Operations
Management
Chapter 6 –
Managing Quality
PowerPoint presentation to accompany
Heizer/Render
Principles of Operations Management, 7e
Operations Management, 9e
Extensive chages have been made to this slide set by Ömer Yağız.
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6–1
Outline
 Global Company Profile: Arnold
Palmer Hospital
 Quality and Strategy
 Defining Quality
 Implications of Quality
 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality
Award
 Cost of Quality (COQ)
 Ethics and Quality Management
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6–2
Outline – Continued
 International Quality Standards
 ISO 9000
 ISO14000
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6–3
Outline – Continued
 Total Quality Management
 Continuous Improvement
 Six Sigma
 Employee Empowerment
 Benchmarking
 Just-in-Time (JIT)
 Taguchi Concepts
 Knowledge of TQM Tools
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6–4
Outline – Continued
 Tools of TQM
 Check Sheets
 Scatter Diagrams
 Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
 Pareto Charts
 Flowcharts
 Histograms
 Statistical Process Control (SPC)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6–5
Outline – Continued
 The Role of Inspection
 When and Where to Inspect
 Source Inspection
 Service Industry Inspection
 Inspection of Attributes versus
Variables
 TQM in Services
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6–6
Learning Objectives
When you complete this chapter you
should be able to:
 Define quality and TQM
 Describe the ISO international
quality standards
 Explain Six Sigma
 Explain how benchmarking is used
 Explain quality robust products and
Taguchi concepts
 Use the seven tools of TQM
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6–7
Managing Quality Provides a
Competitive Advantage
Arnold Palmer Hospital
 Deliver over 13,000 babies annually
 Virtually every type of quality tool is
employed
 Continuous improvement
 Employee empowerment
 Benchmarking
 Just-in-time
 Quality tools
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6–8
To Make the Quality Focus
Work
Motorola:
– Aggressively began a worldwide education
program to be sure that employees understood
quality and statistical process control
– Established goals
• “stretch goal” - a goal which is very ambitious
– Established extensive employee participation
and employee teams
– originator of the “six-sigma” approach to
quality
– winner of the Baldrige national quality award
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6–9
What is a stretch goal ?
A stretch goal is an ambitious goal.
Sometimes it is called a “breakthrough
objective.” Stretch goals force an
organization to think radically different to
encourage major improvements, as well
as incremental ones. Stretch goals can be
set for all areas of the company, including
manufacturing, sales, accounting, product
design, etc.
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 10
MOTOROLA Co. --A famous
illustration of stretch goal
“Six Sigma Quality” concept of
Motorola:
Motorola set the following stretch
goal in 1987.
“Improve product and services quality ten times
by 1989, and at least one hundred fold by 1991.
Achieve six sigma capability by 1992. With a deep
sense of urgency, spread dedication to quality to
every facet of the corporation, and achieve a
culture of continuous improvement to assure total
customer satisfaction. There is only one ultimate
goal: zero defects--in everything we do.”
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 11
MOTOROLA Co. --A famous
illustration of stretch goal
Concept of six-sigma quality:
Shrinking process variation (as
indicated by 6 sigma) to half of the
design tolerance so that only 3.4
parts out of 1 million are defective.
At Motorola, six sigma became part
of the common language of all
employees. To them it meant “near
perfection”, even if some did not
understand the statistical details.
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 12
Quality and Strategy
 Managing quality supports
differentiation, low cost, and
response strategies
 Quality helps firms increase sales
and reduce costs
 Building a quality organization is
a demanding task
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 13
Two Ways Quality
Improves Profitability
Sales Gains via
 Improved response
 Flexible pricing
Improved
Quality
 Improved reputation
Reduced Costs via
Increased
Profits
 Increased productivity
 Lower rework (düzeltme) and
scrap (hurda) costs
 Lower warranty costs
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Figure 6.1
6 – 14
The Flow of Activities to
achieve TQM
Organizational Practices
Leadership, Mission statement, Effective operating
procedures, Staff support, Training
Yields: What is important and what is to be
accomplished
Quality Principles
Customer focus, Continuous improvement, Benchmarking,
Just-in-time, Tools of TQM
Yields: How to do what is important and to be
accomplished
Employee Fulfillment
Empowerment, Organizational commitment
Yields: Employee attitudes that can accomplish
what is important
Figure 6.2
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Customer Satisfaction
Winning orders, Repeat customers
Yields: An effective organization with
a competitive advantage
6 – 15
Defining Quality
The totality of features and
characteristics of a product or
service that bears on its ability to
satisfy stated or implied needs
ASQ - American Society for Quality
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 16
Other Definitions of Quality
QUALITY MEANS “FITNESS FOR USE”.
