Effective Implementation,
Strong Leadership,
Successful Schools
Sue Szachowicz
Principal, Brockton High School
Senior Advisor, International Center for
Leadership in Education
WISCONSIN, NOVEMBER 2009
1
TODAY’S AGENDA:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Implementing the Literacy
Initiative Across the Curriculum
What Gets Monitored Is What
Gets Done
All Means ALL: Strategies for
Special Education Students
Building Relationships with
Faculty, Students, and Parents
2





INTRO:
WHO:
WHAT:
HOW:
Who am I and why am I here?
Empowering a team
Our mission – LITERACY for ALL
Instructional Leadership
Implementation
Monitoring (next session)
AND SO: Results
3
SO,
Who is this woman,
and why is she
here?????
4
Brockton High School
Brockton, Massachusetts
“School of Champions”
5
BROCKTON HIGH SCHOOL
 Comprehensive 9 – 12
 Enrollment: over 4,300
 Poverty Level: 72%
 Minority population: 71%
 30 different languages
represented
 38% do not speak English
as their primary language
 Approximately 12% in
Transitional Bilingual Ed.
 Approximately 11% receive
Special Education Services
6





Student Population
55.5% Black - includes AfricanAmerican, Cape Verdean,
Haitian, Jamaican, and others
27.3% White
14% Hispanic
2.7% Asian
.5% American Indian
7
SO,
That’s who she is, but
why is she here?????
8
Here’s what we faced: (still do!)
State mandates: High Stakes
Testing (MCAS)
Federal mandates :NCLB, AYP
Local mandates – Graduation
requirements
9
State Mandates…We faced:
MCAS 1998
Failure
ELA – 44%
(Sped – 78%)
MATH – 75%
MCAS 1998
Advanced+Proficient
ELA – 22%
MATH – 7%
(Sped – 98%)
10
And we had “empires”
Brockton High:
The Medieval Feudal
System
11
But even worse… We faced a
flawed belief system:
“Students have a
right to fail.”
Former BHS Principal
12
Success at
Brockton High
then…
13
Success at Brockton High???
14
Success at
Brockton High
now…
15
MCAS 1998
MCAS 2009
Failure
ELA – 44%
Failure
ELA – 5%
MATH – 75%
MATH – 15%
16
MCAS 1998
MCAS 2009
Advanced+Proficient
Advanced+Proficient
ELA – 22 %
ELA – 78 %
(matches the state)
MATH – 7 %
MATH – 60 %
17
MCAS??? So
you think it’s
easy???
18


SAMPLE MCAS QUESTION:
Life of Henry V: Act IV, Scene III (ll. 1-80)
Open Response question
Explain how the excerpt shows that the king is an
effective leader. Use relevant and specific
information from the excerpt to support your
answer.
(Question is looking for language and style
analysis, not simply content).
19
SAMPLE MCAS QUESTION:
Excerpt from Don Quixote (pp 58-60)
Open Response Question
Explain how the author creates a humorous tone
in the excerpt. Use relevant and specific
information from the excerpt to support your
answer.
(Question is looking for language analysis, not
simply content).

