Turf Insect Update 2008-2009 David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The “BugDoc” The Ohio State University, OARDC & OSU Extension Columbus, OH © December 2008, D.J. Shetlar, all rights reserved http://ohioline.osu.edu Notes: The OhioLine is the primary Internet site for OSU Extension. This site is where all our factsheets and recent bulletins are posted. Most of these are posted as web pages and/or downloadable PDF files. Use the search engine to more rapidly find our publications. http://buckeyeturf.osu.edu Notes: Our BuckeyeTurf web site is where our turfgrass team posts most of our information on what is going on in all the fields of turf – sports, golf, lawn, and sod production. Regular postings are made on the TurfNotes and SportsNotes pages. We have also posted quite a few podcasts in several languages that deal with various turf management issues and pest management. http://bygl.osu.edu Notes: The Buckeye Yard and Garden Line is a weekly posting of information on what Ohio State horticulture specialists are seeing across the state. Every Tuesday, from April through October, specialists have a phone discussion on what they are seeing and what is expected over the next week or two. Note takers summarize this discussion and add pictures, links to relevant web pages and other information. This is posted by noon on Thursday. The P.E.S.T. Newsletter available from: Ohio Nursery & Landscape Association 72 Dorchester Square Westerville, OH 43081 614-899-1195 800-825-5062 Notes: I’ll be producing the P.E.S.T. Newsletter again this season. This newsletter is available by subscription through the Ohio Nursery and Landscape Association (onla.org). Every two weeks, from mid-March to midOctober, I present the “BugDoc” view of what is going on across Ohio in the insect world and I give my often unique perspectives on management and control. You can select the option to receive mailed hard copies or emailed PDF version and all subscriptions provide passwords to view the newsletter on a web site where color pictures and links to additional information are provided. Come visit the BugDoc at: http://bugs.osu.edu Notes: You can also find information on my personal web site. I post recent PowerPoint talks in HTML and as downloads of the actual PowerPoints. There are also links to BugDoc factsheets, class notes and other goodies. If you forget how to get to this page, just enter in “Bugdoc” in Google search and my web page should be the first on the list! FQPA Updates • Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) continues to review insecticides and miticides. • Pyrethroids review is ongoing! Expect future restrictions • Dursban only for farm use (including golf courses), carbaryl (Sevin) and trichlorfon (Dylox) passed initial reviews but with restrictions on amounts! All being reassessed! Notes: Remember that EPA is continuing to review all the older insecticides under the Food Quality Protection Act standards. This resulted in most of the organophosphate and carbamate insecticides being restricted from urban use. This initial review has been completed and EPA is currently reviewing all the pyrethoid insecticides. This will likely result in some restrictions of these also. While Dursban can still be used on golf courses with yearly amount restrictions and Sevin and Dylox are still available for landscape use, the agency is re-reviewing these pesticides which may result in further restrictions! Because of this, we need to look at the newer insecticides that have passed all the current registration requirements. New Insecticides • Acelepryn™ (=E2Y45 or chlorantraniliprole, a new insecticide category from DuPont) – excellent grub control, long lasting, etc.; also good on billbugs, chinch bugs and turf-infesting caterpillars – Registered in spring of 2008. • Provaunt™ (Indoxacarb, a new insecticide category from DuPont) – excellent caterpillar control, but active against weevil adults. • Duocide™ (carbaryl plus bifenthrin from The Andersons) – good grub control with curative action; also good on turfgrass surface insects. Notes: Over the last few years, we have seen several new insecticides registered for turfgrass insect control. Acelepryn