Linux and OS/390 USS: Where,
When, Why?
NCACMG
Reston, VA
February 13, 2002
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
Linux and OS/390 USS:
Where, When, Why?
Robert H. (Bob) Johnson
703.715.0823
703.608.8376 (cell)
[email protected]
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
2
Permission
Copyright  2001, 2002 Robert H.
(Bob) Johnson. Permission is
granted to attendees to make copies
of this material for their publications
and for attendees’ one-time usage.
All other rights reserved.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
3
Copyrights
MVS Concepts and Facilities (ISBN 0-07-032673-8, Spanish translation
= 84-481-092-1, McGraw-Hill Madrid) is copyright 1989 Robert H.
Johnson Jr. DASD IBM's Direct Access Storage Devices (ISBN 0-07032674-6 copyright 1992 Robert H & R. Daniel Johnson). UNIX as a
Second Language (ISBN 0-9650929-1-7) is copyrighted 1995, 2001 by
Robert H. Johnson. All other products and brand names mentioned
are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
Contents may settle during shipment. Your mileage may vary.
Warning, contents under pressure.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Disclaimer
The information contained in this presentation is
distributed on an “as-is” basis without any
warranty either express or implied. The use of
this information or the implementation of any of
these techniques is the reader's responsibility.
Neither the authors nor this conference is
responsible in any way for the reader's
application of this information.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Disclaimer-2
This presentation is designed to start a dialogue
within the industry on the future of UNIX in
mainframe computing. This area is one of the most
important arenas for the 21st century. In order for
us to be successful, we need understanding and
discussion on the topic. I share what I know and
discover. I challenge you to do the same.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Background
CMG 2000 wanted a panel on IBM’s
support of Linux on z/900 platforms
and what that meant.
I “volunteered” to chair the panel.
The experts took over from there!
Over the rest of 2001, I filled in the
pieces with my own research.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Abstract
How is Linux different from USS? What
performance and capacity metrics are
available (or planned?)? What workloads
run on S/390 Linux? In terms of
eCommerce, which UNIX system is
"better" for WebServer- USS or Linux?
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Disclaimer
The basis of this presentation was a summary of a panel
on the topic at CMG/2000 in Orlando Florida, USA,
December, 2000, AND my extensions of these findings.
If there are errors or omissions, then the problems are
mine. If there is good stuff, then it must have been
provided by the panelists:
Peter Enrico, [email protected]
www.epstrategies.com
Mark Cathcart, IBM http://www.ibm.com/s390/corner;
Ross Patterson, Computer Associates
<[email protected]>, or
Tim Kane, [email protected]
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Agenda
0001 - Rebranding of families: z/Business and
e/Server
0010 - Why UNIX on S/390 and z/900
0011 - Will the real UNIX stand up
0100 - Linux? What Linux?
0101 - Unix Systems Services
0110 - Which UNIX to Pick
0111 - Should You Run Linux on VM or VIF?
1000 - Application Considerations
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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0001 Re-Branding of CPU
families
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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eServer Family
zSeries


pSeries
a.k.a “Freeway”
Supercedes 9672

iSeries

Supercedes AS/400
Supercedes
RS/6000 and
Sequent NUMA-Q
xSeries
Supercedes
Netfinity
Linux available for full suite of eServer machines

Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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“Freeway” - The z900 Series
64-bit zArchitecture with z/OS



Built on new copper technology
Up to 64GB of memory
“above the line”
“above the bar”
Aggregate I/O bandwidth up to 24Gb/sec -that’s GIGABYTE!
z/OS Intelligent Resource Director (IRD):
Linux enabler?
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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“Freeway” - 2
Up to 640 processors in a Parallel
Sysplex
20 x 32 (up to 16 Central Processors, 3
System Assist Processors, and 1 spare
CP)
 20%-30% faster than G6
 “not even close to maximizing out
Moore’s Law”

Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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“Freeway” - 3
Intelligent Resource Director (IRD)




