Introduction to ICT and
Programming
Dr. Raihan Ur Rasool
BIT-9D
Credits: 3 - 1
Contacts
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Office:
Academic Block -II
Phone 051-9280439 Ext 129
Office Hours:
Monday 1000 – 1200 hrs
email:
[email protected]
Exceptional meeting:
Give me an email and get time.
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Course Outline
Part A
 Introduction to IT
 Computing & Communication
 Understanding Computer
 Peripheral Devices
 Connectivity, Interactivity & Multimedia
 Internet Access Devices and
connecting medias
 World Wide Web
 Browsers & Search Engines
 Web Page Basic Design
 Application Software
 Microsoft Office
 Operating Systems
 Hardware Technology
 System Unit
 Storage Devices
 Data Entry Devices
 Output Devices
 Telecommunications
 Basics of Digital &
Analogue Signal
 Digital Communication
 Networks & Protocols
 Databases
 Data Mining
 E-Commerce
 Security Issues
 Artificial Intelligence
 System Development
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Course Outline
Part B
(Major portion – expected start 10th week)
 Introduction to Programming
 Programming Languages
 Problems solving Techniques
 Basics of C++
 Control structures
 Functions
 Arrays & Strings
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Books
Text Books
Using Information Technology by Brian K. Williams
and Stacy C. Sawyer (6th Edition)
Object Oriented Programming in C ++ by Robert
Lafore (4th edition)
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Books
 Reference Books
(very important part)
Peter Norton’s Introduction to Computers 5th Edition
Computers by Larry Long, Nancy Long 6th Edition
Computer Fundamentals by P.K. Sinha
Concepts by Parson Oja
Introduction to computes and information systems by Robert
A., Donald P., Norma A., donna M. (2nd Edition)
C++ How To Program by Dietel & Dietel (3rd Edition)
C++ Web material
www.howstuffworks.com
www.whatis.com
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Evaluation
Quizzes
:
One Hour Tests :
Lab
:
Assignments
:
Project
:
Final Test
:
10 %
30 %
5%
5%
5%
45%
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Policies
Bring your own calculator, pen paper etc..
You will not be allowed to borrow anything
from anyone during any test
Must write your name and reference
number (Merit No or Regn No) in a test
No late work will be accepted (unless
arrangements have been made in
advance)
Ask questions; participate actively in class
You are allowed to talk to instructor only
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Policies
You are responsible for what is covered
in class – even if you don’t show up
Deficiency in attendance may lead to
termination or relegation
You are encouraged to help each other
with your homework assignments – but
you must turn in your own work
If you are found to be cheating, you will
fail at least the assignment / test and
perhaps the entire class
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Policies
If you have any learning disabilities or
special needs, please let me know in
advance through email or personal
meeting
Check your email regularly for messages
Quizzes are unannounced
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Computer Usage
 Operating Systems
Windows 98/2000/XP
Red Hat Linux
 Microsoft Office
MS Word 2000
MS Excel 2000
MS Power Point 2000
MS FrontPage 2000
 Programming IDE
VC++ 6.0
Developer C++
Turbo C++ 3.0
 Web Browsers
MS Internet Explorer 6.0
Netscape Communicator
Mozilla
 Email Editors
Outlook Express
 Utilities
Winzip 8.0
Winrar
DOS Utilities etc.
System Troubleshooting
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Using Information
Technology
Chapter 1
Introduction to Information Technology
Computer Technology
Computer  computes
 Programmable, multiuse machine that
accepts data and figures and processes
it into usable information.
Data & Instructions
Processing/
Computation
Information/Results
Storage
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Few Basics….
2/6
Computer
Hardware
CPU
Memory
Software
I/O
Etc.
Application
Software
System
Software
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Communications
the activity of communicating; the activity
of conveying information
An event that causes an action
Event is a signal
A signal is an intended message of communication
Action is a process in relation to the event
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Online
Availability for communication
You cannot be online if you have a
computer, modem but not a phone line
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Introduction to Information Technology
Mind Tools for Your Future
1.1 Infotech Becomes Commonplace: Cellphones, EMail, the Internet, & the E-World
1.2 The “All-Purpose Machine”: The Varieties of
Computers
1.3 Understanding Your Computer: What If You
Custom-Ordered Your Own PC?
1.4 Where is Information Technology Headed?
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Section 1.1 - InfoTech Becomes
Commonplace: Cell phones, E-Mail, the
Internet, & the E-World
InfoTech: InfoTech is the fusion of
computer technology and communication
technology. InfoTech is the merging of
computers with high-speed
communications links carrying data, sound,
and video.
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Communication Technology
Consists of electromagnetic devices and
systems for communicating over long
distances.
Electromagnetic:
Referring to the combined electric and magnetic
fields caused by electron motion through
conductors
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Online
Availability for communication
 Using a
computer or
other information
device,
connected
through a voice
or data network,
to access
information and
services from
another
computer or
Can you be online with a mobile phone?
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E-mail
(Electronic mail)
Messages transmitted over a computer
network