from DuPont is one of the newest insecticides and this represents a whole new category of insecticides. This product is unique in that the label states that no signal word is needed! We have had excellent grub and turf caterpillar control and good billbug and chinch bug control. Provaunt is also in a new insecticide category and it has great caterpillar control action. We’re also finding out that it can control some other turfgrass insects like billbug larvae. Duocide is a low cost general insecticide that uses a combination of carbaryl (Sevin) and bifenthrin (like Talstar). This is from the Anderson’s and can be used to control grubs and a variety of surface insects. Other New Insecticides • Meridian™ (thiamethoxam, a new neonicotinoid from Syngenta) – excellent grub control, long lasting, etc. – Registration received in February 2007. • Aloft™ (=clothianidin plus bifenthrin) – new combo product from Arysta with excellent broad spectrum activity and rapid knock-down of surface insects. Notes: Meridian (thiamethoxam) is the most recent neonicotinoid to be registered for turfgrass use. This product is from Syngenta and has the same broad spectrum of activity as Merit, but seems to be a bit faster acting. Aloft is another combination product (clothianidin plus bifenthrin) from Arysta. Aloft continues with the broad spectrum of insect control as Arena (clothianidin by itself) but surface insect control is achieved more rapidly. Turfgrass Insect Activity in 2008 • Bluegrass Billbug – masked by June rains! • White Grubs – northern Ohio major outbreak, middle and southern third of Ohio patchy or AWOL! • Cutworms & Sod Webworms – up! • Hairy Chinch Bug – continues to be missed!. Notes: The 2008 season was characterized by being normal or slightly above normal in rainfall through mid-June. Then the rains stopped for most of the rest of June and in the southern half of Ohio rain was scarce until the end of September. In the northern third of Ohio, there was sufficient rain in July through September to raise a pretty good grub crop! Due to adequate soil moistures in June, billbug damage was minimal. Grub damage was most noticeable in the northern third of the state. And, as normal, cutworm and sod webworm populations were generally up as they always seem to do better in drought situations. Finally, chinch bugs continued to be misdiagnosed in lawns across Ohio. Ohio Lawn Damaged (killed) by Bluegrass Billbug! Notes: This central Ohio lawn was essentially killed by billbug larvae by the end of June! Notice the surrounding lawns are in good shape because they were treated in May. The green clumps of grass surviving in this lawn were perennial ryegrass clumps. Perennial ryegrass containing fungal endophytes are toxic to billbug adults and larvae so this type of grass makes it a good choice for keeping billbugs, chinch bugs and sod webworm populations down. Billbug Diagnosis – Use the “tug test” Notes: Billbug activity and damage is easy to diagnose by midJune. Simply grasp dead stems and pull upward. Inspect the broken ends of the stems for evidence of fine sawdust-like material. This is the frass or fecal material left behind by billbug larvae as they burrow down grass stems. This damage and frass remains in a lawn well into October and can be used as a diagnostic technique if a lawn doesn’t green up in the fall. 2006 Ohio Billbug Test Treatment Rate % Control Merit 0.5G 0.187 64 Merit 0.5G 0.25 73 Merit 75WDG 0.30 95 Arena 50WDG 0.20 100 Meridian 25W 0.25 91 Sevin Lawn 2G 7.80 73 Triazicide 0.114G 0.50 59 appl - 24 May (early curative); Columbus, OH; read – 12 July; 31.9 larvae+pupae/sq.ft. check Notes: The neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (Merit), clothianidin (Arena & Aloft), and thiamethoxam (Meridian) are good choices for control of billbugs in Ohio. Make the application in the last two weeks of May and the soilthatch residue will also control white grubs that typically arrive in July. 2007 Ohio Billbug Then Grub Test Treatment Rate Billbug % Control Grub % Control Aloft SC 0.12/0.06 lb. 100.0 68.0 Aloft SC 0.24/0.12 lb. 95.5 100.0 Aloft G 0.25/0.13 lb. 77.3 100.0 68.2 80.0 Bifenthrin SC 24oz/A Meridian 25WDG 0.20 100.0 84.0 Merit 75 WP 0.25 