Plurilingüismo:
contextos y metodologías
(Plurilingual contexts and
methodologies)
1
What is a bilingual person?
What are the factors that
influence/affect
bilingual/plurilingual people?
Is it possible to become bilingual in
a monolingual society?
Is there any approach, technique or
method to facilitate it?
2
Contents (1)
1. Towards a better knowledge of the phenomena of bilingualism
1.1. Several definitions
1.2. Sequence of development in bilingual/multilingual
children
1.3. Phenomena connected to bilingualism
1.4. Factors affecting bilingualism
1.5. Different contexts: FL vs. SL
tasks:
readings 1 & 2
group discussion: conclusions
2. Bilingual/plurilingual educative models (I,II)
2.1. Several examples
2.2. The SIOP model: Carlitos’ case
3
Contents (2)
3. Bilingualism in monolingual societies: conditions, possible
outcomes, methodological models and resources
Task: individual bilingual profile
Task: group discussion about age-related matters
-The question of age
3.1. Bilingualism and content-based teaching
3.1. Models
3.2. Methodological differences
3.3. Advantages and disadvantages
3.2. Primary & Secondary teachers’ tasks (add st
yourselves)
3.4. Characteristics of successful CLIL programes
task: reading 3
3.2. Examples of activities
4.1. Primary teaching
4.2. Secondary teaching
4.3. More examples
4
Contents (3)
3.3. Resources
tasks: reading 4 & internet resources
Task: Individual presentations
3.4. The situation in Spain: the case of Catalonia
Task: reading 4
3.5. The situation in Andalucía.
Task: individual/group presentations
What is happening? outcomes, problems and
solutions
4. References
5
1. What is bilingualism/plurilingualism?
‘The phenomena of competence and communication in
two or more languages’(Lam, 2001:93)
…Competence?...
…Does the bilingual learn a set of meanings with two
different linguistic representations or does he learn two
different languages, as if he was the sum of two
monolinguals?
…Are there drawbacks (i.e. language misunderstandings
and difficulties) being a bilingual or are there cognitive
advantages?
6
1.1. Definitions
1. Complete competence in both languages in all the situations
2. Continuum: abilities in both languages
dominant/equilibrated bilinguals
3. According to use:
coordinated/compoud bilinguals
4. According to the age:
early/late bilinguals
5. According to the order of acquisition
simultaneous/consecutive bilinguals
6. According to socio-cultural factors
Additive/subtractive bilinguals
7. According to the context and parents’ strategies
7
1.1. Definitions (II)
7. According to the context and parents’ strategies
Type 1: ‘One-person-one-language’
Type 2:’Non-dominant home language’ / ‘one language-oneenvironment’
Type 3: ‘Non-dominant home language without community
support’
Type 4: ‘Double non-dominant home language without
community support’
Type 5: ‘Non-native parents’
Type 6: ‘Mixed languages’
8
1.2. Bilingual development in children
9
1.3. Phenomena connected to bilingualism:
interesting research facts (1)

Accents: the human brain is capable (before some critical or
sensitive period) of developing two or more different sets of
instructions for the organs of articulation, even though children
lose their ability to distinguish sounds at the end of first year
(Usually the phonological system is more unitary than separate)

Lexicons: 1 or 2 separate systems?
 Synonyms & equivalent words: do not function as
equivalents for children (diff. Contexts)
 with stroop task: high degree of accuracy but slower reaction
times in colour naming
 With cognates: false cognates with neutral L1 connotations
rated negatively by bilinguals (embarrassed/embarazada).
The two systems (L1/L2) influence each other.
 Calqueing: reorganization of mental dictionary (i.e.:
run/correr)
1.3. Phenomena connected to bilingualism:
interesting research facts (2)



The question of verbal memory & bilateral brain organization:
L2 learning ability is independent of general intellectual ability
Lateral dominance: right hemisphere involvement in language
processing for late bilinguals
The case of bilingual aphasics. Three alternative explanations:

The first learned language

The most used language around the aphasia-producing
incident

‘psychological factors’

‘alternate antagonism’: limited cognitive resources
11
1.4. Factors affecting bilinguism. Code switches
and attrition
“Sabes, mi school bus no tiene un stop sign”
“Hoy yo era line leader en mi escuela”
“Ponemos cranberries y marshmallows y después se pone el glitter
con glue”
(Snow, 1999:482)
Interaction style
 Quality and quantity of input
 Attitudes towards both languages
 Socio-cultural context

