The Game of War: Military Simulation and Game Development Jennifer Sandercock Michael Papasimeon Air Operations Division, DSTO • Defence Science and Technology Organisation Department of Defence • Conduct research into air operations to help the Australian Defence Force (usually the Royal Australian Air Force) • Make smart acquisition decisions on new systems • Make best use of existing systems (tactically, operationally etc.) • Military Simulation is one of our primary tools. Scope and Purpose • Raise awareness of Australian military simulation activities amongst Australian game developers. • Raise awareness of Defence simulation activity in Melbourne. • Explore the potential for future collaboration. • Focus on particular areas, will not be exhaustive. Games and Military Simulations • Similarities • Technology • Software Design • Construction (Software Engineering) • Some common skill sets. • Differences • • • • Purpose Emphasis Funding Social Purpose of Military Simulation MILITARY SIMULATION ION USIT ACQ DE IN L PLOY M IFE SUP ENT POR T DESIGN H M G R IN O N CT AI FA TR N A U PS EN O N PM CO LO VE E D T S Example Simulations • Human In The Loop • Flight Simulators (e.g. AOSC Dome) • Training • Human Factors • Constructive and Wargaming • • • • Operational Analysis for Acquisition, Tactics Development, Concepts of Operations Experimentation • Campaign • Strategic • Sortie Generation • Force-Element Mix Military Experimentation for AEW&C Types of Simulation 103 -104 km2 , 10-1000+ entities, days- months Strategic CAMPAIGN 102 -103 km2 , 2-32+ entities, hours Operational MISSION < 102 km2 , 2-4 entities, minutes Tactical ENGAGEMENT 1 entity ENTITY COMPONENT (ENGINEERING) A Flavour Military Simulation in DSTO • F/A-18 Air Combat (“Top Gun”) • SWARMM and XCombat • AEW&C Acquisition • Air Operations Simulation Centre (AOSC) Dome • Synthetic Environment Research Facility (SERF) Tactics for F/A-18 Hornets F/A-18 Fighter Pilot AI Example: Cognitive Modelling (AI) • Ingelligent Agents • Situational Awareness • The BDI Reasoning Model • BDI Languages • dMARS • JACK • Graphical Representation • The Melbourne Link BDI Agent Mechanisation Plan Library Observe External Information Plan selection Orient Current beliefs Plan A Plan BC Plan Plan .. How to perceive act communicate tactics etc.. Plan x Plan yn Plan Plan .. ‘To do’ list Decide Prioritisation Act Plan execution External Action Pilot Agent Architecture and Cognitive Model Pre-briefed (mission) data Data from the environment Situation Awareness Situation Assessment Computational representation of the OODA Loop Tactics Selection Standard Operating Procedures Actions Agent Architecture (detail) Present / Reactive Balancing & Management Future / Proactive Situation Awareness Situation Memory Situation Prediction Situation Assessment Situation Management Future Assessment Tactics Nomination (reaction) Tactics Management Future Tactics Nomination (Planning) Implement Tactic Distributed Simulation • Distributed Mission Training • Example: The Virtual Air Environment • DIS/HLA Standards • Interoperability between simulators that were not originally designed to work together. Some things military simulations have… • • • • • • • • Artificial Intelligence and Agent Technology Simulation Architectures and Design Patterns Complexity Sophisticated Distribution Credibility and IV&V Standardisation Complex Analysis and Scenario Setup Tools Commercial heavy duty software engineering Some things games have… • Cool and easy to use user-interfaces Some things games have… • Cutting Edge Graphics and Visualisation Some things games have… • Cutting Edge Sound Chess: Real, Virtual and Mixed Human Chess Players Human Playing Against Chess Computer Human Playing Against Robotic Chess Simulator Chess Playing Agent Versus another simulated Chess Playing Agent AP-3C Maritime Patrol: Real, Virtual and Mixed Real Crew in Real AP-3C Real Crew in AP-3C Tactical Simulator Real Crew in AP-3C Simulator Virtual Crew in OR Simulator Classifying Games • Methods: • • • • • • • • Genre Complexity Number of Entities Number of Interactions Time scale (minutes vs. hours vs. days) Levels AI Graphics Complexity? Civilization Sim City CAMPAIGN The Sims MISSION Unreal Tournament 2004 ENGAGEMENT Pinball ENTITY Grand Turismo COMPONENT (ENGINEERING) Getting Games to Play with Military Simulations • Should be able to: • • • • • • Be validated Plug & play for models Control game/simulation time Run for extended periods of simulation time Have access to API documentation Modify look & feel of game Current Active and Relevant Research • Representing teams and team tactics • Mixing teams of virtual and real military operators • Representing virtual environments for agents and other A.I • Emotion Moderators in Agents • Strategy and Tempo of War • Speech Recognition for Controlling Agents Existing Cooperation • United States • Full Spectrum Warrior & Full Spectrum Command (ICT, US Army, Pandemic, Quicksilver) • America’s Army (MOVES Institute, US Navy) • Australia • Turing Tests of FPS games (DSTO) • Modifying FPS for Army soldiers (ADFA) Opportunities for Interactions • Conferences • Local: AGDC, SimTecT, • International: GDC, IJCAI, AAMAS, OzCogSci • Books and Magazines • Game Developer, Gems Series, AI Wisdom, AI Magazine, IEEE, ACM • Associations • IGDA (Melbourne Chapter), Agents-VIC Groups to Interact With • Academia • Agents – The University of Melbourne, RMIT • Government and Defence • Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) • Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) • Local Technology Companies • Agent Oriented Software (AOS) • Agentis Questions?