+
Trustee Governance:
Beyond the Basics
IE & VAIS Head of School/Board Chair Program
September 27, 2011
+
Trustee Governance: Beyond the
Basics
 GOOD
GOVERNANCE IN CHALLENGING
TIMES
 Or WHY
GENERATIVE THINKING, AND
NOT JUST STRATEGIC PLANNING IS
NEEDED IN INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS
+
Structure For The Morning

Part I – Challenges for Independent Schools – Why
Leadership is Needed.

Part II – NAIS Boards. How Are They Organized?

Part III – Proposal for Governance as Partnership: A New
Model.

Part IV – Three Levels of Governance
 Fiduciary
 Strategic
 Generative
 LUNCH
+
Developing the Board
(Board Member, May 2004, Chait et al.)
The SAT Analogy:
Our board is to our school
as
is to
.
+
Universities Seeking Out Students
of Means (NYT, 9.20.11)
“Money is talking a bit louder in college
admission these days, according to a survey
released by Inside Higher Ed . . . More than a
quarter of the admission directors said they
had felt pressure from senior-level
administrators to admit certain applicants,
and almost a quarter got pressure from
trustees or development officers.”
+
NAIS ANNUAL CONFERENCE
FEBRUARY 23-25, 2011
 5 TRACKS. OVER
140 ONE-HOUR WORKSHOPS
 COMMUNICATIONS & ADVANCEMENT
 GOVERNANCE
 LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
 MANAGEMENT
 THE CLASSROOM EXPERIENCE
JEC – Each track has important BOT education.
+
Implications for Board-Head Work
(Chait, CHE, 1.9.11)
 “The
reality is, when the president mismanages,
the board fires the president. When the board
mismanages, the board fires the president.”
+
Competition for Independent
Schools (Nat’l Center for Ed. Statistics, 2010)

Between 1999-2009, charter schools quadrupled. Grew from
1297 to 5043 schools.

Served 1.5 million children in 2009.

2400 magnet schools serving 1.2 million students (20072008).

3300 additional schools with magnet programs enrolling 3.1
million students (2007-2008).

200,000 virtual charter schools in 27 states (WSJ, 7.18.11)
+
Homeschooling More Popular
(Nat’l Center for Ed. Statistics, 2008)
 1999
– 850,000 students homeschooled.
 2007
– 1.5 million students (76% increase)
 2008-2009
- between 1.9 and 2.5 million children
home-educated, with an annual growth between 5
and 12% over the last few years (Nat’l Home
Education Research Institute, 2009)
+
On Line Schooling Grows
(Picciano & Seamon, 2009)
 2007-2008
– More than 1 million K-12 students
enrolled in on-line courses. 47% increase ‘05-’06.
 APEX
Learning. 8400 students in AP courses
(2004). 30,200 in AP courses in ’07.
 “The
data suggest by 2019, 50% of high school
courses will be delivered online. Within a few
years, after a long period of incubation, the world
is likely to begin flipping rapidly to student-centric
technology.” (Christensen, 2008).
+
For AP Students, a New Classroom
Is Online (WSJ, 4.20.11)

A record 1.99 million high school students are expected to
take AP exams in 2011. Up from 600,000 in 2000.

90% of US colleges and universities offer some form of
college credit.

.5% of AP classes taken online.

“The College Board says there isn’t any significant difference
in average test scores between students from traditional
versus online classrooms.”

JEC Question – Why pay IS tuitions? Go to a good charter
school and take APs online!
+
Math Instruction Goes Viral (BG,
8.12.11)

Web-based Khan Academy’s free instructional videos are
viewed by 14 million people annually and have been
translated into 7 languages (www.khanacademy.org).

2400 videos on specific concepts at many levels of math from
arithmetic to calculus and beyond.

Students learn math at their own pace while watching at
home. Then come to school for individual work with teachers.
On screen dashboard tells teachers who needs help and who
can move on.