QUALITY IS MEETING OR EXCEEDING
CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS.
QUALITY IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL
TO VARIABILITY. – What does this mean?
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 17
Different Views of Quality
Depending on who/where you are..
 User-based – better performance,
more features
 “fitness for intended use,” or
how well the product/service
performs its intended function
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 18
Different Views of Quality
 Manufacturing-based – conformance
to standards, making it right the first
time
 quality is “conformance to
specifications”. Specifications are
targets and tolerances determined by
designers of products and services.
This is a key definition of quality for the
technical aspects of quality planning
and control.
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 19
Different Views of Quality
• Product-based – specific and
measurable attributes of the product
 quality is a function of a specific,
measurable variable and differences in
the quality reflect differences in
quantity of some product attribute (
number of knots on carpets, number of
cylinders in an auto engine, percentage
of silk in a shirt or blouse).
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 20
Implications of Quality
1. Company reputation
 Perception of new products
 Employment practices
 Supplier relations
2. Product liability
 Reduce risk of faulty products or
services
3. Global implications
 Improved ability to compete
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 21
Key Dimensions of Quality
for goods
 Performance
 Durability
 Features
 Serviceability
 Reliability
 Aesthetics
 Conformance
 Perceived quality
 Value
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 22
Key Dimensions of Quality
for goods
Performance: A product’s primary
operating characteristics. Will the
product do the intended job? (Car
example -- acceleration, braking
distance, steering, maneuverability.)
Performans, birincil (temel) işlevler
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 23
Key Dimensions of Quality
for goods
Features: Characteristics of
secondary importance for the
functioning of a product. In other
words, “the bells and whistles” of a
product. ( Power steering, antilock
brakes, tape/CD deck, A/C, reclining
seats.)
İkincil özellikler
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 24
Key Dimensions of Quality
for goods
Reliability: probability of a product’s
surviving over a specified period of
time under stated conditions of use.
Consistency of performance over
time. How often does the product
fail? (Ability to start on cold days,
frequency of failure of various
components).
Güvenilirlik
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 25
Key Dimensions of Quality
for goods
Conformance: Degree to which
physical and performance
characteristics of a product match
preestablished standards. Is the
product made exactly as the
designer intended? (fit and finish,
aerodynamic properties-drag
coefficient, freedom from noise, fuel
consumption.)
Uygunluk (spesifikasyonlara)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 26
Key Dimensions of Quality
for goods
Durability: Amount of use one gets
from a product before it physically
deteriorates or until replacement is
preferable. How long does the
product last ? (Corrosion resistance,
wear of seat cover material, wiper
blades motor, AC compressor, etc.)
Dayanıklılık
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 27
Key Dimensions of Quality
for goods
Serviceability: The speed, courtesy,
and competence of maintenance and
repair. How easy is it to service and
repair the product? (Access to spare
parts, the number of kilometers
between major maintenance service,
ease and expense of service.)
Bakım / onarım kolaylığı
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 28
Key Dimensions of Quality
for goods
Aesthetics: How a product looks,
feels, sounds, tastes, or smells. What
does the product look like? (Color,
instrument panel design, placement
of controls, and “feel of the road”.)
Estetik özellikler
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 29
Key Dimensions of Quality
for goods
Perceived Quality: Subjective
assessment of quality resulting from
image, advertising, or brand names.
What is the reputation of the
company or its product? (Brand
image of car, repair history reported
by trade magazines or friends.)