12
1.5. Different contexts
FL vs SL
Tasks:
 Readings 1, 2 & 3
 Group discussion: conclusions
13
2. Bilingual education programs:
characteristics
Task: reading 4 (Ovando, Combs & Collier,
2006:8-10)
14
2.1. Pluri/Bilingual educative models in
L2 contexts - I
Weak models
Type of
program
Child type
Classroom
language
Social aim
Language aim
SUMERSION
Minority
majority
assimilation
monolingual
MAINSTREAM
Majority
Majority with
L2 lessons
Limited
enrichment
Limited
bilingual
15
2.1. Bilingual educative models in L2
contexts - II
‘Strong’ models
Type of program
Social aim
Linguistic
aim
Majority
Bilinual with
initial L2
emphasis
Plurality &
enrichment
Bilinguism &
literacy (L1/L2)
L1 VALUED
Minority
Bilinual with
initial L1
emphasis
Maintenance,
Plurality &
enrichment
Bilinguism &
literacy (L1/L2)
TWO LANGUAGES
Combination
of Majority &
minority
Minority &
majority
Maintenance,
Plurality &
enrichment
Bilinguism &
literacy (L1/L2)
Majority
Two lg.
Majority
Maintenance,
Plurality &
enrichment
Bilinguism &
literacy (L1/L2)
IMMERSION
MAINSTREAM
BILINGUISM
Type of
child
Classroom
language
16
2.2. An example: the SIOP model (1)

Task: reading (5) about the SIOP model (Echevarría, Vogt & Short, 2007)
Features
1.
Lesson preparation
1.
Content objectives clearly defined, displayed
and reviewed with sts
2.
Language obj…
3.
Content concepts appropriate for age and
educational background
4.
Supplementary materials used to high degree
5.
Adaptation of content to all levels of student
proficiency
6.
Meaningful activities that integrate lesson
concepts & lgg practice opportunities
17
2.2. An example: the SIOP model (2)
2. Building background

Concepts explicitly linked to sts’ background
experiences

Links explicitly made btw past learning and new
concepts

Key vocabulay emphasized
3. Comprehensible input
1.
Speech appropriate for students’ proficiency levels
2.
Clear explanation of academic tasks
3.
Various techniques used to make content concepts
clear
18
2.2. An example: the SIOP model (3)
3. Strategies

Ample opportunities provided for students to use learning
strategies

Scaffolding techniques consistently used, assisting and
supporting student understanding

A variety of questions or tasks that promote higher-order
thinking skills
3.
Interaction
1.
Frequent opportunities for interaction and discussion
2.
Grouping configurations support language and content
objectives of the lesson
3.
Sufficient wait time for student responses consistently
provided
4.
Ample opportunity for students to clarify key concepts in
L1
4.
Integration of all language skills
5.
Activities provided for students to apply content and language
knowledge
19
Can we become bilingual in a
monolingual community?
20
3. Bilingualism in monolingual
communities
Task: Individual bilingual profile (reading 6)
… Measuring linguistic competence
21
3. Bilingualism in monolingual societies
Tarea: group discussion about age-related
matters
22
Age - I: general assertions

The younger the better: critical period
Second languages

Age
foreign languages
learning speed
23
Age - II: conclusions


In contexts where the L2 is used. (Objetive: bilinguism)
 The younger the better in the long run, particularly for pronounciation and difficult
grammatical structures.
 Explicit linguistic instruction is needed to avoid fossilization phenomena.
In monolingual contexts. (Objetive: sufficient competence in L2)
 Not so young is faster, and being L1 literate would be better if there is linguistic
instruction and extended L2 exposition and input. To avoid accents, intensive
phonetic instruction is recommended.
 The process of acquisition is the same regardless of the age
For an early start to suceed in FL contexts:
Quality teaching
Time
Type of teaching adapted to learners’ age
24
3.1. Bilingualism and content-based teaching
3.1.1. Models
Task: CLIL reading (Deller & Price, 2007; Tejada, Pérez & Luque, 2005)
Definition: The L2 is used as a medium of instruction of other contents
(L2 teachers + other specialist teachers)
Theme-based linguistic
instruction
The language curriculum is built around
selected topics or themes
It is carried out in the L2 by a content area
Sheltered subject matter
specialist to a separated class of L2 learners
teaching
Adjunct language instruction The learner is enrolled in two
complementary related courses: an L2
course and another content course
Skills-based approach
Within it, specific subject matter teaching is
carried out through the focus on a concrete
academic skill area.
25
3.1.2. Methodological differences: L2 vs. EBC
Program
L2
CLIL
Focus on language
Focus on content
According
Duration
to textbook
Short and varied activities
Language objectives
Units
Focus on:
Lenguage
Oral work
Controlled Input & practice
Task/act.
design
emphasize:
Oral work
Productive skills
Controlled practice
Language
selection
Ideally:
Teacher-model always using L2
Students use the L2 whenever they can
Longer units focused on:
Topics
Tasks
Skills
Objectives
oriented towards content
Analysis of the language of the unit
Linguistic support
Emphasis on skills (except speaking)
Content
tasks
Emphasis on diagrams & visual material
With linguistic support
More reading and writing
Sts
can use the L1
The teacher can also use the L1 for certain
aims
26
3.1.3. Advantages & disadvantages
+