Manages LPAR cluster (within a single CEC)
Stripped down WLM: assigned workload goals
Moves resources TO and FROM workloads not
workloads to and from resources
IRD requires WLM in each LPAR and z/OS
HiperSockets and Linux Support


Virtual TCP/IP network within a CEC
Very fast
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Freeway - 4
New IBM Pricing Options - Linux for
S/390: XSLM

Workload License Charge
Variable-Charge
Products
Flat-Charge Products
IBM and ISV must build license
installation, policy and system
installation, reporting, logs, and contract
management
 Requires z/OS in 64-bit mode on z/Series
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
server
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
Freeway - 5
Linux World in New York, February 1, 2001:
VM's and Linux/390's own Jim Elliott walked up to
the podium at the VIP reception to accept an award
on IBM's behalf. It seems the IBM zSeries model
z900 won the "Best Hardware" category - not bad
for a dead dinosaur platform, eh?
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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0010 Why UNIX on S/390,
z900, z/VM, VIF, and z/OS
“z” is for “zero downtime”
“Reliability, Availability,
Serviceability (RAS)” was invented
here
“WebServer” “Commercial”
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Why UNIX on S/390 z900 - 2
“SUN UE10000 (Sun Cap) is about
where 3084 was in 1984 for RAS”
“Major online systems suffer 11
hours downtime due to back-end
storage failure.”
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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z/800: Baby “z”
“I-series” 1-15
“z-series” 20-hundreds
“z/VM virtualization technology”
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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IBM’s strategy for Linux
Application development on a
widely available, volume platform.
Use of the volume platform for
initial deployment with minimal
barriers, and
Minimal barriers for scale from low
to high (IBM S/390 Bulletin 28, August 2000, page 16-18)
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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0011 Will the Real Unix Stand Up
UNIX is really hundreds of variants
UNIX 95/98, etc is a collection of
subsystem calls that must be honored
to be “UNIX” all of them have these
 SUN (SOLARIS), IBM (AIX), HP (HP/UX)
have these and lots more but cost
money
 Linux has all of them, but is “free”

Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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0100 Linux? What Linux?
This is the real Linux -- the one
written by Linus Torvalds. “Bigfoot”
Same as the one you download
from Redbrick.com
gnu toolkit was used to write
microcode for s/390
“less than 1% of Linux is modified”
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Linux -2
Linux meets IBM’s objective of
selling RAS hardware for UNIX: z/900
Linux is just like what you can
download to your PC -- a real
primitive operating system.
Linux on z/900 gives IBM customer
true choice.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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S/390 Linux Benefits
Based on z/Architecture which
allows unlimited addressing
zSeries servers automatically direct
resources to priority work through
Intelligent Resource Director (IRD)
Workload Manager
 Logical Partitioning
 Parallel Sysplex clustering technology

Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Results:



Numerous operating systems images managed
as a single dynamic workload
dynamic CPU weight (only--Linux does not
have a “vary CPU offline”, no dynamic channel
paths, channel control paths
HiperSockets (four, VM allows sharing) let
TCP/IP traffic travel between partitions at
memory speed (Gigabyte) rather than network
speed: one gigabit per second per pipe (of 24)
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Results:
Virtual Internet Protocol Addressing
(VIPA) provides transparent failover
from device, interface or network
failures
 Channel Subsystem Priority Queuing
and Dynamic Channel Path
Management are part of normal S/390 or
z/900 implementation.

Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Linux Scalability
Naspa Article: November 2000; Page 24:
Adam Thornton on David Boyes





Two G5 Class S/390 Processors
EMC disk unit
250 to 10,000 users
41,400 servers: did not crash, just ran out of VM
resources
VM design goals: 100,000 simultaneous virtual
machines
Update: almost reached 100,000 servers!
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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0101 USS: Introduction
Integral part of OS/390 since 1994
Known by Different names:
OpenEdition
 OpenMVS
 OMVS
 OS/390 UNIX

Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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USS: Integral to Operating
System
Unix Systems Services (USS) is an
integral part of the OS/390 operating
system and provides UNIX services to
OS/390 applications and users
USS provides access to either UNIX files
or regular “MVS” files or both from the
same program.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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USS: Always There
USS will always be a part of z/OS
USS will continue to be used for
primary z/OS components that need
USS:
TCP/IP, Websphere Commerce Suite, Domino,
Webserver, Java, etc.
 Most improvements of USS by IBM will most
likely be targeted for these
products/components
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson

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View of USS Interface
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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What’s Running on USS?
TCP/IP
WebSphere
Lotus Domino- Go Server & Lotus
Notes
ERP programs- Baan, SAP
PeopleSoft
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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0110 Which Unix to Pick to
run application code
Data centers already have USS
running when they bring up OS/390
or z/OS 1.1. Everybody has USS.
If data centers want to run Linux,
they must plan for, and dedicate
resources to Linux.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Pick Linux
If you need ANSI Standard C++ with
standard template libraries (STL)
If you want all of the gnu tools and
anything else you can get downloaded
and fixed up on your own
You want porting speed and cost: You
must recompile your application. It is an
ASCII environment after all.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Pick Linux - 2
You want complete ASCII support
including multiple byte character set
(MBCS). (i.e., If you are in or like
Pacific rim companies who will be
early adopters -- 64-bit is ideal for
languages such as kanji).
You want horizontal scalability
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Pick Linux -3
Key middleware deployment






WebSphere Application Server - Advanced Edition
Java connectors to - DB2, IMS, CICS, MQSeries
DB2 UDB, workstation DB2, not Sysplex capable, IBM DB2
connect???
MYSAP.com: application on UNIX; DB2 on z/OS; HiperSockets
Tivoli
If you want Hardware benefits
Isolation, integrity, unique, scalable, deployment environment
If you want No OS/390 baggage:
No Security, integrity, recovery, transactional infrastructure
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Pick USS for data access
Co-Locality of data: USS will be used where data
needs to be moved from UNIX to z/OS (it is just a
move command).
“70% of important data is on mainframe”?
Data was and is in EBCDIC. Conversion to/from
ASCII is most difficult (big endian, little endian).
If you want 2-phase commit via RRS (open
systems are 3-5 years late getting to this level

EJBs into CICS or IMS *and* DB2 ?
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Pick USS for Data Access - 2
Speed of Database Access

Hiper access, but DB2 multiple access
still beats all
If you want Speed of Database
access (I/O per second )
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Pick USS for Deployment and
Runtime Considerations
Quality of service, functional richness,
speed of implementation

All key considerations
Workload Manager (WLM) needed to
control service levels

Need thread level workload management ?
Parallel Sysplex and Coupling Facility for
extensibility
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Pick USS - for
Quality of Service
Security level specifications


If you like RACF ?
(although Linux can be made secure)
High availability features of z/OS
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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C2 Security: a wash
DOD “Orange Book”
www.radium.ncsc.mil/tpep/library/rainbow/5200.2
8.-std.html
Identification and Authentication (passwords) -use shadow passwords
access control use ACLs
Object Reuse (don’t use every anywhere)
Audit (logging: TCP/IP wrappers: turn on if
necessary)
www.linuxdoc.org Linux how to documents
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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What does Reliability and
uptime mean?
“Reliability and uptime are the principle
reasons why many CIOs are keeping their
big iron dinosaurs alive no matter how many
Unix and Windows NT mammals are
scurrying around underfoot.”
CIO article, November 15; Derek Slater
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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IBM and Telia, Scandinavia's largest
telecommunications and internet
service provider
http://www2.ibmlink.ibm.com/cgibin/master?xh=ZUi32YeF*ZE4KP1US
enG?N??&request=pressreleases&p
arms=P%5f2000120601&xhi=pressrel
eases%5e&xfr=N
(still works 11/28/2001! Not working
1/22, 2002)
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Ringing Bells at Telia.Net