Bill Gates invests $1.5 million. Google Foundation gives $2m.
+
Growing Presence of Internet
(Pew Research Center Survey 2009)

“More than 90% of children ages 12-17 use the Internet and
nearly three-quarters of them are on social networking web
sites”

Boys 91%; Girls 94%

White 87%; Black 87%; Hispanic 95%

$30,000 - $49,999 = 88%; $50,000 - $74,999 = 96%; $75,000+
= 97%
+
Students Find Ways to Thwart
Facebook Bans (NYT, 9.2.11)

“When Tom McKay realized his son had figured out how to
get on the social networking site even though his New Jersey
middle school had blocked it, he asked the boy in
astonishment how he had done it?”

‘Pretty easy, Dad,’ his son retorted. ‘Don’t be an idiot. We
know more about computers than the teachers do.’

How To Get Their Attention?
+
Could Those Hours Online Be
Making Kids Nicer? (WSJ, 8.16.11)

Digital communication can lead to more or better friendships
online and off, greater honesty, faster intimacy and an
increased sense of belonging.

People use digital communication to interact with people
they are closest to offline, not with strangers.

More time college students spent on Facebook, more
empathy they expressed online and in real life (APA, 2011).

40% of teenagers reported bullying in person. Fewer than
20% said bullying occurred online, by phone or by texting.
+ Online Public University Plans to Turn Indiana’s
Dropouts into Graduates (CHE, 3.18.11)

“Last summer the state of Indiana opened its eighth public
university without constructing a student union, a dormitory,
or a single academic building. Western Governors
University Indiana, doesn’t even have traditional courses. But
the University has nearly 1,200 students and will hold its
second graduation in August.” (CHE, 3.18.11)
+
UNC Makes Risky Online Bet
(WSJ, 7.07.11)

“The University of North Carolina’s Business School is taking
its brand online. The business school this Monday launched
an online M.B.A. with 19 students dubbed [email protected] . . It is
the first online program of its kind from a top-20 U.S. business
school. . . UNC school officials believe that in 20 years most
business schools will want to get into this space. . . And see
an opportunity to give the school the global reach viewed as
critical in today’s environment.”

Admission standards just as high as on-campus MBA

[email protected] tuition = $89,000 over two years. Non-resident
traditional tuition = $98,000. Resident tuition = $52,000.
+ Howard Goes Online With Executive MBA
(WSJ, 7.07.11)

“Washington, D.C.-based Howard University’s School of
Business is introducing an online-only, 18 month Executive
MBA program set to begin in January. . . The online program
will offer courses with an eye toward global business trends,
including executive roundtable forums and the option to visit
international markets such as China and South Africa.”
+
A College Education for All, Free
and Online (CHE, 7.15.11)

University of the People (UoPeople) – enrolled 1,000 students
in 115 countries.

Students must have a high-school diploma & proficient in
English. Application fees between $10.00-$15.00.

Uses free, open-access resources for 2 courses of study,
business administration and computer science.

“In June, New York University announced that it would
consider applications from students who complete a year at
UoPeople.”
+
More Pupils Learning Online, Fueling
Debate on Quality (NYT, 4.05.11)

“Critics say online education goal - spend less on teachers
and buildings.

Department of Education 2009 – benefits for college students
online. Few rigorous studies at K-12 level. “. . . Lack scientific
evidence of effectiveness of online classes.”

Memphis City Schools require all students to take an online
course to graduate. Prepare students for college online
courses.

Virtual High School Global Consortium has 770 client
schools, up 34% in 2 years.
+
Virtual and Artificial, but 58,000
Want Course (NYT, 8.15.11)

Stanford University – free online course on AI

58,000 signed up. 4X size of Stanford student body

Taught by 2 of the world’s best-known AI experts (Norvig &
Thrun)

Inspired by work of Khan Academy

Use both streaming Internet video and interactive
technologies for quizzes and grading
+
Stanford Course on AI (NYT, 8.15.11)

“I personally would like to see the equivalent of a Stanford
computer science degree on the Web.”

“I’m much more interested in bringing Stanford to the world.
I see the developing world having colossal educational
needs.” Dr. Sebastian Thrun – co-instructor of AI course.
+
Professors Cede Grading Power to
Outsiders & Computers (CHE, 8.12.11)

Eliminate grade inflation by taking professors out of the
process.

Hire professional evaluators who do not know students. No
temptation to skew results.

