Part II: Mainland Southeast Asia Introduction to the Musics of Mainland Southeast Asia Nation-states do not necessarily define human cultural groups nation-states are complicated by linguistic and ethnic pluralism no one type of music is Thai, or Burmese, or Lao terms like Thai, Burmese, and Lao denote majority cultures Each Southeast Asian nation looks clearly defined, but is complex each has cultural regions, minority ethnic groups, and historical strata provinces and even neighboring villages can differ markedly Knowledge of the mainland by researchers is not uniform Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia have been ‘open’ to researchers Burma, in contrast, was closed to outsiders until the 1990s parts of Cambodia and Laos are still either off limits or difficult to visit Questions for Discussion How does this description of the mainland differ from the general region? What is the relationship between a nationstate and an ethnic group? Does being part of an ethnic group mean being unified as a people? The Khmer People of Cambodia Khmer denotes the majority ethnic group in the Kingdom of Cambodia The nation was called Kampuchea, but the term is now avoided Cambodia’s boundaries were created during colonialism many lowland Khmer live in Thailand and Vietnam many upland Khmer live in Laos and Vietnam The nation most of Cambodia is flat, except for mountains on the borders extensive forests and plains with wet-rice cultivation Two major rivers: the Mekong and the Tonle Sap estimated population of almost 14 million people 90% of the population is ethnically Khmer The culture Many aspects of culture were transmitted from India temples of Angkor include bas-reliefs of cultural elements, including music Buddhism became the dominant religion in Cambodia by the 13th century War and colonialism The Siamese Tai kingdoms of Sukhothai and Ayuthaya warred frequently with the Khmer the Tai carried off 90,000 prisoners, including musicians and dancers Khmer people were bereft of their cultural treasures War and colonialism (cont.) Cambodia asked for France’s protection against Siamese and Vietnamese aggression, and became a French protectorate in 1864 Cambodia became part of the Indochinese Union Independence and chaos King Norodom Sihanouk proclaimed independence in 1949 Sihanouk was overthrown by Lon Nol in 1970, who established the Khmer Republic Independence and chaos (cont.) 1975-1979: Cambodia led into destruction by Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, including the killing of many traditional performing artists 1992: Paris Peace Accord restored Sihanouk to power as king; his son now reigns Music in Cambodia Khmer civilization reached its peak from the 9th to the 15th centuries the temple at Angkor reveals musical instruments and their contexts Music in Cambodia (cont.) 15th century conflicts with the Siamese led to a decline in Khmer musical culture Khmer music revived by the 18th century In the 20th century, conservation, preservation and revival Khmer musical instruments three divisions: percussion stringed wind instruments two functions: religious secular Khmer musical instruments (cont.) other classifications include: physical materials role (leader, follower) musical style ensemble context controlling action size status (court, folk) system of beliefs Khmer musical instruments (cont.) Materials Clay hide Bamboo Gourd Silk horn Wood metals Idiophones concussion idiophones (chhap, krapp) struck idiophones xylophones (roneat ek, roneat thung/thomm, roneat dak) gongs (korng, korng vung tauch, korng vung thomm, korng mong, khmuoh) plucked idiophones (angkuoch) Membranophones drums (skor arakk, skor thomm, skor chhaiyaim, skor yike, skor klang khek, sampho, rumanea) mirliton (slekk) Chordophones harp (pinn) zithers (khse muoy, krapeu, khimm) lutes (tror, tror Khmer, tror chhe, tror so tauch, tror so thomm, tror ou, tror ou chamhieng, chapey dang veng) Aerophones flutes (khloy) reeds (sneng, ploy, pey pork, ken, pey prabauh, sralai, sralai tauch, sralai thomm, sralai klang khek) trumpets (saing) System of tuning the perfect fifth and octave are constant; the rest are tuned by ear scales: anhemitonic pentatonic and heptatonic key: two main tonal centers (G and C) for two main performing ensembles System of tuning (cont.) mode: basis for composition, improvisation, embellishment, extra-musical features (context, time, mood, etc.) basis of mode has to do with pitch hierarchy in relation to final tone texture: melodically based, heterophonic Rhythmic features meter: duple final stroke of each metrical cycle is the strongest strong and weak beats articulated by cymbals drumming patterns are cyclic drums set the tempo and keep time, but are considered secondary Structural features pitches at the end of each cycle constitute the skeletal form of the melody musicians follow a collective melody, serving as a general guideline Structural features (cont.) cycles: three lengths occurring in multiples of two (for