Multiple contexts
Comprehensible Input
Meaningful context, better
cognitive processing and
learning
Realistic (lgg as a means to
an end)
Improves the development of
cognitive and learning
strategies
Add more yourselves…







Cognitive challenge for
learners
Cognitive challenge for
teachers
Enforced cooperation
between L2 teachers and
other specialist teachers
Risk of using the L1
Lack/shortage of material
Evaluation (?)
Add more yourselves…
27
3.1.4. Primary teachers’ tasks













Speak fluently
Be familiar with the vocabulary of the subject/topic/theme
Express him/herself with simple vocabulary & grammar
Simplify or paraphrase new vocabulay and concepts
Understand textbooks for young learners
Understand L2 CDs and DVDs
Be familiar with semi-technical vocabulary
Know simple grammatical constructions
Identify constructions appropriate for young learners
Understand written texts dealing with specific
subjects/topics
Know how to write working sheets
Simplify written texts for learners
Add more yourselves……
28
3.1.5.Secondary teachers’ tasks













Speak fluently
Write/spell correctly
Simplify new terminology/ paraphrase concepts
Create working sheets
Understand specialised written texts
Be familiar with specific or technical vocabulary
Write instructions on the blackboard/computer…
Understand L2 CDs, DVDs
Understand students’ attempts at speaking using the L2
Know the L2 grammar and correct the students’ one
Identify essential structures and ask support to the L2 specialist
Hand out partly-written sheets with a format to fill in
Add more yourselves…
29
3.1.6. Characteristics of successful CLIL
programs
Task: reading (Langé, 2002)
1. Use the L2 at least for part of
the contents (including the
evaluation process)
2. Select ‘specialist’ teachers (1)
with a higher level of
linguistic competence (2)
3. Foster visits/exchanges with
the L2 community
4. Create and mantain a positive
attitude to both languages
5. Start early (???)
High Economic and
personnel resources
¿?
LEARNING OF TWO
LANGUAGES A THE
COST OF LEAVING
BEHIND OR
REDUCING OTHER
CONTENTS
30
3.2. CLIL Techniques & activities
31
3.2.1.Techniques for Primary teaching

o
o
o
o
Material: interesting, estimulating, visual and more exagerated
 Vocabulary: show it before and/or give paralinguistic or
situational clues
Presenting material
Active (Total Physical Response)
Concrete (lots of illustrations)
Mime/gesture
Repetition/redundancy
Emphasis on receptive skills
(listening & reading)
32
3.2.2. Techniques for secondary teaching
More complex topics/themes
 More reading and writing
Students face denser/deeper texts


SOLUTIONS
 Carefully structured tasks
 Methodologically appropriate readings (before/while…):
work the sub-skills (skimming, scanning…)
 Glossary with vocabulary. Hand it out before the task
 Use material with a lot of visual support, or adapt it visually
(graphics, charts, maps, conceptual schemas…)
 Facilitate written models giving useful functions, grammar,
expressions, etc: controlled writing
 Check whether the lesson is being understood
 Use paraphrase and be redundant
 Emphasize receptive skills (Listening & reading)
33
3.2.3. Examples
34
3.3. Resources (1)

Any subject: www.
oup.com/elt/teacher/rbt
howstuffworks.com
letts-education.com
biography.com
bbc.co.uk/schools/teachers
onestopenglish.com
euroclic.net
factworld.info
thinkquest.org/library
teachersnetwork.org
homeworkelephant.co.uk
teacher.scholastic.com
education.leeds.ac.uk
armoredpenguin.com
iearn.org/
abcteach.com
webquest.sdsu.edu
primaryresources.co.uk
Art:
Impressionism.org/
Poster-und-kunstdrucke.de/images