U. of Central Florida – outsourcing the scoring of some essay
tests to computers. Software grades essays without emotional
biases.
+
In Case You Wondered, a Real
Human Wrote This (NYT, 9.10.11)

“Wisconsin appears to be in the driver’s seat en route to a
win, as it leads 51-10 after the third quarter. “

Written by a computer.

Narrative Science Co – start-up in Evanston, IL using the
ability of computers to mimic human reasoning with AI.
+
Don’t Despair, Montessori to the
Rescue (B.Globe, 8.26.11)

Montessori Alumni
 Wikipedia
founder – Jimmy Wales
 Amazon.com – Jeff Bezos
 SimCity – Will Wright
 Google – Larry Page & Sergey Brin
“Brain research shows that all the characteristics
Internet entrepreneurs value – divergent and
innovative thinking, intellectual self reliance . . .
are the primary focus of Montessori classroom.
Mistakes are opportunities to learn.”
+
Online Enterprises Gain Foothold as
Path to College Degree (NYT, 8.25.11)

“Given the exploding technologies, cuts to university
budgets, and the expanding pool of people expected to earn
postsecondary degrees, there is no end in sight for programs
preparing students for careers in high-demand areas like
business, computer science, health care and criminal
justice.”

Caution: Teachers College study. Tracks 51,000 community
college students in Washington State for 5 years.
 Those with most online course credits least likely to
graduate or transfer to a four-year institution.
+
10 Year NAIS Enrollment Data
(StatsOnline, 2010)
 In
2000, 60% of NAIS schools increase; 40% lost.
 In
2010, only 40%increase; 60% lost enrollment
 In
2009, the median NAIS school lost 4%
enrollment.
 NAIS
schools increase spending on FA by 17.4% in
2009-2010. Access vs. Affordability
 Last
7 Years, FA recipients: 20.6% to 23.7%
+
NAIS Need-Based Grants (NAIS
Trendbook, 2011-2012)
08-09
Av.Grant
09-10
10-11
$12,882$12,801$12,292
% of Students 18.7
21
# of Students
105,761125,115
98,360
24
The decline in the average need-based grant while tuition
growth remains positive suggests that high-need packages
are being sacrificed for lower-need packages. The increase
in the number of students aided and in the percentage of
students aided suggest that the prevalence of full-paying
families is shrinking. More aid to needier students is down?
+
ENROLLMENT DATA FOR AISGW
(from Independent Education, 2011)

AISGW ENROLLMENT HISTORY

Year
# Schools
Total Enrollment

1995
80
27,701

2000
81
32,505

2005
85
34,606

2010
83
32,818
+
Enrollment Data for VAIS
(from VAIS, 2011)

VAIS History

Year
# Schools
Total Enrollment

1995
67
24,744

2000
72
29,183

2005
85
29,527

2010
87
30,619
+
Economy Challenges Schools
(Taylor, Pew Research Center, 2010)
 Net
worth/household peaked in 2006; dropped by
24% in 2008 as a result of falling stock and home
prices.
 Median
 Median
wealth of upper income households <12%.
wealth of middle income, dependent on
home equity <23%.
+
Economic Impact on NAIS Schools

1990 – median tuition at day schools = 22% of median
income of a family with children

2005 – median tuition at day schools = 32% of median
income of a family

2009 – median tuition at day schools = 38% of median
income
(NAIS Core Sample Tuition Statistics, 1990-2011; U.S. Census
Bureau, from NAIS Trendbook 2011-2012)
+
Impact of Recession on FA
(NAIS Trendbook, 2001-2011)
 Fastest
growing segment of SSS families earn
>$150,000.
 ’03 = 6.4% of filers; ‘09 = 17.3% of filers.
 Middle income families ($60,000 - $80,000)
dropped to 14.1% Filers (‘09) from 17.2% (‘03)
 Lowest income families (<$40,000) dropped from
28.9% (‘03) to 21.3% (‘09).
+
Distribution of Income Among FA
Applicants (NAIS Trendbook 2011-2012)

FAMILY INCOME RANGE
%OF FA APPLICANTS

$0-$26,934
9.6

$26,935-$47,914
13.8

$47,915-$73,338
18.0

$73,339-$112,540
23.5

Over $112,540
35.1

Top 5% of income earning families ($200,000+) represent
nearly 10% of financial aid filers (May, 2011).
+ BOT Challenges Are Here

Admission – More Competition.

