD
USES LARGE AMOUNTS OF TIME, RESOURCES, SPACE,
SPECIAL ITEMS
MAY BE SEEN AS TOO ENTERTAINING AND UNSERIOUS
MAY DOMINATE LEARNING TO THE EXCLUSION OF SOLID
THEORY AND FACTS
MAY DEPEND ON WHAT PEOPLE ALREADY KNOW
ROLE - PLAY
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LEARNING THEORY
LEARNING BY ANALYSING AND EMPHAZISING OF HUMAN
ATTITUDES
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THINKING AND ACTING
PEOPLE LEARN BY ACTING AND NOT BY KNOWING THE
THEORY.
“SEEING IS BELIEVING, BUT FEELING IS THE TRUTH”
MAIER, NORMAN R.F.: ROLLENSPIELPRAXIS IM FÜHRUNGSTRAINING. STUTTGART, 1975
ROLE - PLAY
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OUTDOOR TRAININGS
THE IDEA
THE GROUP LEARNS BY DOING AND BECOMES A TEAM
COMMON EXPERIENCES MAKES IT POSSIBLE TO LEARN FAST
GATHER RISKFREE EXPERIENCES IN THE GROUP
EMPLOYEES GET TO KNOW EACH OTHER WITHIN A FEW DAYS
OUTDOOR TRAININGS
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THE GOALS
GOOD COMMUNICATION IS THE KEY TO SUCCESSFUL COOPERATION
THE AIM IS TO TEACH A TEAM TO THINK TOGETHER ABOUT
SOLUTION STRATEGIES
THROW OLD STRUCTURES IN FAVOR OF NEW BEHAVIORS
OUTDOOR TRAININGS
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POSSIBILITIES OF OUTDOOR TRAININGS
THE BUILDING OF A ROPE GARDEN, A BRIDGE, A RAFT OR A
HUT OR REPELLING, THE EXECUTION OF A MOUNTAINBIKE
ROUTE OR A BIVAC
THE EXPERIENCE TAKES ON MORE MEANING BECAUSE OF ITS
UNIQUENESS
OUTDOOR TRAININGS
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ASSESSMENT CENTER
DEFINITION
ASSESSMENT MEANS ”FESTSTELLUNG”, ”ABSCHÄTZUNG”,
”BEWERTUNG”
THE ASSESSMENT CENTER IS ALSO CALLED ”AUSWAHLTAG” OR
”PERSONALENTWICKLUNGS-SEMINAR”
AC IS A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR REALIZING DEFICITS OR
ABILITIES OF BEHAVIOUR
ASSESMENT CENTER
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HISTORY
DEVELOPED BY GERMAN PSYCOLOGISTS OF THE WEHRMACHT
IN THE 30s IT WAS USED FOR SELECTING RECRUITS FOR THE
WEHRMACHT.
IN THE 50s THE AC WAS DEVELOPED FURTHER BY AMERICANS
AMERICAS HUGE COMPANIES LIKE IBM WERE ONE STEP AHEAD
BY THIS TIME
ASSESMENT CENTER
HTTP://WWW.FBI.FH-KÖLN.DE
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TESTS AND EXERCISES
SIMULATIONS OF WORKPROCESSES
PRESENTATIONS AND LECTURES
ROLE-PLAYS
EXERCISES WHICH TESTS PERSONALITY AND INTERESTS
A QUESTIONNAIRE ABOUT THE BIOGRAPHIE
ASSESMENT CENTER
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TESTS AND EXERCISES
POSTKORBÜBUNG
DISCUSSION
ROLE-PLAY
TOPICS OF A ROLE PLAY MAY BE
NEGOTIATIONS ABOUT WAGES
A CUSTOMER VISIT
CRITICAL ANNOTATIONS WITH REFERENCE TO EMPLOYEES
MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES
A CONVERSATION ABOUT AN ASSESSMENT OF AN EMPLOYEE
GRIEVANCES
ASSESMENT CENTER
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INTERCULTURAL ACs
THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL ACs AND
INTERCULTURAL ACs
CONVENTIONAL ACs:
COMPETENCIES LIKE INDIVIDUAL ACTING, SOCIAL ACTING,
TECHNICAL ACTING AND STRATEGIC ACTING
INTERCULTURAL ACs:
ATTIDUDES LIKE EMPATHY, TOLERANCE OF AMBIGUITY,
FLEXIBILITY, KNOWLEDGE OF CULTURES AND
KNOWLEDGES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES
ASSESMENT CENTER
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INTERCULTURAL ACs
1. THE PUNCTUAL INTERCULTURAL AC
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES:
AWARENESS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES
EMPATHY:
REMOVAL MISUNDERSTANDINGS
TOLERANCE OF AMBIGUITY:
CONFRONTATION WITH ETHIC TOPICS
KNOWLEDGES OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE:
NEGOTIATIONS IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
ASSESMENT CENTER
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INTERCULTURAL ACs
2. SYSTEMATIC INTERCULTURAL AC
ASSESSMENT OF THE BEHAVIOUR IN INTERCULTURAL
CONNECTIONS THAT ARE MORE COMPLEX
POSSIBLE TO PERFORM WITH SIMULATION GAMES
THE DISADVANTAGE:
THERE ARE ONLY A FEW ADAPTABLE INTERCULTURAL
SIMULATION GAMES
ASSESMENT CENTER
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