example, four measures, eight measures, and sixteen measures) drums execute a specific pattern associated with the prescribed metrical level Court music, dance, and theater Ensembles vung phleng pinn peat (main court ensemble) pinn peat (drum music/dance music) vung phleng mohori (secular entertainment) arakk and kar (religious contexts) Repertoire musicians are expected to vary their playing Court music, dance, and theater (cont.) Dance dancers try to make their bodies, arms, hands, and feet curvilinear types of dance: pure dance, thematic dance, dance-drama Reamker (Ramayana) principal theme for court dance gestures are formalized pinn peat supports the dancers through melodic, temporal and percussive signals Court music, dance, and theater (cont.) masked play shadow puppet play dance, mime, song, music, narration Folk music ceremonial music (life cycles, seasonal celebrations, temple fairs) spirit worship music (arakk) wedding ceremonies (kar) funerals other festivals Theater (lkhaon) yike (dancing, acting, miming, narrations, songs, music) basakk (Chinese derived) functional repertoires boxing (pradall) repartee (ayai) narrative (chrieng chapey) Theater (lkhaon) (cont.) folk dance performed in conjunction with seasonal festivals natural world as inspiration other festivals Solo instrumental music slekk (leaf) angkuoch (Jew’s harp) sneng (free-reed horn) saing (conch shell) pey pork (free-reed pipe) say diev (chest-resonated monochord) Khmer religious music Theravada Buddhism chanting (saut thoar) in Pali poetic recitation (smaut) Foreign and modern music French colonial roots Filipino influences disappearance of pop music 1975-1979 contexts: nightclubs, parties, weddings, sports, social dances, restaurants low social status of musicians Foreign and modern music (cont.) themes: love, revolution, heroism, sadness pop bands use only Western instruments classification of songs by rhythms and styles of dancing fixed format: ABCB Contemporary uses of traditional arts shift from recreation and entertainment to politics or tourist performances diminishment of cultural practices few opportunities for traditional musicians Khmer refugee communities abroad are known for their performing arts other festivals Questions for Discussion What kind of impact can an internal or external political power wield on the performing arts? What is the point of having a different ensemble for entertainment and religious purposes? Can you think of other heterophonic types of music? Why would pop bands use only Western instruments? Thailand History four cultural regions: center, south, north, northeast Westernization began in the 19th century, but Thailand was not colonized Golden Age of Thailand between 13th and 17th centuries History (cont.) Thailand includes 76 provinces and about 65 million people Tai people are a diverse set of related groups both inside and outside Thailand Village and court associations courts associated with ruling elite and their ceremonies and entertainments villages associated with cycles of festivals related to agriculture and Buddhism classical music, dance and theater are tied to Thai identity transmission is primarily through public school system Bangkok remains highly influential culturally General observations importance of etiquette no use of notation or questioning by the students training was lengthy and done by rote Thai music is ensemble oriented Idiophones concussion idiophones (ching, chap, krap) struck idiophones xylophones (ranat ek, ranat thum) gongs (khawng wong yai, khawng wong lek, khawng mawn) Membranophones single-headed drums (thon, rammana) double-headed drums (klawng that, taphon, klawng khaek, boeng mang kawk) Aerophones flutes (khlui) reeds (pi, pi chawa, pi mawn) Chordophones lutes (krajappi, saw sam sai, saw duang, saw u) zithers (ja-khe, khim) Ensembles khrüang sai types (string ensemble) mohori types (entertainment and dancedrama accompaniment) piphat types (most important ensemble in Thailand) Contexts for classical music historical (court activities, coronations, etc.) contemporary (colleges, private homes, temple fairs, funerals) Theater (khon) masked drama (khon): Ramakian, based on the Ramayana performed in episodes only shadow puppet theater (nang yai) related to classical khon narrated offstage accompanied by piphat ensemble Theater (khon) (cont.) dance-drama (lakhawn) emphasis on singing and graceful dancing vocal parts done offstage very spare set and use of symbolism rod puppet theater (hün) only one troupe remains rare and seldom seen Other narrative and ritual traditions ritual to honor teachers (wai khru) ceremony to bind one’s spiritual essence (tham khwan) Buddha’s life story telling (thet mahachat) narrative storytelling (sepha) Pitch controversy over Thai tunings temperament set by ear, with tolerance over pitch deviation scale: seven tones in an octave; five tones are the basis of most compositions mode: melodic idiom, style, drum patterns, etc. Rhythm rhythmic density articulated by brass