Tüketici tarafından algılanan kalite
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 30
Service Quality Attributes
Reliability
Responsiveness
Tangibles
Understanding
Competence
Access
Security
Courtesy
© 1995 Corel Corp.
Credibility
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Communication
6 – 31
Malcom Baldrige National
Quality Award
 Established in 1988 by the U.S.
government
 Designed to promote TQM practices
 Recent winners
 Premier Inc., MESA Products, Sunny
Fresh Foods, Park Place Lexus, North
Mississippi Medical Center, The Bama
Companies, Richland College, Texas
Nameplate Company, Inc.
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Click
6 – 32
Baldrige Criteria
Applicants are evaluated on:
Categories
Leadership
Strategic Planning
Customer & Market Focus
Measurement, Analysis, and
Knowledge Management
Workforce Focus
Process Management
Results
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Points
120
85
85
90
85
85
450
6 – 33
Baldrige Excellence Model
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 34
Other well-known awards
European Foundation for Quality
Management (EFQM) (established in
1988 by the European Commission)
Deming Prize (established in 1951 in
honor of Deming, the quality guru
who helped Japan establish its
famous quality system)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 35
Other well-known awards
• KALDER Quality Award (established
in 1991 by Turkish Quality
Association – Kalite Derneği
• Has been very successful in Turkey’s
bid for quality excellence
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 36
EFQM Quality Model
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 37
Takumi
A Japanese character
that symbolizes a
broader dimension
than quality, a deeper
process than
education, and a more
perfect method than
persistence
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 38
Costs of Quality
 Prevention costs - reducing the potential for
defects (training, quality improvement
programs)
 Appraisal costs - evaluating products, parts,
and services (testing, labs, inspectors)
 Internal failure - producing defective parts or
service before delivery (scrap, rework,
downtime of machinery)
 External costs - defects discovered after
delivery to customer (returned product,
liabilities, loss of goodwill, warranty repair,
costs to society)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 39
Costs of Quality
Total
Cost
Total Cost
External Failure
Internal Failure
Prevention
Appraisal
Quality Improvement
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 40
Leaders in Quality
W. Edwards Deming
14 Points for
Management
Joseph M. Juran
Top management
commitment,
fitness for use
Armand Feigenbaum
Total Quality
Control
Philip B. Crosby
Quality is Free,
zero defects
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 41
History of Development of
TQM
PLEASE REFER TO SLIDE SET TITLED
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF TQM
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 42
Ethics and Quality
Management
 Operations managers must deliver
healthy, safe, quality products and
services
 Poor quality risks injuries, lawsuits,
recalls, and regulation
 Organizations are judged by how
they respond to problems
 All stakeholders much be
considered
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 43
International Quality
Standards
 ISO 9000 series (Europe/EC)
 Common quality standards for products
sold in Europe (even if made in U.S.)
 2000 update places greater emphasis on
leadership and customer satisfaction
 ISO 14000 series (Europe/EC)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 44
ISO 14000
Environmental Standard
Core Elements:
 Environmental management
 Auditing
 Performance evaluation
 Labeling
 Life cycle assessment
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 45
TQM
Encompasses entire organization,
from supplier to customer
Stresses a commitment by
management to have a continuing,
companywide drive toward
excellence in all aspects of products
and services that are important to the
customer
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 46
Deming’s Fourteen Points
1. Create consistency of purpose
2. Lead to promote change
3. Build quality into the product; stop
depending on inspection
4. Build long-term relationships based on
performance, not price
5. Continuously improve product, quality,
and service
6. Start training
7. Emphasize leadership
Table 6.1
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 47
Deming’s Fourteen Points
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Drive out fear
Break down barriers between
departments
Stop haranguing workers
Support, help, improve
Remove barriers to pride in work
Institute a vigorous program of
education and self-improvement
Put everybody in the company to work
on the transformation
Table 6.1
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 48
Seven Concepts of TQM
 Continuous improvement
 Six Sigma
 Employee empowerment
 Benchmarking
 Just-in-time (JIT)
 Taguchi concepts
 Knowledge of TQM tools
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 49
Continuous Improvement
 Represents continual
improvement of all processes
 Involves all operations and work
centers including suppliers and
customers
People, Equipment, Materials,
Procedures
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 50
Continuous Improvement
KAIZEN
PLEASE REFER TO SLIDE SET TITLED
CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT
(KAIZEN)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 51
Shewhart’s PDCA Model
1.Plan
4. Act
Identify the
Implement improvement
and make
the plan
a plan
3. Check
Is the plan
working?
