© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
Enterprise Architecture and
Business Process Modelling
Developing a business-centred
architecture
Architecture Practitioners Conference, Brussels
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
David Harrison
Senior Consultant, Popkin Software
22 April 2004
Business Process Model
Accommodation Decomposition Diagram for BPM-UML Example
Accommodation
Handle Enquiry
cancellation
requested
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Customer
Requests
Accommodation
Make Reservation
accommodation
available
Confirm Reservation
Provide
Accommodation
Cancellation
request
Received
Check In Guest
Check Out Guest
payment
received
accommodation
charged to account
accommodation
unavailable
Customer
Advised of
Unavailability
Handle Cancellation
Payment
Received for
Accommodation
Invoice Raised
for
Accommodation
Bill for
Accommodation
Data Model
Cus tomer
Primary Key
ID [PK1]
Room
Rec eptionis t
Non-Key Attributes
contacts
Primary Key
name
address
telNo
faxNo
creditCard
is_a
books
Non-Key Attributes
status
type
is_a
makes
Overseas Customer
Primary Key
ID [PK1] [FK]
Non-Key Attributes
Nationality
Pas sportNumber
UK Customer
Primary Key
ID [PK1] [FK]
Non-Key Attributes
Pos tcode
Res ervation
Primary Key
code [PK1]
employeeID [PK2] [FK]
ID [PK3] [FK]
Property _Code [PK4] [FK]
Unit_Number [PK5] [FK]
Non-Key Attributes
Travel Agent
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Primary Key
number [PK1]
employeeID [PK2] [FK]
ID [PK3] [FK]
employeeID [PK1]
ID [PK2] [FK]
Primary Key
Agency_ID [PK1]
Non-Key Attributes
Agency_Name
Agent
Phone
YTD_Commiss ion
makes
status
date
duration
roomType
Shift_Num [FK]
Sales_Clerk [FK]
Agency_ID [FK]
Gues t_Number [FK ]
Application Model
A
Reservation
Booking
"New
Reservation"
reservation details
customer details
D
Customer
Customer
A
reservation request
P New
Reservation
reservation details
Accounts
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authorisation code
P Acc ounts
Receivable
customer credit rating
D
Customer
credit card action
account history
Customer Services
P Cus tomer
Maintenance
customer booking details
maintenance detail
Billing
"Accounts
Receivable"
"Customer
Maintenance"
maintenance details
account history
Models in the Enterprise Architecture
Enterprise Architecture
CUSTOMER
PRODUCT
ORDER
Order
Received
Check
Details
Confirm
Order
Enterprise Architecture
- principles + standards
- Common Vocabulary
Order
Confirmed
A
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The Boss
The Middle
A
CRM
Payments
The Middle
D
The
Workers
Customer
Database
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Explorer diagram: objects and collections
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Explorer diagram: applicationstechnology
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Explorer diagram: applications-processes
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Explorer diagram: processes-roles
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Explorer diagram: processes-data entities
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Explorer diagram: processeslocations
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Explorer diagram: one process with
relationships
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Explorer diagram: one application with
relationships
Business Process Lifecycle
Model and
Redesign
Simulate and
Optimize
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System
Architect
Measure
Execute
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Business Process Modeling
Notation (BPMN)
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
What is BPMN?

BPMN – acronym for Business Process Modeling
Notation

New standard for modeling business and web
service processes

Provides users with an industry standard set of
diagramming syntax and semantics, through a
graphical diagram to facilitate the representation of
business processes

Owned by BPMI – www.BPMI.org - the Business
Process Management Initiative
Why is BPMN needed?
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
…… oh no not another new standard!
Why is BPMN needed?
 Provide a standard where there hasn’t been a
standard
 BPMN helps with Process





Design
Deployment
Execution
Maintenance
Optimization
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
 Aid interoperability between Business Process
Management tools

Support generation of process execution languages
 BPMN is a core enabler for Business Process
Management (BPM) which is concerned with
managing change to improve business processes.
Goals of BPMN
Provide a notation
 that is readily understandable by a business
audience
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 capable of providing technical detail for the purposes
of implementation
 that supports generation of XML based execution
languages such as Business Process Execution
Language (BPEL)
Business process modelling with UML
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
 Is a single modeling language enough?