cymbals three levels of rhythmic density; the first is the most dense, and the third is the least dense proportionately drum strokes and patterns have names Rhythm (cont.) two main drumming patterns and special patterns for individual pieces drummers play variations on the basic patterns Tempo piphat ensemble can play as fast as the leader is able lakhawn played more slowly solo ranat ek can be played very rapidly solo khlui or saw will be played slower to highlight ornamentation Melody melody is manifested in many individual realizations according to the idiom of the instrument or voice two main characters of melody: motivic and lyrical Melody (cont.) Thai melodies tend to be conjunct rather than disjunct regular and symmetrical phrases Texture relationship to other gong-chime musical cultures not a given polyphonic stratification/heterophony Form underlying structure defined by the strokes of the ching final stroke of each metrical cycle is the strongest strong and weak beats articulated by cymbals Form (cont.) composers develop new works from old formulaic conventions compositions constructed of two or more sections (thawn) same rhythmic density maintained throughout a section or piece Extramusical relationships many titles allude to animals meaning of titles may be expressed in vocal texts many pieces have programmatic titles Improvisation flexibility in performance is permissible impromptu composition does not occur students are taught to play specific versions Composers early compositions are anonymous compositions from after the 19th century are attributed to known composers fleshing out the composition occurs in performance names of the composers are confusing Repertoire naphat: instrumental compositions associated with theater and ritual ceremony phleng rüang: suite of pieces not linked to a story homrong: overtures or suites phleng tap: shorter suites phleng tao: composition played continuously in three rhythmic densities Repertoire (cont.) phleng yai: great pieces, including extended ensemble compositions phleng dio: works for solo instruments phleng la: pieces to end a concert phleng kret: miscellaneous pieces Repertoire (cont.) “national accent” pieces: tunes considered to be in the style of another culture phleng hang khrüang: short, playful pieces vocal sections include words strung out in long melismas, complex intonation,and nasal timbre Notation two types: tablature and pitch notation notation is used to convey a generic version of a melody the accented note comes just before the bar Thai music history reconstructing Thai music history is difficult few documents have survived scholarly study of Thai music is only recent problems in dating the surviving documents Thai music history (cont.) written sources earliest known document from 14th century earliest European account from 16th century many book chapters from 1810-1920 (often biased and ethnocentric) exception to ethnocentrism was Anna Leonowens’ work after 1900, many detailed scholarly treatments of Thai music Thai music history (cont.) iconographic sources many temple depictions of instruments and musical scenes restorations may have obscured original intent the modern period suppression of classical music importance of education in reviving classical music Buddhism in Thai music temple as focus of festivities and Buddhist life Buddhist festivals parallel the agricultural cycle Buddhism and Hinduism entered Thailand 500 years after Buddha’s death in532 BCE Buddhism in Thai music (cont.) Buddhism is both a philosophy and a syncretistic popular religion occasions for chanting and instrumental music songkran: traditional new year (April 13) awk phansa: end of agricultural work (October) kathin: gift-giving to monks (October-November) loi kratong: festival of lights (full moon of November) temple fairs (November to March) ordinations, marriages, funerals, king’s birthday, etc. Buddhism in Thai music (cont.) chanting is the responsibility of both monks and novices chanting occurs both inside and outside the temple compound varieties of chant Buddhism in Thai music (cont.) preaching (thet) includes two basic styles transmission requires memorization of texts chant on a single pitch with inflections on different pitches story-sermons in regional vernacular and in more melodic fashion Sukhwan ritual Hindu-derived, intended to restore the health of a person ritual performed in temple meeting hall, home, or elsewhere loss of khwan can cause afflictions and misfortunes calls back the khwan (psyche, morale, spiritual essence) Regional Thai culture Thai regions were once isolated from central Thailand modernization brought Bangkok/popular culture to the far regions of Thailand people spoke regional languages and maintained distinctiveness until the 1970s Central Thai culture focused on village life village songs occur in conjunction with agricultural and festival cycles li-ke theatrical performances occur on temporary stages long-drum ensembles found in processions