Business Studies
Businessweek.com
Http://news.bbc.co.uk

Design and Technology
Design-technology.org

Food Technology
Foodtech.org.uk/
Projectgcse.co.uk/food/

35
3.3. Resources (2)
Geography (www.)
http://library.thinkquest.org/11922/h
abitats.htm
discovery.com/exp/exp.html
nationalgeographic.com/resources/n
go/education/
 History
historyworld.net
historytoday.com
bbc.co.uk/history/historic-figures
SchoolHistory.co.uk
 Literature
bibliomania.com
 Mathematics
mathgoodies.com
cut-the-knot.com
allmath.com
mathworld.wolfram.com

Music (www.):
lyrics.com
Reggaefusion.com
essentialsofmusic.com/composer
 Physical Education
netfit.co.uk
 Sciences
planet-science.com
phschool.com/science/planetdiary/archive
http://whyfiles.org/
Scienceacross.org
bbc.co.uk/science/space
spartechsoftware.com/reeko/
schoolscience.co.uk
wastewatch.com

36
3.3. Resources: theory on CLIL (3)
(http://www.)
ub.es/filoan/CLIL.html
ecsu.ctstateu.edu/depts/edu/textbo
oks/bilingual.html
euroclic.net
http://lada.fil.ub.es/Angles/Milano/
bilingualeducation.org/
Euroclic.net/english/english.htm
tieclil.org
nabe.org/
ncbe.gwu.edu/
37
3.4. The situation in Spain:
the case of Catalonia

Task: reading (lange, 2002:**)
38
3.4. The case of Andalucia

Task: individual/group presentations
39
Summary








DECISIONS
Starting age
Percentage of teaching hours
Classroom ratio
Teachers: proficiency level
Total/partial immersion…
Subjects/contents using the L2
Materials & methodology
Type of evaluation and
language of/under evaluation
40
5. Conclusions??
41
Except for pathological cases and cases of extreme social
deprivation, human beings can learn more than one L1 (...)
they can add additional ones throughout their entire lifespan
(...) they can forget languages and relearn them. From the
biological point of view, the language learning abilities of
humans are not restricted in any principled way as to (a) the
number of languages that can be learned (b) the types of
languages and the kinds of linguistic structures that can be
acquired (c) any age ranges during which this has to happen
and (d) the learning situations, as long as sufficient language
input is available (Wode, 1994:326-7).
42
4. References (1)
Berk,
L. 1991. Child Development. London: Allyn and Bacon.
Cenoz, J. & J. Perales. 2000. “Las variables contextuales y el efecto de la
instrucción en la adquisición de segundas lenguas”. In C. Muñoz, C. (ed.)
Segundas lenguas. Barcelona: Ariel. 109-126.
Deller, S. & C. Price. 2007. Teaching Other Subjects Through English.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Echevarría, J., M.E. Vogt & D. Short. 2007. Making Content
Comprehensible for English Learners. The SIOP Model. London: Allyn and
Bacon.
Gómez Parra, E & Roldán Tapia, A. 2004. ‘Language learning and
acquisition. Theories and methods of teaching and learning’. In D. Madrid &
N. McLaren: TEFL in Primary Education. Granada: Universidad de Granada.
73-101.
Langé, G. 2002. TIE-CLIL Professional Development Course. Direzione
Regionale della Lombardia. Milan: Italy.
Ovando, C., M.C. Combs & V. Collier. 2006 (4th ed.) Bilingual & ESL
Classrooms. London: MCGraw Hill.
Marinova-Todd, S., D. Marshall, & C. Snow. 2000. “Three Misconceptions
about Age and L2 Learning”. TESOL Quarterly, 34/1: 9-34.
43
4. References (2)
Muñoz,
C., C. Pérez, M.L. Celaya, T. Navés, M.R. Torrás, E. Tragant
& M. Victori. 2003. “En torno a los efectos de la edad en el aprendizaje
escolar de una lengua extranjera”. Eduling, 1: 1-13.
Romaine, S. 1999. ‘Bilingual language development’ In M. Barrett
(ed.): The Development of Language. London: Psychology Press. 251276.
Snow, C. 1999. “Bilingüismo y adquisición de una segunda lengua”.
In J. Berko & N. Bernstein (eds.) Psicolingüística. Madrid: McGraw
Hill. 477-508.
Scovel, T. 1998. Psycholinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tejada Molina, G., Perez Cañado, M.L. & Luque Agulló, G. 2005.
‘Current approaches and teaching methods’. In N. McLaren, D. Madrid
& A. Bueno: TEFL in Secondary Education. Granada: Universidad de
Granada. 156-208.
Wode, H. 1994. “Incidental vocabulary acquisition in the foreign
language classroom” Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21: 326358.
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If only I had studied when I was young: The age factor in