Financial Aid – Accessibility versus Affordability. “Even
Wealthy Suburb Faces Pressure to Curb School Taxes,” (NYT,
3.09.11)

Curriculum & Standards: Bipartisan Group Backs Common
School Curriculum. (NYT, 3.7.11). Westminster College, UT

Recruiting, Retaining, Evaluating “High Quality” Teachers.
Teach for America versus Graduates of Colleges of
Education! Florida Teacher Pay>Performance (NYT, 3.09011)

How “Green” and “Global Are You?
+ Parents and BOT Challenges

“In our private school survey, about 40% of the students
identified getting into a ‘good college’ as more important
than being a ‘good person,’ and nearly 50% said it was more
important to their parents that they get into a good college
than that they be good people.”
Weissbourd, Richard. The Parents We Mean To Be: How WellIntentioned Adults Undermine Children’s Moral and Emotional
Development, 2010.
The pressure to do well is up, the demand to do good is down,
NYT, 11.27.2005
+
Push for A’s at Private Schools Keeping
Costly Tutors Busy (NYT, 6.07.11)

Private SAT tutors have been de rigueur at elite New York
private schools for a generation, but the proliferation of
subject-matter tutors for students angling for A’s is a newer
phenomenon that is beginning to incite a backlash.
Interviews . . . suggest that more than half of the students at
the city’s top-tier schools hire tutors, an open secret that the
schools seem unable to stop. . . . What is troubling to those
trying to curtail academic tutoring is that instead of remedial
help for struggling students, more and more of it seems to be
for those trying to get ahead in the intensely competitive
college-application race.
+ ‘Tiger Mother’ Roars: Daughter in at Harvard, Yale.
(Bloomberg News Service, 4.2.11)

The daughter of Amy Chua, author of Battle Hymn of the Tiger
Mother has been accepted to Harvard University and Yale
University. “I don’t know if this had anything to do with my
parenting method,” Chua said. “Sophia did it 100% herself.”
+ Manhattan Mom Sues $19K/Yr. Preschool for
Damaging 4-year-old. NYDaily News, 3.14.11

“A Manhattan mom is suing a pricey preschool for dumping
her ‘very smart’ 4 year old with tykes half her age and boring
her with lessons about shapes and colors. In court papers
filed today the suit suggests XXXXX Preschool jeopardized
little XXXXX’s chances of getting into an elite private school
or, one day, the Ivy League. . . At the school’s campus, where
many kids were being picked up by nannies pushing luxury
strollers, parents were wary of speaking with a reporter
yesterday, saying it could endanger their kids’ slots.”
+
AP Credits May Lead to UNC
Masters (Charlotte Observer, 4.02.11)

“For those students with the drive and ability, leaving in four
years with a master’s is a better bargain than with a
bachelor’s.” (UNC Academic Planning Committee)

“We have really talented students . . . and the prospect of
doing more than one thing in four years will appeal to some
students.” (UNC Chancellor’s Office)

“If advertised correctly, it could be a valuable recruiting tool.
They should market it down to the ninth and 10th grades.”
(American Association of State Colleges and Universities)
+
Putting Parents in Charge (NYT,
9.17.11)

Parent Trigger legislation
 CA, TX, MS. Proposed in 20 states including NY
 In failing schools, 51% parents can demand
administrative change or charter school creation.
 Research? Center for Reinventing Public Education at
U. of Washington.
 Studied school choice in Hartford.
 Schools with highest level of parent satisfaction were
often ones with lowest academic achievement.
 Parents don’t know when their choices are bad.
 Implications for IS?
+
Headmaster Fantasy of the Ideal Parent
"I just wanted to stop by to thank you for the job you've done with our
child. We know he's just slightly below average in intelligence, as we
are, so the fact that he's learned anything here is amazing to us.”
“We’re thrilled that his class includes that one disruptive kid and that his
teacher has strong opinions on matters we disagree with.”
“We applaud that decision you made, in the name of diversity, to change
the 35 year old traditional Christmas pageant to a winter festival.”
“By the way, don't you think we should have one or two more annual
fundraisers so that we can supplement that12% increase in tuition with
some real money?"
(from Bassett, NAIS)
+
A Non-Profit Board is Comprised
of an Incompetent Group
of Competent People

Invited to Join Board – Good at Something Else.