TeliaNet
 S/390 G6 and Shark to run 1,500 virtual Linux
servers for customer web sites
 Displaces 70 Sun servers
 Telia is able to set up a Linux for zSeries server in
less than 5 minutes as opposed to 5 hours with Sun
 “Converting from G5 to z/900
Server farms
Linux for S/390 images
Consolidation
e-business
Single purpose
Internet-related
servers
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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VM/ESA or IBM
S/390 Virtual Image
Facility for Linux
Winnebago Industries
Consolidation
OS/390
OS/390
New function
and services
inter partition communication
Recreational Vehicle Manufacturer
 Replaced Microsoft Mail and Novell servers with Bynari
Insight Server
 Users can still use Microsoft Outlook e-mail client

Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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University of Warwick
"The new IBM S/390 system runs LINUX for S/390 giving
the capability for hundreds of Linux images for student
and academic use. S/390 will run the Open Source Linux
Operating System under the IBM VM/ESA Operating
System. The provision of Linux for S/390 is one of the
most significant developments in the fast-growing use of
the Linux operating system."
University Press Release Jan 2001
..also in Dublin City University
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Something Different - Dreamball
Vision
Start-up online game server company
Challenge
Provides services for virtual "Dream Soccer"
games
Scaling to 15,000 concurrent Soccer game by
year-end 2001
Solution
IBM ^ z900
15 partitions of Linux: for games, relays, web
servers, and date updates
Value
Optimise the network by adopting a mainframeclass engine server
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Korean Airlines: Flight
Scheduling
http://www.zdnet.com/eweek/stories
/general/0,11011,2787187,00.html
July 16, 2001
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Downsizing is now TO the
mainframe:
1/20th of the floor space,
1/25th of the energy
 Best price for a volume-Linux Server “<$500>
Highest average resource utilization 70% vs 15%
(13%)
100x Mean time between failure (“37 years”)
1/4 network equipment costs.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Pick USS - Quality of Service - 2
High Availability
portability
Websphere and Java
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Pick USS - for Application
Software
Prepackaged software
Skill availability
Tape and offline storage
Shared DASD
hardware sharing
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Pick USS - Operations
Accounting
USS has access to SMF (OEM software
gives full accounting possibilities
 Linux gives minimal possibilities via
IOSTAT, VMSTAT, and SAR commands
and write-your-own and OEM programs.

Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Pick USS - Device
Connectivity
USS has all of OS/390 and z/OS connectivity.
Linux must have drivers “written” for them
DASD: CKD and FBA is fine
TAPE: all fine with USS; Linux is under
development
PRINT: JES wins; although Samba print solutions
for Windows-style printing under Linux.
CTCA: underdevelopment
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Pick USS for Human
Resource reasons
A young person can be “taught”
mainframe if it is “UNIX”
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
55
0111 Should You Run Linux
on VM or VIF?
Linux runs on
metal (dedicated machines)
 LPARs
 VIF (hidden machines)
 as a Virtual Machine under VM
 Even under MVS (SHARE presentation
at SHARE 95, session 5511)

Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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VIF
VIF is subset of VM
VIF machines are all peers



no controls over which Linux system has
control
no system backups
no systems monitors
Requires dedicated CPUs--no sharing
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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VIF - 2
very easy to clone machines (no systems
programmer required)
Runs in Integrated Control Facility (ICF)
Runs on “hidden CPU’s” and is charged
for usage only -- the CPUs are not part of
other software billings.
How long will this continue? Gone.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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VM
Requires VM systems programmer
resource -- very valuable
Much more flexible
“must fix 100 hz timer pop” else 56% of G5 or G6
96,000 under test load (David Boyes
latest “plan c”
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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VM: Sine Nome Associates
Dr. David Boyes
Task: for phone company: build
customer server
Old way: 3 machines each
customer; 18.7 miles of Ethernet; $65
million; 7 days
Linux on mainframe: 30 minutes;
10%
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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1000 Application Conversion
Considerations
Linux may be much faster to port
applications (maybe just a compile) -weeks to days
Linux will be much quicker to get to
64-bit addressibility (immediately) vs
2002 (?) for USS
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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WIN/NT Replacement
Run NT applications on Linux
WinStar programs run under Linux
and almost emulate Windows
environments?
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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1001 Monitoring UNIX on the
Mainframe
UNIX on the mainframe will need
monitors that understand things not
seen by standard monitoring
techniques. There are ASIDs and
Tasks, but you will need to see
processes, threads, HFS, etc.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Monitoring Linux
BMC: “ Linux for S/390 Management”