2. Do
Test the
plan
Figure 6.3
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 52
Six Sigma
 Two meanings
 Statistical definition of a process that
is 99.9997% capable, 3.4 defects per
million opportunities (DPMO)
 A program designed to reduce
defects, lower costs, and improve
customer satisfaction
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 53
Six Sigma
 Two meanings
Lower limits
Upper limits
2,700 defects/million
 Statistical
definition of a process that
is 99.9997% capable, 3.4 defects per
3.4 defects/million
million opportunities (DPMO)
 A program designed to reduce
defects, lower costs, and improve
customer satisfactionMean
±3
±6
Figure 6.4
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 54
Six Sigma Program
 Originally developed by Motorola,
adopted and enhanced by
Honeywell and GE
 Highly structured approach to
process improvement
 A strategy
 A discipline - DMAIC
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6
6 – 55
Six Sigma
1. Define critical outputs
and identify gaps for
improvement
DMAIC Approach
2. Measure the work and
collect process data
3. Analyze the data
4. Improve the process
5. Control the new process to
make sure new performance
is maintained
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 56
Six Sigma Implementation
 Emphasize defects per million
opportunities as a standard metric
 Provide extensive training
 Focus on corporate sponsor support
(Champions)
 Create qualified process improvement
experts (Black Belts, Green Belts, etc.)
 Set stretch objectives
This cannot be accomplished without a major
commitment from top level management
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 57
Employee Empowerment
 Getting employees involved in product
and process improvements
 85% of quality problems are due
to process and material
 Techniques
 Build communication networks
that include employees
 Develop open, supportive supervisors
 Move responsibility to employees
 Build a high-morale organization
 Create formal team structures
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 58
Quality Circles
 Group of employees who meet
regularly to solve problems
 Trained in planning, problem
solving, and statistical methods
 Often led by a facilitator
 Very effective when done
properly
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 59
Benchmarking
Selecting best practices to use as a
standard for performance
 Determine what to
benchmark
 Form a benchmark team
 Identify benchmarking partners
 Collect and analyze benchmarking
information
 Take action to match or exceed the
benchmark
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 60
Benchmarking Factors for
Web Sites
Use of meta tags
Yes: 70%, No: 30%
Meaningful homepage title
Yes: 97%, No: 3%
Unique domain name
Yes: 91%, No: 9%
Search engine registration
Above 96%
Average loading speed
Average number of spelling errors
28K: 19.31, 56K:
10.88, T1: 2.59
0.16
Visibility of contact information
Yes: 74%, No: 26%
Presence of search engine
Yes: 59%, No: 41%
Translation to multiple languages
Yes: 11%, No: 89%
Table 6.3
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 61
Best Practices for Resolving
Customer Complaints
 Make it easy for clients to complain
 Respond quickly to complaints
 Resolve complaints on first contact
 Use computers to manage
complaints
 Recruit the best for customer
service jobs
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 62
Just-in-Time (JIT)
Relationship to quality:
 JIT cuts the cost of quality
 JIT improves quality
 Better quality means less
inventory and better, easier-toemploy JIT system
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 63
Just-in-Time (JIT)
 ‘Pull’ system of production scheduling
including supply management
 Production only when signaled
 Allows reduced inventory levels
 Inventory costs money and hides process
and material problems
 Encourages improved process and
product quality
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 64
Just-In-Time (JIT) Example
Work in process
inventory level
(hides problems)
Unreliable
Vendors
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Scrap
Capacity
Imbalances
6 – 65
Just-In-Time (JIT) Example
Reducing inventory reveals
problems so they can be solved
Unreliable
Vendors
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Scrap