We Must be Taught How to Play This Game.

Preferably Instruction Begins Before We Are Sent to the
Playing Field!
+
A Governance Model With Different
Assumptions
 “Trustees
and staff who regard governing as little
more than bright people using common sense and
doing what comes naturally probably read no
further than this Preface.” (Chait, Ryan & Taylor,
Governance As Leadership: Reframing the Work of
Nonprofit Boards, 2005).
+
Composition of NAIS Boards
(The State of Independent School Governance, NAIS, 2006)



AVERAGE BOARD = 22
MEMBERS
40% HAVE LIFETIME
TRUSTEES.
75% OF LIEFETIME TRUSTEES
DO NOT VOTE

60% MALE

88% CAUCASIAN
88% 36-55 YEARS OLD

28% OVER 55

50% CURRENT PARENTS

20% ARE ALUMS

20% PARENTS OF ALUMS
+
CURRENT PARENTS ON BOARDS

“Parents bring a deep personal interest in the school.
However, they can be focused on the present, generalize
from their children’s experiences, and become more
involved in operational matters. NAIS recommends 50% or
less being current parents. Such boards, experience shows,
have all the zeal of parent-driven boards, but less
preoccupation with the present and more future-focused,
strategic orientation.” (DeKuyper, NAIS Trustee Handbook,
2003).
+
Business Not Best Preparation for
BOT
 In
a 2006 survey of 1,500 trustees at 1,000
colleges, “trustees working in the corporate
sphere reported lower levels of preparedness
than those working in education.” Effective
boards need both business people and
educators.

Best preparation – having served on another
non-profit board. (Chronicle, 4/29/10).
+
NAIS Board Committees
(The State of Independent School Governance, NAIS, 2006)

98% Finance Committee

94% Development

89% Executive

88%% Governance

83% Building & Grounds

40% Education
+
NAIS BOT Terms
(The State of Independent School Governance, NAIS, 2006)

81% three-year terms. 83% are renewable

33% Chair for 1 Year

33% Chair for 2 Years

33% Chair for 3 Years

Most Board Chair terms are renewable

58% of trustees served 6 years or more.
+
Written Job Description & Clarity
 “Prospective
board members should receive a
written explanation of the board member’s
roles and responsibilities along with a board
member’s job description. This information
will help prevent misunderstandings, and
provide a basis for the board’s assessment of its
performance.” (Lakey, Nonprofit Governance:
Steering Your Organization with Authority and
Accountability, 2002).
+
Perception of Roles – Caution
(The State of Independent School Governance, NAIS, 2006)
 99%
oversight body assuring accountability of
the organization
 98%group
to give support to the chief executive
 94%
fundraising
 82%
community ambassador for school
 CAUTION
you serve!
52% group representative of those
+
GOVERNANCE THROUGH
PARTNERSHIP
 An
Issue That is Big, Tough & Fuzzy
 Board
As Monitor to Board As Partner
 Boards
and Heads Honor Each Other’s
Roles
 Boundaries
 Some
 It’s
Are Blurred
Decisions Are Shared
Doubles Tennis – If Either Gets
Territorial, Both Will Lose
+
Trustees Acting Independently
 “Difficulties
ensue not because trustees think
independently, a quality of effective boards, but
because trustees proceed independently, based
on a self-declared role and self-determined scope
of authority.” (Chait, CHE, 2.17.06)
+
Problem Solving via Strategic
Governance
Needed: Three Levels of Trusteeship

Level I: Fiduciary (auditing function of
oversight and assessment of mission &
finance)

Level II: Strategic (leadership function:
“less management/more governance” via
scanning and planning)

Level III: Generative (visionary function of
shared leadership, R&D orientation for
imagining and experimenting).
(Bassett, NAIS)
+
Chait’s Traditional Type I Board
 Ensure
organization’s assets are conserved and
optimized. Oversight of budgets, audits, finances.
 Ensure
resources are used effectively in service of
the mission. Ask not just whether but also how
effectively used – performance measurement.
 Promote
lawful and ethical behavior. Ensure
compliance with standards of safety, legality.
+
Traditional Fiduciary Oversight

“. . . having a budget on the table can seduce otherwise large
minded people to become trivial.”