Southern Thailand was once the center of Malay civilization substantial Muslim population instruments similar to those found elsewhere in Thailand genres include nora (dance-drama), and nang talung (shadow-puppet) Northern Thailand instruments unique to the region heterophonic texture of ensemble music extensive ornamentation of melody Northern Thailand (cont.) music performed in courting, weddings, housewarmings, processions, festivals, and funerals genres include narrative, repartee, theater, courtship, spirit dances, and festival dances Northeastern Thailand borders Cambodia and Laos, with three separate cultural subgroups instruments distinct from the rest of Thailand lam: vocal music incorporating flexible melody and tones of the poetry courtship poetry is the basis for some vocal genres Northeastern Thailand khaen: free-reed bamboo organ most important instrument of the region personal and eclectic style improvised music based on lai, a simple modal system basic repertoire consists of improvisations in all five standard modes several basic programmatic pieces are known to all players five named lai Northeastern Thailand genres of lam (vocal music centered on texts in Lao) storytelling and courtship performances occur in conjunction with calendrical rites lam mu theater popular songs Popular music in Thailand brass bands pop songs based on Thai classical melodies songs for life American influence ballroom dance Questions for Discussion Does the music change depending on whether the nation has been colonized? What are the musical results of religious, regional, and political influences? What is the musical difference between the different regions of Thailand? What sources can you trust when you try to understand a nation’s musical history? Laos The nation landlocked country, bordering on Vietnam, Thailand, Burma and China mostly forested and mountainous (4% arable land) poverty has prevented modernization multicultural population of over 6 million, primarily living in the lowlands Nonclassical music musical instruments parallel those in Thailand kong (two-headed lace drums) and cymbals (sing and sap) are important khene – a free-reed mouth organ – is the predominant instrument in rural Laos Nonclassical music (cont.) tuning is based on the khene (7 tones per octave), similar to diatonic scale the khene accompanies singing, most of which is in the form of repartee two basic pentatonic scales: san (sounds major) and yao (sounds minor) Rituals healing rocket festival buffalo sacrifice Entertainment 12 regional genres named for places or ethnic groups singers perform in small, intimate settings 7 Southern genres are preceded with the word lam performances occur with calendrical, Buddhist, and national festivals 5 Northern genres are preceded with the word khap Southern regional genres lam sithandone lam som lam salavane lam ban xok lam phu thai lam khon savan lam mahaxay lam tang vay Northern regional genres khap ngeum khap phuan khap sam neua khap thum khap thai dam Nonclassical vocal genres – some observations khap genres differ stylistically from the lam Southern Lao singers perform multiple genres, but northern singers perform one lam genres are typically accompanied by a small ensemble instead of the khene all southern Lao genres have metrical accompaniment three khap genres are similar to each other Theater nonclassical theater has existed in Laos only since the 1940s origin from Thai li-ke theater lam poen developed from recited narrative to lam leuang, an acted narrative lam mu (collective singing): scripted, actedout stories Classical music the term peng lao deum (Lao traditional compositions) differentiates classical compositions from nonclassical genres like lam historical power and influence of Thailand Classical music (cont.) most of the court tradition disappeared (1828) and was reinstated (1950s) , the disappeared again (after 1975) purposes of classical music: entertainment, atmosphere, accompaniment to ritual, theater, and dance Classical musical instruments all have Thai equivalents plucked instruments (tit) lutes (kachappi) bowed instruments (si) two-stringed fiddles (so i and so u) Classical musical instruments all have Thai equivalents (cont.) beaten instruments (ti) xylophones (lanat ek mai and lanat thum mai) gong circles (khong vong noi, khong vong nyai) cymbals (sing and sap) two-headed barrel drums (kong taphone, kong that) hammered dulcimers (khim) Classical musical instruments all have Thai equivalents (cont.) blown instruments (bao) reeds (pi kaeo) flutes (khui) Ensembles (named differently in Vientiane and Luang Phrabang) ensemble associated with ritual, formal occasions, theater and dance is called piphat in Vientiane and sep nyai in Luang Phrabang includes xylophones, gong circles, and oboe or flute other ensemble is called maholi in Vientiane and sep noi in Luang Phrabang flexible instrumentation but usually strings and flutes Regional styles of classical music three separate but similar court traditions