5 Feb 2002: Patrol agent, Control M (scheduling)
“Patrol agent and Linux Knowledge module” (KM on the
Linux for S/390 platform
It requires Mainview
The problem is that Patrol can only gather information
that Linux provides and that is very little.
IOSTAT, VMSTAT, etc: lots of freeware
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Monitoring USS
Candle
BMC
Landmark
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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3 Levels of USS Pain
Not running any applications

May be unfamiliar with USS and
resources it is consuming- In the dark
Future plans to install applications

Discomfort becoming real - Dawn
Currently running applications

Performance at risk- Wake up!
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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1010 Q&A
CMG has a tradition of holding “Birds-of-a-feather (BOF)”
sessions at the end of the day where attendees can discuss
current topics in an ad hoc manner. Since I expected some
discussion to continue, I scheduled a BOF session. Sure
enough, 40 people showed up!
Six installations had Linux running (maybe some were
duplicates)
The following were questions (and answers) as noted.
Many of the comments were worked into the notes above.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
67
Q&A
What about Shared DASD under
Linux?


There we go again. -- probably not in near
future.
Linux needs to have device drivers written for
it. It may never have shared DASD unless it is
implemented by Storage Area Network (SAN)
architecture.
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
68
How in the dark are you?
Do you have a good understanding
of what’s going on in your USS/Open
Edition environment?
What applications are you running
on USS/Open Edition?
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
69
How in the dark are you?
Have you been seeing more and
more USS activities showing up on
your MVS monitor?
Do you know if USS is using 5, 10 or
50% of your MVS resources?
Can you tell which tasks are using,
or maybe abusing, your USS
resources?
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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How are you with UNIX?
Are you comfortable with USS file
structures and Unix commands?
How critical to your business will
the applications running on USS be?
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Wake up!
How did the installation of the USS
application you are running go?
Have you had any jobs get hung up
that you needed to kill?
Do you think that your thresholds
are set properly at this point?
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
72
Bibliography
Books
 Unix as a Second Language (Bob Johnson - self
published)
Articles
 “Linux on S/390 or z/Series: Getting Started” Lionel B.
Dyck; NASPA September 2001 pp36-41
SHARE:
 Linux Security: Session 1745, SHARE 97, July 26, 2001,
Minn, MN Mike Kearney, Washington Systems Center,
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
73
References
The Linux/390 list:
 [email protected]
The Linux/390 Community website:
 WWW.LinuxVM.Org
IBM’s Linux/390 website: “Free z”
 WWW.IBM.Com/servers/eserver/zseries/os/linux/
 get yourself a free Lunux machine!
Jim Elliott: www.vm.ibm.com/devpages/jelliott/linux.html
Who’s using Linux?
 http://LinuxToday.Com/news_story.php3?ltsn=2000-0915-001-06-NW-BZ-LF
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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White Papers
http://www1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/lib
rary/whitepapers/pdf/gf225175.pdf
Linux for 390 redbook
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstra
cts/sg244987.html
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Web sites
Http://linux390.marist.edu -http://www.opensource.org/index.ht
ml
http://www.ibm.com/s390/linux
[email protected] -mailing list
www.linux.org LINUX home page
Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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IBM References
SG24-5952: Redbook: z/OS
Intelligent Resource Director
www.redbooks.ibm.com, look under
redbooks online
 search button for “Intelligent”

Copyright 2002, Robert H (Bob) Johnson
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Linux and OS/390 USS: Where, When, Why?