Source - J. Carver, “Redefining the Board’s Role in Fiscal
Planning.” Nonprofit Management and Leadership, Winter,
1991
+ Fiduciary Oversight
to Fiduciary Inquiry.
Extract Leadership Value (Chait, 2005)

Did we get a clean audit?

What did we learn from audit?

Is the budget balanced?

Does budget reflect priorities?

Increase budgets by 2-3%?

Move $$ from other programs?

How much $$ do we need to
raise?

What’s the case for raising the
money?

Can we secure the gift?

How will gift advance mission?

Is faculty/staff turnover
reasonable?

Do we treat faculty/staff fairly?
+
Extracting Leadership – The B&G
Committee Agenda
 Approve
contract to repair a roof. Endorse bidding
process for parking lot pavement.
 Instead: What’s
 What’s
 Have
the deferred maintenance policy?
our policy on underfunded depreciation?
we consensus on questions of
intergenerational equity – trade-off between
funding today’s needs and tomorrow’s. Science lab
contribution from parents of seniors & juniors?
+
Problems with Type I Board
(Chait, 2005)
 Urgent
drives out the important
 Stress
on efficiency replaces quest for
effectiveness
 Board
adds value to the technical core, not core
purpose of organization
 Board
work predictable and perfunctory. Board
members spectators
 Routine
prevents larger views of governance
+
When Boards Act In Strategic
Mode – Level II

Establish School’s Mission

Create Strategic Planning Process:

Review The Mission

Assess Current Goals/Status of Programs

Plan Appropriate Changes in Programs

Create Targets/Instruments to Measure Changes

Implement The Plan

PLAN, IMPLEMENT, ASSESS, ADJUST, PLAN AGAIN!
+
RULE BREAKERS, NOT RULE
TAKERS (Hamel & Prahalad, 1997)
 “Strategic
planning seldom provides any insights
into how to rewrite industry rules. It seldom
stretches to encompass the threat from
nontraditional competition. It seldom forces
managers to confront their potentially out of date
conventions. It always starts with ‘what is.’ It
seldom starts with ‘what could be.’
+
Bottleneck at the Top
(Hamel, Harvard Business Review, July 1996)
 “Senior
executives are the least likely to imagine
or advocate dramatic organizational changes
because they have the largest investment in the
past, and the greatest reverence for industrial
dogma. The capacity for strategic innovation
increases proportionally with each mile you move
away from headquarters.” (JEC BOT meetings?)
 JEC
– what do the young faculty have to say?
 JEC
– U of Phoenix. Largest univ. in world (250,000)
+
Governing Boards Should Look
Beyond Alums (CHE, 4.29.10)
 False
assumption alums better prepared to serve.
Better prepared to serve than peers in one
category: campus politics.
 “Alumni
trustees often suffer from blind loyalty.
They tend to live in the past. Seek out a diverse set
of trustees. Bring some fresh air into the
deliberations.” (Bornstein, CHE, 4.29.10)
 JEC
– Which cohort is the equivalent of alumni
trustees, serving as ‘bottlenecks’ in innovation?
+
CHALLENGES TO TRADITIONAL
MODELS – LEVELS I & II

Trustees Want to Make a Difference

Reacting to Staff Reports Not Engaging

Monitoring and Oversight Tasks = The Substitute Teacher’s
Responsibility:

Maintain Order

Meet Minimum Standards

Don’t Teach Anything New
+
Reasons Boards Manage (Govern
More, Manage Less. Trower, 2010)

Legal requirements dictate Board manage (e.g., leases,
contracts, easements, acceptance of gifts).

Operational responsibilities may lead the Board to some
areas of management (e.g., raise money, recruit and evaluate
Head).

Lack of staff may require Board to take on management
functions.

