```ECE 2560
L11-HLL to Assembler
Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering
The Ohio State University
ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
1
HLL to Assembler
Pseudo HLL
 HLL structure
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Their flow chart
 HHL code
 Corresponding Assembler
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ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
2
What is Pseudo HLL
Pseudo HLL is a way of expressing an
algorithm or procedure for performing a
 Very similar to modern High Level
programming Languages
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Best illustrated with an example
ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
3
Pseudo HLL example
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Sum a list of 10 integers
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3 7 8 2 4 6 5 5 9 1
There are several methods
 The algorithm here
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Create sum and initialize to 0
 Repeat adding number until done with list
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ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
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Pseudo HLL
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Sequence of Actions
Do action A
 Do action B
 ….
 Do action Q
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ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
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Decisions
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Decision structures
IF condition THEN action if true
ELSE action if false
END IF;
Example:
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Remove front bike wheel
TURN Bike over
IF wheel-has-quick-release-skewer
THEN flip level and remove wheel
ELSE use wrench to remove nuts from axle
remove wheel
END IF
ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
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Repeat structures
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Finite number of times – DO LOOP
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Set up any values for loop
FOR counter = start TO end [STEP x] LOOP
actions of loop
END FOR;
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Example:
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Sum = 0;
FOR i = 1 to 10 LOOP
Sum = Sum + element(i);
END FOR;
ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
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Repeat structures
Indeterminate number of times – Repeat
loop or decision loop – action inside the
loop causes condition to occur that ends
the loop.
 2 structures
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One has code that executes at least once
 One has code that may or may not execute
at all
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ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
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While condition
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While loop – may or may not execute code
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WHILE condition LOOP
SEQUENCE_of_ACTIONS
END loop;
Example:
WHILE not EOF LOOP
Process line
END LOOP;
ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
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Repeat
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Repeat Until structure
REPEAT
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Sequence_of_statements
 UNITL condition;
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Example - attempt to read will be done
at least once
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REPEAT
UNTIL EOF;
ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
10
Now what is the assembler?
For each of these Pseudo HLL structures
what is the corresponding assembler.
 Each will have assumption as to were
data to be tested is.
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ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
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Straight line code - Sequence
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Straight line Pseudo HLL – little modification is needed.
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A = m*x + b in Pseudo HLL
Where are values – say in memory locations labeled by the
same name
Code becomes
mov
m,R8
push R8
push x
call
smult
pop
pop
R8
b,R8
mov
R8,A
ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
12
Decision
Decision structure
 IF condition THEN action if true
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ELSE action if false
 END IF;
 Example:
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IF (A<B) THEN temp=A; A=B; B=temp
 END IF;
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ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
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Assembler for example
A and B are in memory
 Will use a register for temp.
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cmp
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jl
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mov
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mov
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mov
 noexch
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A,B ;B-A is positive if A<B
noexch ;jump if B<A
A,R6
B,A
R6,A
ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
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A more efficient coding
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Could be made a little more efficient
Previous code also exchanges when A=B
 cmp
B,A ;A-B is negative if A<B
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jge noexch ;jump if B<=A
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mov A,R6
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mov B,A
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mov R6,A
 noexch
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ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
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When there is an else
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Else is similar to the previous code
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IF (A<B) THEN temp=A; A=B; B=temp;
ELSE A = 0;
END IF;
Much like previous
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else
after
cmp
jge
mov
mov
mov
jmp
clr
B,A
else
A,R6
B,A
R6,A
after
A
;A-B is negative if A<B
;jump if B<=A
ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
16
Repeat structures
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Finite number of times – DO LOOP
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Set up any values for loop
FOR counter = start TO end [STEP x] LOOP
actions of loop
END FOR;
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Example:
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Sum = 0;
FOR i = 1 to 10 LOOP
Sum = Sum + element(i);
END FOR;
How would this example be coded?
ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
17
Coding for Do Loop
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Where are control values?
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i – the current index value – use R9
startval – the starting value for i – memory loc
endval – the ending value for i – memory
sum – in memory
element – label of list of values in memory
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tol
mov
cmp
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inc
jmp
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i,R9
endval,R9 ;R9-endval
jge
lpexit
mov
R9,R8
dec
R8
clrc
rolc
R8
#element,R8
@R8,sum
R9
tol
lpexit
ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
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The repeat and while loops
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The coding of the repeat and while loops
is very similar.
Documents where variables are
 Need loop control and testing of loop control
 Which branch instruction to use takes some
thought
 Need to remember what the cmp instruction
does!!
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ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
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Summary - Assignment
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No new assignment.
ECE 3561 - Lecture 1
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