developed Champassak in the south vanished when the Thai gained power one classical ensemble still exists in a village part of its territory was ceded to Cambodia Regional styles of classical music (cont.) Luang Phrabang in the north had been the royal capital and king’s residence after 1975 court music ceased to function; loss of royal status classical dance, masked drama and hand-puppet theater Regional styles of classical music (cont.) Vientiane (administrative capital) in the center purpose of performing arts to promote Lao national identity tradition began largely as a copy of Bangkok’s traditions performances at festivals and for visiting dignitaries Regional styles of classical music (cont.) shift to communist rule current performances include piphat, maholi, and khene vo elite arts, costumes and Thai influences eliminated Popular music Vientiane had a lively nightclub scene before 1975 Lao popular culture is primarily borrowed from Thailand prevalent pop music is modernized renditions of traditional regional genres Popular music (cont.) poverty and Thai media stand in the way of pop music’s development in Laos diaspora includes some of the top musicians musicians are mostly free to perform, but who can afford to pay them? Questions for Discussion What is actually Lao about Laotian music? What is the difference between nonclassical and classical musics in Laos? What can you say about a nation in which most of its musicians live abroad? How did the shift to communist rule have an impact on music? Burma The Nation officially called Myanmar, Burma borders on Bangladesh, India, China, Thailand, and Laos; it is slightly smaller than Texas population of over 47 million people, including the primary ethnic group of Burmese at 68%, followed by much smaller percentages of Shan, Karen, Rakhine, Chinese, Mon, Indian, and others The Nation (cont.) research limited in non-Burmese states, and few know much about Burma at all Burmese arts include imported genres from what is now Thailand nationally the predominant religion is Theravada Buddhism Outdoor ensembles hsaìñwaìñ: most important and most frequently heard outdoor ensemble drum circle (pa’waìñ) – variations on the melody gong circle (cìwaìñ) – variations on the melody gong rack (maùñsaìñ) barrel drums (pa’má and sakhúñ) – the less they play, the more important oboe (hnè) – carries the melody flute (palwei) cymbals (sì and yakwìñ)) wood block (byau’) bamboo clappers (wale’hkou’) large gong (maùñ) Outdoor ensembles (cont.) hsaìñwaìñ is used to accompany theater, ritual, religious, and funereal festivals spirit-propitiation rite (na’ pwè) theatrical performances (za’ pwè) formerly royal entertainment (anyeìñ) virtuosic stand-alone performances (bala hsaìñ) Outdoor ensembles (cont.) other outdoor drums and percussion òzi played with cymbals, clappers, flute or oboe doupá (small) with large cymbals, oboe, and clappers bouñcì (larger) in pairs with oboe, clappers and cymbals byò (stick-beaten) with a large oboe and cymbals hcìñloùñ – sporting event accompanied by gongs, oboe, and drums cisi (metal chime) associated with temples sito (stick-beaten) associated with royalty Indoor instruments saùñ (arched harp) – the most prestigious instrument, associated with courts pa’tala (bamboo xylophone) wà (hand-held bamboo clapper) sì (two small hand-held cymbals) Rhythm and percussion classical pieces begin with a nonmetered section meter articulated by the sì and wà in one of three cyclic rhythmic patterns percussive patterns structure the pieces and provide a foil for the variations and embellishments of the other instruments Vocal music most compositions are settings of poetic texts song types fall within four Burmese modes hnyìñloùñ myìnzaìn pale au’ pyañ classical repertoire is called thahcìñ cì (“great song”) Vocal music (cont.) yoùdayà songs believed to have come to Burma from Thailand moñ and talaìñ songs thought to come from the Mon people relationship between tonal language and tones of the music language is archaic and allusive deìñ than songs used to propitiate spirits Music theory no standardized notation, and no one is actually playing the song or tune tuning includes seven notes to the octave, similar to “major” scale agreed-upon tuning with room for variation modes are based on five tones, and include recurring melodic formulas Music theory (cont.) cadences are important to identification of a specific mode drum circle and harp must be retuned for each mode not all modes are represented in the hsaìñ or chamber music repertoire Transmission and change two anthologies with five hundred songs music learning is embedded in social contexts increasing influence of Westernization, the media and cultural policies traveling theater troupes important for transmission of music private lessons and state schools personal relationships between musicians and apprentices Questions for Discussion Why do some people call it Burma, while others call it Myanmar? How does having a majority culture