Board loses confidence in Head.

Board structured along management lines (what are the
strategic imperatives?)
+
Reasons Boards Manage (Govern
More, Manage Less. Trower, 2010)

The Board meets too often

Governance is not their day job, but management is (want to
call the shots and make the decisions).

Board members recruited for their business skills
(communications or legal…is this pro bono staff role?).

Board members relish the sense of accomplishment that
comes with management (step in to solve crisis -hard to
withdraw! Strategy and policy debates not as fulfilling and
more obtuse))
+
CHANGING MODELS OF
GOVERNANCE
Governance As Partnership
 Instead of asking, “What do you think of
management’s plan,” the board is asked, “What is
your thinking about the organization’s future?”
+
STRATEGIC THINKIING – LEVEL II
EXTRACTING LEADERSHIP VALUE
 How
far will we go in the athletic facilities arms
race? What might we do instead?
 What’s
the place of on-line learning in our school?
What does it say about our models of studentfaculty interactions? www.khanacademy.org
 What
steps can we take as a school to alter our
image as “elitist” and not accessible to all who
could benefit from an IS education?
+
PRIORITIES VERSUS
ORGANIZATION (CHAIT, 2005)
 BOARD
COMMITTEES
 FINANCE
 DEVELOPMENT
 EXECUTIVE
 GOVERNANCE
 B&G
 ADMISSION &
MARKETING
 WHICH
COMMITTEE
STUDIES:




CLIMATE OF DIVERSITY
IMPACT OF
TECHNOLOGY
FACULTY RETENTION
COMPETITIVE POSITION
+
GENERATIVE LANDMARKS
(CHAIT, 2005)

AMBIGUITY – could be multiple interpretations of what is
going on.

SALIENCY – the issue means a great deal to a great many
people.

STAKES – high because discussion could invoke questions of
core values.

STRIFE – prospects for confusion, conflict and desire for
consensus are high.

IRREVERSABILITY – decision cannot easily be reversed.
+
Triple-Helix Decisions
(ambiguity, saliency, stakes, strife, irreversibility)

At an independent high school, the stated problem was the
need to hire additional psychologists to meet increased
student demand for counseling. Board focused on budgetary
issues and counselor: student ratios at other schools. After
deliberation, staff and board constructed a new version of the
problem: whether the school could deliver an intense
intellectual experience that did not add to student stress.
Parental expectations, and to a lesser extent, overcrowded
facilities, and not more counselors, ultimately proved to be
the critical variable. (Chait, 2005)

WHAT ARE THE TYPE I, II, AND III LEVELS OF INQUIRY?
+
Developing the Board
(Board Member, May 2004, Chait et al.)
The SAT Analogy:
Our board is to our school
as
is to
.
+
Three Levels of Board Governance
(Adapted from Board Member, May 2004, Chait et al.)
Board as Control
Mechanism
Board as Direction Board as Meaning
Setter (Strategic,
Maker (Generative,
Dam : River
Compass : Navigation
Inspiration : Poet
Curbstone: Road
Headlights : Auto
Values : Choices
Border Collie : Herd
Guidance System :
Satellite
Designer : Work of Art
(Fiduciary, Oversight:
“Doing things right”)
Traffic Tower: Pilot
Governor: Engine
Landlord: Tenant
Anchor: Ship
Leadership: “Doing the Visionary: “Leaving a
right things”)
legacy”)
Periscope : Submarine
Flight Planner : Pilot
Rudder : Ship
Spirit : Higher Purpose
Lighthouse: Ship
+
Governance Dysfunction
“Our board is to our school as . . . “
 Loose
steering wheel is to auto
 Fingernail
 Hamster

is to blackboard
is to wheel
Source – Bill Ryan, AISNE Governance Workshop, 2007
+
Governance as Leadership
 “The
ultimate antidote to micromanagement is
macroengagement. If trustees join conversations
that concern governance, trustees will govern;
when exposed to matters of management, board
members will manage.”
(R. Chait, “How To Keep Trustees From Being
Micromanagers,” CHE, 5.06.05)
+
HAPPY GENERATIVE
GOVERNANCE
THANK YOU
THE END
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Good Governance in Challenging Times