Capacity
Imbalances
6 – 66
Taguchi Concepts
 Engineering and experimental
design methods to improve product
and process design
 Identify key component and process
variables affecting product variation
 Taguchi Concepts
 Quality robustness
 Quality loss function
 Target-oriented quality
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 67
Quality Robustness
 Ability to produce products
uniformly in adverse manufacturing
and environmental conditions
 Remove the effects of adverse
conditions
 Small variations in materials and
process do not destroy product
quality
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 68
Quality Loss Function
 Shows that costs increase as the
product moves away from what
the customer wants
 Costs include customer
dissatisfaction, warranty
and service, internal
scrap and repair, and costs to
society
 Traditional conformance
specifications are too simplistic
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 69
Quality Loss Function
L = D2C
High loss
Unacceptable
Loss (to
producing
organization,
customer,
and society)
Poor
Fair
Good
Best
Low loss
where
L = loss to society
D = distance from
target value
C = cost of deviation
Target-oriented quality
yields more product in
the “best” category
Target-oriented quality
brings product toward
the target value
Frequency
Conformance-oriented
quality keeps products
within 3 standard
deviations
Lower
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Target
Upper
Specification
Figure 6.5
6 – 70
Tools of TQM
 Tools for Generating Ideas
Check sheets
Scatter diagrams
Cause-and-effect diagrams
 Tools to Organize the Data
Pareto charts
Flowcharts
 Tools for Identifying Problems
Histogram
Statistical process control chart
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 71
Seven Tools of TQM
(a) Check Sheet: An organized method of
recording data
Hour
Defect
A
B
C
1
///
//
/
2
/
/
//
3
/
4
/
/
5
/
6
/
7
///
//
//
8
/
///
////
Figure 6.6
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 72
Seven Tools of TQM
Productivity
(b) Scatter Diagram: A graph of the value
of one variable vs. another variable
Absenteeism
Figure 6.6
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 73
Seven Tools of TQM
(c) Cause-and-Effect Diagram: A tool that
identifies process elements (causes) that
might effect an outcome
Cause
Materials
Methods
Effect
Manpower
Machinery
Figure 6.6
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 74
Seven Tools of TQM
Percent
Frequency
(d) Pareto Chart: A graph to identify and plot
problems or defects in descending order of
frequency
A
B
C
D
E
Figure 6.6
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 75
Seven Tools of TQM
(e) Flowchart (Process Diagram): A chart that
describes the steps in a process
Figure 6.6
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 76
Seven Tools of TQM
(f) Histogram: A distribution showing the
frequency of occurrences of a variable
Frequency
Distribution
Repair time (minutes)
Figure 6.6
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 77
Seven Tools of TQM
(g) Statistical Process Control Chart: A chart with
time on the horizontal axis to plot values of a
statistic
Upper control limit
Target value
Lower control limit
Time
Figure 6.6
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 78
Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
Method
(shooting process)
Material
(ball)
Grain/Feel
(grip)
Aiming point
Size of ball
Bend knees
Air pressure
Hand position
Lopsidedness
Follow-through
Training
Conditioning
Consistency
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Missed
free-throws
Rim size
Motivation
Rim alignment
Concentration
Manpower
(shooter)
Balance
Machine
(hoop &
backboard)
Rim height
Backboard
stability
Figure 6.7
6 – 79
Pareto Charts
Data for October
Frequency (number)
60 –
54
– 72
50 –
40 –
Number of
occurrences
30 –
20 –
12
10 –
4
0 –
Room svc
72%
Check-in Pool hours
16%
5%
3
2
Minibar
4%
Misc.
3%
Cumulative percent
– 100
– 93
– 88
70 –
Causes and percent of the total
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 80
Flow Charts
MRI Flowchart
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Physician schedules MRI
Patient taken to MRI
Patient signs in
Patient is prepped
Technician carries out MRI
Technician inspects film
7.
8.
9.
10.