in power affect the minority cultures? Who gets to decide what is worth transmitting or preserving? How does Burma maintain musical autonomy in the face of Westernization? Peninsular Malaysia The nation peninsular Malaysia is part of the Federation of Malaysia Hinduism, Mahayana Buddhism, and Islam all came by the 1200s Malays have ruled the peninsula for centuries orang asli inhabit inland mountain forests as hunter-gatherers The nation (cont.) each ethnic group has maintained separate performing arts traditions population of over 24 million, 50% Malay, 23% Chinese, and other indigenous and non-indigenous groups Rural theater and dance traditions shadow-puppet theater wayang kulit wayang kulit Jawa wayang gedek wayang Siam and wayang melayu Rural theater and dance traditions (cont.) dance-drama mak yong mek mulung hadrah rodat manora jikay Rural theater and dance traditions (cont.) dances barongan and kuda kepang randai tari inai dabus Rural theater and dance traditions (cont.) storytelling traditions include stylized language, song/chant, instruments instruments include bowed stringed instruments can include drama or masks Rural theater and dance traditions (cont.) music for healing main saba (curing ceremony) main lukah (fisherman’s curing ritual) main puteri (spirit possession) music for the martial arts (pencak silat) gendang silat ensemble Music for other purposes music for work agriculture fishing rice pounding music for life-cycle events circumcision other events weddings Music for other purposes (cont.) general entertainment rebana ubi kertok kelapa dikir barat seruling kacapi Traditional urban musical-theatrical genres (cont.) bangsawan – romances and situations involving the royalty boria – comic sketch and song-dance routine spoken dialogue alternates with song and dance instruments include the piano, flute, violin, rebana Traditional urban musical-theatrical genres (cont.) musical traditions at court shadow-play music joget gamelan asyek dance nobat ceremonial music Music and religion zikir sung during important rituals importance of the frame drum (rebana) chanting the Qur’an is the highest sonic art form musiqa does not apply to Islamic religious sounds two streams: pre-Islamic and post-Islamic Urban-based folk music colotomic instruments (gongs, used to mark off points in time) rhythmic instruments (two-headed barrel drums and single-headed frame drums) melodic instruments (violin, flute, gambus, harmonium) West Malaysian popular music dangdut keroncong ghazal zapin joget and ronggeng pantun asli and dondang sayang European music Malay pop Malay rock and kugiran muzik seriosa muzik klasik Questions for Discussion Does Malaysia “count” as a gong-chime culture? How does Malaysia maintain musical autonomy in the face of Westernization? How does having a majority culture in power affect the minority cultures? Should any one genre of music predominate? who decides? Vietnam The nation most Viet are Buddhists, but Vietnam is multicultural population of over 85 million: Viet in lowlands, minorities in uplands Socialist Republic of Vietnam bordered by China, Laos and Cambodia three distinct cultural regions: north, center, south History earliest musical instruments included bronze drums, bells, lithophones indigenous music was part of festivals and religious ceremonies Buddhism and Indian culture introduced by merchants History (cont.) Vietnam won independence from China in 938 music, dance, theater were all royal entertainments water puppet performances and boat races for king’s birthday Those in power and the music they listened to Buddhist dynasties Lê and Nguyên dynasties Reform movements in the 20th century Influence from the west Pluralized music theory vocal music dominates many musical performances heterophony musical forms in chamber music music is presented in a specific order Modes four basic skills modes based on a combined set of concepts (hoi-diêu) organizing tonal materials in hierarchical patterns preparing modal sentiments for a given song or piece using specific melodic patterns displaying ornamentation Scales scales vary according to the genre, subgenre, or social context bottom note of scales fit the singer’s voice or the instrument’s capacity sentiment transmigration of scales ornamentation 12 possible tones; most pieces use fewer than 12 (usually five to seven) Rhythm and meter syncopation distinguishes it from Chinese music sung poetry and Buddhist hymns are nonmetrical theatrical and ceremonial musics include multiple rhythmic patterns emphasis on the final beat of each unit metrical organization according to cycles of beats Musical instruments instrumental music predominates in ritual and ceremonial musics instruments accompany the voice in chamber and theatrical musics Idiophones: the earliest and most numerous in Vietnam bronze drum (trông dông) is the oldest large bronze bell (dai hông chung) played in Buddhist ceremonies gongs (chiêng, thanh la, dâu) used in ceremonies and theater bowl chime (chuông gia trì) punctuates sections of chant small bell (tiêu chung) calls the monks to assemble Idiophones: the earliest and most numerous in Vietnam slit drums (mõ) used for chant, summoning people, or warning chimes (khánh) made of bronze and stone, found in temples clappers (phách, song lang and sinh tiên) used in various contexts cymbals (chap chõa) played in theatrical, festival, and ritual music Membranophones trông is the generic name for one or two skinheaded drums small drum on a stand (trông bát nhã) small two-headed drum (trông bung) small, one-headed drum from the south (bông) Membranophones (cont.) large drum (trông châu) battle drum (trông chiên) used in onstage battle scenes pair of drums (trông nhac) main drums of nhac le ensemble two-headed drum (trông com) Chordophones zithers (dàn bâu, dàn tranh, dàn tam thâp luc) bowed lutes (dàn nhi, dàn cò phu, dàn gáo) plucked lutes (dàn dáy, dàn nguyêt, ty bà, dàn xên) Aerophones flutes (sáo, tiêu) double-reed oboes (ken) Folk songs genres singing occurs in three distinct stages: greeting, contesting, farewell sung at seasonal festivals, work, private gatherings Folk songs (cont.) genres hát quan ho ru hò ly hát phuóng vai miscellaneous songs satirical wishing card games narratives children’s songs Chamber music ca trù (improvisatory chanted poetry with instruments and dancers) don ca tài tu (chamber music performed not for profit) ca huê (pre-composed music for strings from Huê) Theater six major theatrical genres and 20+ local folkdrama types folk drama provided the fundamental elements in creating dramatic gestures props guide all dance movements as well as decorate the stage Theater (cont.) water puppet theater (rôi nuóc) interactive folk drama (hát chèo) classical theater (hát bôi or tuông) recitative (nói lôi) melodic types (bài hát) modal songs (diêu hát) Theater (cont.) Western-style spoken drama (kich nói) early 20th century theater (cái luong) “card game” theater (hát bài chòi) vocal types reference parts of the body; it is nonmetrical and improvisatory Dance dance techniques, costumes and meanings have been incorporated into theater dances performed as part of yearly cycle of festivals (Buddhist, folk, ritual) theatrical dances folk dances court dances Religious music influences from Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism earliest rituals derived from animism Religious music (cont.) Buddhist liturgy cantillation of sutras and mantras (regional variation) poetic hymns many percussion instruments mixing speech and song châu van ritual (music serving as intermediary between living and dead) Modern trends in Vietnamese music exposure to Roman Catholic missionaries and French colonialism early European musical influence new compositions: romantic or activistrevolutionary modernization included French songs sung in Vietnamese invention or modification of Western instruments Modern trends in Vietnamese music (cont.) Western classical music modern music new “traditional” music (cai biên) popular song the future of Vietnamese music modern folk song (dân ca) Questions for Discussion Why is Vietnam more “Westernized” in some ways than the other nations? Why is theater so important and popular in Vietnam? What has Vietnam gained from it centurieslong contact with China? How do Vietnamese puppets differ from elsewhere? Singapore The nation small island off the tip of Malaysia (comparable to Bahrain or Tonga in size) four distinct cultures: Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Eurasian population of 4.5 million (77% Chinese but also Malays and Indians) The Chinese opera (wayang), hand- and string-puppet theaters are important minstrel tradition (zouchang) performed during festive seasons chamber music from China’s Fujian province (nanguan) Mandarin vocal music (xinyao) staged urban performances with Western instruments (getai) The Malays vocal genres accompanied by drums (kompang and hadrah) traditional Malay vocal genre (dikir barat) Arab/Persian vocal tradition (ghazal) Malay operatic genre (bangsawan) horse trance dancing (kuda kepang) The Indians Hindustani and Karnatic classical music bhajanai, film and temple music also predominate Indian music and dance are prevalent at Indian festivals in Singapore temples are patrons of Indian performing arts Questions for Discussion What are the differences between musics of the three main groups? Is any of this music unique to Singapore, or is it all directly imported? What does it mean to have multiple ethnic groups competing in a small nation? Why do the Chinese perform theater so much more than the Malays or Indians? Upland and Minority Peoples of Mainland Southeast Asia Language families of the mainland division of the mainland into lowland and upland 151 ethnic groups, with minority groups outnumbering the majority groups minority groups tend to live in the upland areas Language families of the mainland (cont.) four main language families on the mainland Sino-Tibetan family Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) family Tai family Austro-Asiatic family Minority musics of Vietnam uplands people live near Cambodia, Laos, and China lowlands people live near the majority Viet people bronze gong ensembles are most representative of the uplands musics upland culture divides into two regions: northeast and northwest Minority musics of Vietnam (cont.) songs courtship and friendship narratives ritual songs lullabies and other songs Minority musics of Vietnam (cont.) central highlands musical instruments gongs xylophones (wooden and bamboo) lithophones aerophones (flutes, oboes, free-reeds, animal horns) chordophones (zithers, spike fiddles) Minority musics of Vietnam (cont.) northern musical instruments bronze gong ensembles wooden trough idiophone Lutes the Hmong have numerous musical instruments Music of the upland minorities in Burma, Laos, and Thailand the Golden Triangle upland people mostly live in small villages slash-and-burn agriculture impacts all aspects of their lives dancing to simple accompaniment simple traditional songs (no professional musicians) pentatonic scales prevalence of animism Sino-Tibetan language family the Lahu; approximately 600,000 people new year celebration includes free-reed mouth organ and love songs harvest celebration includes mouth organ, cymbal, gong and drum songs for weddings, funerals, healing, narration, and lullabies instruments: free-reed mouth organ (naw) and Jew’s harp (ata) Sino-Tibetan language family (cont.) the Akha (Tibeto-Burman); approximately 443, 000 people many annual ceremonies and traditional festivals instruments: lute (döm), mouth organ (lachi), Jew’s harp (chau) songs for courtship, healing, funerals Sino-Tibetan language family (cont.) the Lisu (Tibeto-Burman); approximately 350,000 people close attention to ritual and festival life instrumental music is metered; vocal music is not songs for courtship, celebrations, religious events instruments: free-reed mouth organ (fulu), flute (julü), and lute (subü) Sino-Tibetan language family (cont.) the Karen (Tibeto-Burman); approximately 3.4 million people ceremonies of prayer and propitiation songs for weddings, courtship, funerals, children, drinking, etc. legends accompanied by the harp (tünak) instruments: harp (tünak), horn (kui), bronze drum (mahoratuk), bamboo tube zither (pap law), 3stringed lute (tha) The Austroasiatic (Mon-Khmer) language family the Kmhmu; approximately 500,000 people chanting and gong playing used in shamanic ritual songs for entertaining guests, courtship, weddings, harvests, new year instruments: flutes (pii, tot), free-reed mouth organ (khen), lute (saw), Jew’s harp, bamboo beaters (klt), clapper (taaw taaw), gong, and bronze drum The Tai-Kadai language family the Shan; approximately 6 million people three major ensembles (Buddhist ceremonies, dramas, and entertainment) songs for social occasions, courtship, new year, planting and harvesting, fishing, drinking, cradle songs (no funeral songs) instruments: xylphone (ranat thum), violin, drum (taphon), tuned drum set (patt waiñ), cymbals (chap), fiddle (toro), wooden block (sengkok) The Miao-Yao language family the Yao; approximately 2 million people weddings, funerals, harvests, new year’s festivals music related to life-cycle events and ceremonies the Hmong; approximately 6 million people songs for courtship, weddings, funerals, new year’s festival instruments: free-reed mouth organ (qeej), Jew’s harp (ncas), free-reed pipe (raj nplaim), flute (raj pus li), two-stringed bowed fiddle (xi xov) The Miao-Yao language family (cont.) The Hmong (cont.) ritual music funerals courtship and weddings The Indigenous Peoples (Orang Asli) of the Malay Peninsula tribal groupings of the Semang, the Senoi, and the Orang Melayu Asli lifestyle and its implications for musical culture instruments are easily made and discarded 2-string chordophone (kereb) xylophone (kongkong) tube zither (kerantung) The Indigenous Peoples (Orang Asli) of the Malay Peninsula (cont.) animist religious philosophy and shamanistic practice Semang animism and musical shamanism Senoi Temiar singers and healers in a modern world acculturated music of the Orang Melayu Asli timbre as a significant musical parameter The Indigenous Peoples (Orang Asli) of the Malay Peninsula (cont.) aboriginal Malays summon spirits using instruments tube zither (kerantung) Jew’s harp horizontal flute (buhbut) thigh xylophone (kongkong) oboe (serunai) The lowland Cham approximately 155,000 people the Cham are Malays who came to Vietnam from Java arounc 200 CE influences from India and Islam instrumental genres take their names from dances instruments include oboe, drums, fiddles, gong, bells Questions for Discussion What do the mainland upland people have in common with each other? What is the role of the spirit world among the upland people? How will courtship change as a result of modernization? How do the upland and lowland minorities differ from each other in geography as well as musical culture?