77.3 72.0 Arena 50WDG 0.25 100.0 100.0 appl - 9 May; Columbus, OH; billbug read – 28 June, 18.6/sq.ft. check; JB adults caged in July, grubs read - 28 Sept, 17.9/sq.ft. checks Notes: To illustrate the lasting efficacy of the neonicotinoids for billbug plus white grub control, this study was put out in a turfgrass stand known to be infested with billbugs. After the billbug rating, Japanese beetle adults were caged over the treated suraces and forced to lay eggs. You can see how well the grubs were controlled by the neonicotinoids, Aloft, Meridian, Merit and Arena. Grub Complex – Changing each year! Ataenius Aphodius May/June Beetle green June beetle European chafer masked chafer Japanese beetle Oriental beetle Asiatic garden beetle Notes: Ohio has the dubious honor of being infested by most of the common cool-season grub species! While Japanese beetles and masked chafers are our dominant species, we have green June beetles from Dayton to Cincinnati and over to Portsmouth as well as Oriental beetles, European chafers and Asiatic garden beetles in the counties surrounding Lake Erie. It’s always good to check and see which species you are dealing with because some of the grubs can be more difficult to control unless you use maximum rates of insecticides. Notes: This image of a heavy grub infestation is put here to remind me that occasionally we get grub populations that will exceed 50 per square foot! Under such situations, even if you get 90% control, there may be enough survivors that the skunks and raccoons may continue to dig up the turf. This is not really a grub insecticide failure, but the result of excessive grub egg laying and survival. In such cases, if the thatch is not over ½-inch thick, consider making a second application of a rapid acting insecticide (like Dylox, Arena or Meridian) and/or spread Milorganite over the area to discourage the animal digging. Ranked Efficacy of White Grub Insecticides 1976 – 2008a Insecticide Carbaryl (=Sevin) rate ave range lb.ai./a. % control # tests % control 8.0 72.8 43 13-100 % of tests below 70% 40 Cl-antraniliprole 0.1 (=Acelepryn) 0.2 93.9 98.9 11 7 70-100 89-100 0 0 Clothianidin (=Arena) 0.25 0.3 97.2 99.4 5 5 90-100 99-100 0 0 Halofenozide (=MACH2) 1.5 2.0 91.2 89.6 65 55 10-100 56-100 12 9 Imidacloprid (=Merit) 0.3 0.4 96.4 94.1 103 7 58-100 82-100 5 0 Permethrin 0.26 31.8 8 0-54 100 Thiamethoxam (=Meridian) 0.2 95.1 53 0-100 5 Trichlorfon 8.0 (=Dylox, Proxol) 77.2 92 0-98 19 a Data from ESA publications (1977-2008) & Ohio testing using masked chafer and Japanese beetle data where label timing recommendations were used and at least 4.0 grubs per sq.ft. were found in checks. Notes: This summary table contains averages of many field studies performed across North America where insecticides were used to kill masked chafer and/or Japanese beetle grubs. Applications made in June, July and early August were included. Study the results carefully and you will see that most of our standard grub control products work well when applied during this period. Notice that permethrin (the active ingredient in the over-the-counter Triazicide product) is NOT a good grub control material! Japanese Beetle Annual Cycle JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Preventive-Early Curative Timing Traditional Control Timing Notes: In the past, we have stated that the best time to apply a grub control product is mid-July into mid-August, but the new neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) and Acelepryn are known to have effective residues remaining in the soil-thatch interface for 90+ days. If we factor in this, we can also control billbugs and chinch bugs through mid-May into early June applications. Acelepryn, when applied in midMay also will control caterpillar pests for several months. Comparison of Grub Insecticide Efficacy by Time of Application Insecticide Clothianidin (=Arena) rate lb.ai./a. to Sept 10 99.9 (5) 93.0 (1) 90.0 (1) 99.6 (3) 98.8 (5) 99.0 (2) ----- 83.4 (2) 97.0 (1) Cl-antraniliprole 0.1 (=Acelepryn) 0.2 92.8 (4) 94.8 (4) 93.3 (9) 99.8 (4) 91.6 (2) 98.2 (5) ----- ----- Halofenozide (=MACH2) 1.5 2.0 88.5 (8) 80.5 (4) 94.4 (23) 88.8 (21) 89.6 (19) 63.7 (9) 94.3 (13) 75.9 (6) 77.7 (27) --- Imidachloprid (=Merit) 0.3 0.4 80.7 (22) 93.3 (42) 95.2 (48) 93.8 (30) 81.0 (2) 94.0 (2) 96.8 (5) 82.0 (1) 93.2 (37) --- Thiamethoxam (=Meridian) 0.2 0.26 59.9 (8) 83.5 (5) 85.2 (12) 89.7 (6) Trichlorfon 8.0 a 0.25 0.3 May ave % control (#tests) June July to Aug 16 --- 96.7 (13) 95.6 (25) 92.9 (15) 99.3 (3) 99.8 (5) 94.6 (9) --- 38.5 (1) 62.2 (5) 77.2 (25) Data from ESA publications (1977-2008) & Ohio testing using masked chafer and Japanese beetle data where label timing recommendations were used and at least 4.0 grubs per sq.ft. were found in checks. Notes: In the past, we didn’t have much data on applications of grub insecticides made in May or late August into early September, periods before and after the socalled “ideal” grub window. This table contains averages of studies that have been done in these various windows. You can see that most of the grub insecticides maintain good control when applied in May or from mid-August into early September. 2006 May Preventive Grub Trial (15 May) Treatment Rate % Control Acelepryn SC 0.26 lb. 100 Acelepryn SC 0.21 lb. 100 Acelepryn SC 0.10 lb. 100 Acelepryn SC 0.05 lb. 99 Arena 50WDG 0.25 lb. 100 Arena 50WDG 0.15 lb. 99 Merit 75WP 0.30 lb. 99 MACH2 1.5G 2.00 lb. 56 Hilliard, OH; read - 11 Oct; 25.3 grubs/ft.sq. check; 74%NMC/26%JB Notes: This is a summary of the results obtained using Acelepryn compared to Arena and Merit (standard neonicotinoids) and MACH2 (an insect growth regulator) following a May 15 application. It’s obvious that all products except for the MACH2 performed very well. 2007 Grub Trial - Rate & Timing Treatment Rate Appl.Date Aloft SC Aloft SC Aloft G Merit 75WP Aloft SC Aloft SC Aloft G Merit 75WP Aloft SC Aloft SC Aloft G 0.12/0.06 lb. 0.24/0.12 lb. 0.25/0.13 lb. 0.30 lb. 0.12/0.06 lb. 0.24/0.12 lb. 0.25/0.13 lb. 0.30 lb. 0.12/0.06 lb. 0.24/0.12 lb. 0.25/0.13 lb. 17Apr 17Apr 17Apr 17Apr 26June 26June 26June 26June 6Sept 6Sept 6Sept DAT 168 168 168 168 98 98 98 98 26 26 26 % Control 78 100 100 84 100 100 100 95 95 95 97 Columbus, OH; read - 2 Oct; 4.63 grubs/ft.sq. check; 27%NMC/73%JB Notes: This table shows the results from making applications of Aloft (the combination of clothianidin plus bifenthrin) compared to Merit when applied in mid-April, June and September. Use Milorganite™ to discourage animals! Notes: As stated before, skunks and raccoons can be more of a problem than the grubs! Only 3 to 5 grubs per square foot may be sufficient to encourage animal digging and this number of grubs rarely damages the turf. To discourage skunk or raccoon digging, especially after a rescue grub treatment, consider spreading the organic fertilizer Milorganite over the area. This fertilizer is made with human sewage sludge and is pretty good is discouraging these animals. Notes: The hairy chinch bug continues to be a problems across Ohio, primarily in sodded Kentucky bluegrass lawns. The damage is often mistaken for disease or drought damage so close inspection is needed to determine the actual cause of straw-colored turf. Hairy chinch bugs in thatch Hairy chinch bug adults long wing & short wing forms Notes: Chinch bugs are relatively easy to diagnose! Simply spread apart the turf canopy where straw-colored turf meets green turf. If chinch bugs are present, they will be seen running around in the thatch zone. The adult chinch bugs also occasionally walk to the tips of grass blades where they can also be observed. 2005 OH Hairy Chinch Bug Control – Over-the-Counter Insecticides % Control 4DAT 7DAT 14DAT Treatment Rate Merit 0.2G 0.13 77 70 93 Merit 0.2G 0.10 28 81 95 Arena 0.1G 0.06 51 86 75 Arena 0.1G 0.05 82 75 64 Triazicide 0.04G 0.034 62 93 92 Grub Stop 1.5G 1.01 38 82 86 Bayer Complete 0.19 64 80 88 appl. 21 July., Pickerington, OH; 70.6, 111.8 & 116.4 hcb/sq.ft. checks @ 4, 7 & 14 DAT Notes: While the pyrethoid, bifenthrin (Talstar) has been the industry standard for chinch bug control, the neonicotinoids (Merit, Arena and Meridian) can also control chinch bugs, but these often take 7 to 14 days to achieve maximum control. Other pyrethroids also do a very good job. Consider lambda-cyhalothrin (Scimitar), deltamethrin (DeltaGard), and betacyfluthrin (Tempo Ultra) as alternate pyrethroids.