A great overview on how E-mail works
can be found at the following web site:

http://www.howstuffworks.com/email.htm
Do read it might be a quiz coming your way! 
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1.2 The “All-Purpose Machine”: The
Varieties of Computers
All Computers, Great & Small: The
Categories of Machines
1. Supercomputers
2. Mainframes
3. Workstations
4. Microcomputers
5. Microcontrollers
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Supercomputers
 High-capacity machines with hundreds of
thousands of processors that can perform over 1
trillion calculations per second. E.g IBM ASCI
White, Cray
 Used where High Performance computing is
required
 Usually used for weather forecasting, Missile
simulations, Nuclear Fusion simulations

IBM ASCI White
IBM ASCI White
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Mainframes
 Water- or air-cooled
computers that vary in size
from small, to medium, to
large, depending on their
use.
 E.g IBM AS/400
 Normally Dumb Terminals
are connected to these
main frames. Processing is
done by Main Frames
 Dumb terminals only have
keyboard, monitors
VP2400 mainframe
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Workstations
 Expensive, powerful
computers usually
used for complex
scientific,
mathematical, and
engineering
calculations and for
computer-aided
design and
computer-aided
manufacturing.
 e.g. Sun blade 2500
Sun Microsystems workstation
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Microcomputers
 A Desk Top Personal Computer
Your home computers… Celeron
Now Desktop and Workstations are combining. i.e
Your PC is also becoming powerful enough
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Microcomputers
 A Tower Case Personal Computer
Sony tower PC
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Microcomputers
 A Lap Top Personal Computer
 Lightweight portable computers with built-in
monitor, keyboard, hard-disk drive, battery and
AC adapter.
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Microcomputers
 A Personal Digital
Assistant
 Getting Very popular
 Personal organization
tools-schedule
planners, address
books, to-do lists, send
e-mail and faxes.
 New generation that
incorporates mobile
phone and
microcomputer.
 HP 5555
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Microcontrollers
 Embedded computers are the tiny, specialized
microprocessors installed in "smart" appliances
and automobiles.
Question: Difference b/w microcontrollers and microprocessors
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1.3 Understanding Your Computer
How Computers Work - Concept #1
The purpose of a computer is to process data into information
Data
 The raw facts and
figures that are
processed into
information
.
Information
 Data that has been
summarized or
otherwise
manipulated for use in
decision making
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How Computers Work - Concept #2
Computers consist of hardware and
software.
 Hardware
 All the machinery
and equipment in a
computer system
 Software
 All the instructions
that tell the computer
how to perform a task
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How Computers Work - Concept #2
Computers also consist of firmware and
liveware.
 Firmware
 Liveware
l Instructions or
programs that
reside inside
Integrated Circuits
(ICs)
 All the living things
aiding computer to
work. Data entry
operators,
programmers etc
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same five basic
operations.
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
Keyboard
4. Output
5. Communications
Mouse
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
5. Communications
Case or system cabinet
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
Processor chip
5. Communications
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
Memory chips
5. Communication
s
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
5. Communications
Motherboard
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
5. Communications
 Primary storage
(memory)
 Computer circuitry
that temporarily holds
data waiting to be
processed (normally
called Buffers)
 Secondary storage
(HDD)
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
5. Communications
 BIT – 1 line that can
have either +Voltage
or 0 Voltage.
(+ can vary from device
to device like 5 volts for
parallel port)
 Byte – 8 bits of data
 Kilobyte – 210 bytes
of data = 1024 bytes
 Megabyte – 220 bytes
of data = 1048576
 Gigabyte – 230 bytes
of data = 1073741824
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
Floppy disk
4. Output
5. Communications
Zip disk
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
5. Communications
Hard-disk drive
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
5. Communications
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
Sound card
5. Communications
Sound Card
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
5. Communications
Speakers
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
5. Communications
Video card
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
5. Communications
Monitor
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
5. Communications
Printer
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How Computers Work - Concept #3
All computers follow the same four basic
operations
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Storage
4. Output
5. Communications
Modem
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Put all the hardware together and…
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You still need the software!
 System software
(Operating System)
 Helps the computer
perform essential
operating tasks and
enables the
application software
to run
 and…
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You still need the software!
 Application software
 Enables you to
perform specific
tasks--solve problems,
perform work, or
entertain yourself
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1.4 Where Is Information Technology Headed?
Three Directions of Computer Development
 Miniaturization
 Speed
 Affordability
Then (1946)
Now
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Three Directions of Communications
Development
 Connectivity
 Interactivity
 Multimedia
Auto PC
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When Computers & Communications Combine:
Convergence, Portability, & Personalization
 Convergence
 Portability
 Personalization
Ubiquitous Computing:
Anywhere, anytime computing.
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Ubiquitous Computing
Context Aware Computing
Your computer should adapt to your
requirements rather than you telling your
computer to adapt
E.g If you enter Conference Room your
mobile phone (PDA) should go to silent
rather than you telling it to go silent.
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Network