If unsatisfactory, repeat
Patient taken back to room
MRI read by radiologist
MRI report transferred to
physician
11. Patient and physician discuss
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
80%
11
9
10
20%
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
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Statistical Process Control
(SPC)
 Uses statistics and control charts to
tell when to take corrective action
 Drives process improvement
 Four key steps
 Measure the process
 When a change is indicated, find the
assignable cause
 Eliminate or incorporate the cause
 Restart the revised process
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 82
An SPC Chart
Plots the percent of free throws missed
20%
Upper control limit
10%
Coach’s target value
0%
|
1
|
2
|
3
|
4
|
5
|
6
|
7
|
8
|
9
Lower control limit
Game number
Figure 6.8
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
6 – 83
Inspection
 Involves examining items to see if
an item is good or defective
 Detect a defective product
 Does not correct deficiencies in
process or product
 It is expensive
 Issues
 When to inspect
 Where in process to inspect
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When and Where to Inspect
1. At the supplier’s plant while the supplier
is producing
2. At your facility upon receipt of goods from
the supplier
3. Before costly or irreversible processes
4. During the step-by-step production
process
5. When production or service is complete
6. Before delivery to your customer
7. At the point of customer contact
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Inspection
 Many problems
 Worker fatigue
 Measurement error
 Process variability
 Cannot inspect quality into a
product
 Robust design, empowered
employees, and sound processes
are better solutions
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Source Inspection
 Also known as source control
 The next step in the process is
your customer
 Ensure perfect product
to your customer
Poka-yoke is the concept of foolproof devices
or techniques designed to pass only
acceptable product
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Service Industry Inspection
Organization
What is
Inspected
Jones Law Office Receptionist
performance
Standard
Is phone answered by the
second ring
Billing
Accurate, timely, and
correct format
Attorney
Promptness in returning
calls
Table 6.5
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Service Industry Inspection
Organization
Hard Rock Hotel
What is
Inspected
Standard
Reception
desk
Use customer’s name
Doorman
Greet guest in less than 30
seconds
Room
All lights working, spotless
bathroom
Minibar
Restocked and charges
accurately posted to bill
Table 6.5
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Service Industry Inspection
Organization
Arnold Palmer
Hospital
What is
Inspected
Standard
Billing
Accurate, timely, and
correct format
Pharmacy
Prescription accuracy,
inventory accuracy
Lab
Audit for lab-test accuracy
Nurses
Charts immediately
updated
Admissions
Data entered correctly and
completely
Table 6.5
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Service Industry Inspection
Organization
Olive Garden
Restaurant
What is
Inspected
Standard
Busboy
Serves water and bread
within 1 minute
Busboy
Clears all entrée items and
crumbs prior to dessert
Waiter
Knows and suggest
specials, desserts
Table 6.5
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Service Industry Inspection
Organization
Nordstrom
Department
Store
What is
Inspected
Standard
Display areas Attractive, well-organized,
stocked, good lighting
Stockrooms
Rotation of goods,
organized, clean
Salesclerks
Neat, courteous, very
knowledgeable
Table 6.5
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Attributes Versus Variables
 Attributes
 Items are either good or bad,
acceptable or unacceptable
 Does not address degree of failure
 Variables
 Measures dimensions such as weight,
speed, height, or strength
 Falls within an acceptable range
 Use different statistical techniques
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TQM In Services
 Service quality is more difficult to
measure than the quality of goods
 Service quality perceptions depend
on
 Intangible differences between
products
 Intangible expectations customers
have of those products
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Service Quality
The Operations Manager must
recognize:
1. The tangible component of
services is important
2. The service process is important
3. The service is judged against the
customer’s expectations
4. Exceptions will occur
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Service
Specifications
at UPS
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Determinants of Service
Quality
 Reliability
 Credibility
 Responsiveness
 Security
 Competence
 Understanding/
knowing the
customer
 Access
 Courtesy
 Communication
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
 Tangibles
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Service Recovery Strategy
 Managers should have a plan for
when services fail
 Marriott’s LEARN routine
 Listen
 Empathize
 Apologize
 React
 Notify
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