UML describes system behavior (Zachman Rows 4 & 5)

Existing UML extensions for business modeling are
described in terms of OO concepts, with which most
business users are unfamiliar

A single modeling language to span all the abstractions
required by business users, analysts, systems designers
and developers is open to interpretation
 Using UML to describe Scope or Enterprise
perspectives:

Takes it out of its original domain; and

Requires us to map the existing symbol set onto different
concepts
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
(UML) Activity diagram vs (BPMN)
Process diagram
BPMN and UML co-existence
 BPMN and UML will co-exist
 OMG and potential for BPMN-UML convergence
 Technical users may continue to use UML
 BPMN can be used to drive solutions that will run
directly on a BPMS
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
 BPMN can be used as a business analysis front end
for subsequent systems development using UML

UML users would then regard business processes merely as
another type of component
UML – Aggregation of multiple diagrams
Grady Booch and OMT
OMT and Grady Booch
Ivar Jacobson
James Odell and Oracle
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Process-centric – single diagram type from which multiple views
can be derived
BPMN + UML + TOGAF in SA
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 Phase B – Business Architecture
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
BPMN + UML + TOGAF in SA
Business Process Lifecycle
Model and
Redesign
Simulate and
Optimize
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
System
Architect
Measure
Execute
Key Components in Business
Process Execution
 Application Development


concerned with modelling business processes
description of web services
 Generation of Business Process Execution
Language (BPEL)

production of executable code
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
 Business Process Execution

running the BPEL code
Application Development – description of Web
Services

WSDL describes web services
WSDL stands for Web Services Description Language.

What is WSDL?





an XML document
used to describe Web services
used to locate Web services
Expose service operations
Import the WSDL into System Architect as an XML
Schema Hierarchy
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Web Service

Need to relate business processes to the web services
that they call

Use in the business process models to describe the
method of execution
Application Development – Business
Process Models
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The “Functions” described in the XML hierarchy are reused as UML Class Methods by dragging and dropping
into BPMN Processes and Message Flows.
Business Process Modelling
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
- Design and develop business processes using BPMN and utilising WSDL
- “Functions” described in the XML hierarchy re-used as UML Class Methods
by drag and dropping into BPMN Processes and Message Flows.
Generate Business Process
Execution Language
 What is BPEL?





© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.

Stands for Business Process Execution Language and is used for
describing the execution of business processes
provides an XML notation and semantics for specifying business
process behaviour based on Web Services as an Is an XML
document.
A BPEL process is defined in terms of its interactions with partners
BPEL orchestrates Web Services by specifying the order in which
it is meaningful to call services
It assigns responsibilities for each of the services to partners
It is used to specify both the public interfaces for the partners and
the description of the executable process
Deploying BPEL
 Generate BPEL from the BPMN Models
 BPEL is intended to be platform independent.
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
 Execution bindings to specific hardware/software
platforms and other mechanisms required for a
complete runtime environment for process
implementation need to be specified prior to running.
Business Process Management
Develop, Design and
Optimise Process
Models
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Capture WSDL
Produce
Deploy And
Execute
Business
Process
Management
Server
BPEL Engines
 Microsoft BizTalk
 Collaxa
 Intalio
 IBM WebSphere
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 ……
Execution of BPEL
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Load the business
processes into the
server
Example of business
process ready for
execution within
Collaxa BPM Server
Example execution of BPEL
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Example showing diagrammatically the status of one instance
of execution of the process
BPMN Summary
 BPMN is designed to enable



Modelling of simple and complex business processes
Offers the capability to model the exchange of messages
involved in web services delivery
Supports generation of Business Process Execution
Languages (BPEL)
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
 It is expected to become the new standard to model
business processes and web services
BPMN and the future
Vendors are expected to provide support for
 Simulation of BPMN processes
 Generation of Business Process Execution
Languages
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
 Integration into workflow management tools
Models in the Enterprise Architecture
Enterprise Architecture
CUSTOMER
PRODUCT
ORDER
Order
Received
Check
Details
Confirm
Order
Enterprise Architecture
- principles + standards
- Common Vocabulary
Order
Confirmed
A
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
The Boss
The Middle
A
CRM
Payments
The Middle
D
The
Workers
Customer
Database
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
BPMN + UML + TOGAF in SA
Reference Material
BPMN specifications from www.bpmi.org
A White Paper titled ‘BPMN and Business
Process Management. Introduction to the
New Business Process Modeling Standard’
available from www.popkin.com
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
BPMN Tour from
http://bpmi-notation-wg.netfirms.com/index.htm
© 2004 Popkin Software & System Inc.
Thank you
www.popkin.com
www.government.popkin.com
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