Communication system
connecting two or more computers.

LAN: Local Area Network

MAN: Metropolitan Area Network

WAN: Wide Area Network
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Network
 LAN: Local Area Network connects, usually by
cable, a group of desktop PCs and other devices,
such as printers, in an office or a building.
 MAN: Metropolitan Area Network A data network
intended to serve an area the size of a large city.
Such networks are being implemented by
innovative techniques, such as running optical
fiber through subway tunnels.
 WAN: Wide Area Network A communications
network that uses such devices as telephone lines,
satellite dishes, or radio waves to span a larger
geographic area than can be covered by a LAN.
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Network

LAN is maintained inside a building
or small campus

MAN’s connect LAN’s together
within a city


WAN’s connects LAN’s together
across the country.
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Cyberspace

Encompasses not only the online
world and the Internet in particular, but
also the whole wired and wireless
world of communications in general.

Two most important aspects of
cyberspace include
• Internet
• World Wide Web
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Internet
 Inter-network!
 Worldwide network
that connects up to
400,000 smaller
networks in more
than 200 countries.
 Read the history of
internet (Topic :
origins of internet)
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1970’s: ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency
Network), a US Defense department agency’s started
research on networks for defense purpose
1975: ARPANET was built and transferred to Defense
Communication Agency. Restricted access
1980 National Science Foundation started CSNet and
connected universities and research organizations, Built
a very fast connection called backbone in late 80’s
1989: ARPANET became too expensive to handle and
was closed down and many of its sites got connected to
NSF Backbone and word INTERNET was born
WWW was proposed and implemented by CERN in 1995
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World Wide Web

Interconnected system of computers all
over the world that store information in
Multimedia form.
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Multimedia

Technology that presents information in
more than one medium, such as text, still
images, moving images, and sound.
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Client Server Architecture

A network architecture in which
each computer or processor on the
network is either a Client or a Server.
Client/Server network = Server + Clients
linked together
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Server
A server, central computer, holds
collections of data and programs for
connecting PCs, workstations, and other
devices, which are called clients.
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Clients
Clients = PCs, workstations, & other devices
Clients are PC’s or Workstations on which
users run applications. Clients rely on
servers for resources, such as files, devices,
and even processing power.
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Cluster Computing!
Goto task manager of your computer or
press
Alt + Shift + Esc key together
It is not a computer but consists of bunch
(set) of computers connected by some
communication medium. These computer
work together in parallel to perform high
performance tasks
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Grid Computing
Cluster connected by internet
NIIT’s major research emphases is on grid
computing.
NIIT is working with CERN (Center for
Nuclear Research) in the domain of grid
computing
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Introduction to Information Technology Mind Tools for …