20
SAMPLE MCAS MATH QUESTION: Jason launched a model rocket from the
ground. The formula below can be used to determine the height of the
rocket above the ground at any time during the rocket’s flight.
h = 16t(7 – t)
In the formula, h and t are defined as follows:
• t = the time, in seconds, that has elapsed since the rocket was launched
• h = the height, in feet, of the rocket above the ground at time t
Use the formula to answer the following questions.
a. What was the height, in feet, of the rocket 1 second after it was launched?
Show your work.
b. What was the height, in feet, of the rocket 6 seconds after it was
launched? Show your work.
c. The value of h was 0 when the rocket hit the ground. How many seconds
after the rocket was launched did it hit the ground? Show your work.
d. How many seconds after the rocket was launched was the height of the
rocket 160 feet? Show your work.
21
SAMPLE MCAS BIOLOGY QUESTION:
Corn snakes show variety in their skin color pattern. While the complete genetics of corn
snake color are complex, the most common colors on normal corn snakes—red and
black—are each coded by one gene.
For the red gene, the allele for the presence of red pigment (R) is dominant and the allele for
the absence of red pigment (r) is recessive. Likewise, for the black gene, the allele for the
presence of black pigment (B) is dominant and the allele for the absence of black pigment
(b) is recessive.
a. Draw the Punnett square for the cross of a snake that is homozygous dominant for the red
color with a snake that is heterozygous for the red color. What percentage of the offspring
is expected to have red pigment in their skin?
b. Draw the Punnett square for the cross of two snakes that are heterozygous for the black
color. What percentage of the offspring are expected to have black pigment in their skin?
c. The parent snakes in part (b) that are heterozygous for black color are both homozygous
recessive for the red gene. Each parent has genotype rr for the red gene. Based on this
information, what percentage of their offspring are expected to lack both the red and black
pigments in their skin? Explain your reasoning.
22
SAMPLE MCAS BIOLOGY QUESTION:
Corn snakes show variety in their skin color pattern. While the complete genetics of corn
snake color are complex, the most common colors on normal corn snakes—red and
black—are each coded by one gene.
For the red gene, the allele for the presence of red pigment (R) is dominant and the allele for
the absence of red pigment (r) is recessive. Likewise, for the black gene, the allele for the
presence of black pigment (B) is dominant and the allele for the absence of black pigment
(b) is recessive.
a. Draw the Punnett square for the cross of a snake that is homozygous dominant for the red
color with a snake that is heterozygous for the red color. What percentage of the offspring
is expected to have red pigment in their skin?
b. Draw the Punnett square for the cross of two snakes that are heterozygous for the black
color. What percentage of the offspring are expected to have black pigment in their skin?
c. The parent snakes in part (b) that are heterozygous for black color are both homozygous
recessive for the red gene. Each parent has genotype rr for the red gene. Based on this
information, what percentage of their offspring are expected to lack both the red and black
pigments in their skin? Explain your reasoning.
c. The parent snakes in part (b) that are hetero-
zygous for black color are both homozygous
recessive for the red gene. Each parent has
genotype rr for the red gene. Based on this
information, what percentage of their offspring
are expected to lack both the red and black
pigments in their skins. Explain your reasoning.
23
2008
1998
Honor Roll
TERM 1
Statistics
TERM 1
1299 STUDENTS
859 STUDENTS
(4400 students)
(4300 students)
24
THEN
“Students have
a right to fail.”
BHS Principal
NOW
“There is no such
right!
High Standards,
High expectations,
No excuses!”
BHS Principal
25
Turnaround at Brockton High
Emphasis on literacy brings big MCAS improvement
Principal Susan Szachowicz, shown chatting at lunch with Yiriam Lopez,
is in many ways the school’s biggest cheerleader. (Essdras M Suarez/ Globe Staff)
By James Vaznis Globe Staff / October 12, 2009
BROCKTON - Brockton High School has every excuse for failure, serving a city
plagued by crime, poverty, housing foreclosures, and homelessness.
Almost two-thirds of the students qualify for free or reduced-price lunches, and 14
percent are learning to speak English. More than two-thirds are African-American
or Latino - groups that have lagged behind their peers across the state on
standardized tests.
But Brockton High, by far the state’s largest public high school with 4,200
students, has found a success in recent years that has eluded many of the state’s
urban schools: MCAS scores are soaring, earning the school state recognition as a
symbol of urban hope.
 OK,
so some good things
happened at Brockton High,
BUT…
 WHAT
did you do,
and HOW did you
do it???
27
For Whole School Reform It’s
ALL about the 3 R’s:
 Rigor
 Relevance
 Relationships
28
Eight Components of School Reform
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Embrace a Common Vision and Goals
Inform Decisions Through Data Systems
Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and Innovate
Clarify Student Learning Expectations
Adopt Effective Instructional Practices
Address Organizational Structures
Monitor Progress/Improve Support Systems
Refine Process on an Ongoing Basis
29
RIGOR: HIGH standards,
HIGH expectations for
ALL students
It all started with that!
30
Eight Components of School Reform
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Embrace a Common Vision and Goals
Inform Decisions Through Data Systems
Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and Innovate
Clarify Student Learning Expectations
Adopt Effective Instructional Practices
Address Organizational Structures
Monitor Progress/Improve Support Systems
Refine Process on an Ongoing Basis
31
EMPOWERING A TEAM
WHY start
with that???
32
The Importance of Empowerment
33
Whack-a-Mole
34
Empowering a Team
How do I
“…get the right people on the bus,
the wrong people off the bus, and
the right people into the right
seats?” Jim Collins, Good to Great
35
Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action
and Innovate
Essential Groups

Restructuring Committee, our “think tank”

Administrative Leadership Team
Data Analysis Team
 Steering Committees in every Department

36
Empowerment: Building a Leadership Team
How do I select the team?
“Getting the right people on the bus”
Restructuring Committee – our “think tank”
 Every department represented with a mix
of teachers and administrators
 Balance of new teachers and veterans,
new voices and voices of experience
37
Empowerment: Building a Leadership Team
“Getting the right people on the bus”
Administrative Leadership Team
Qualifications
•Professional Strengths
•Personal Qualities
(Humor, Trust …It’s all
about the relationships)
38
Empowerment: Building a Leadership Team
“Getting the right people on the bus”
Data Analysis Team
 Led by Associate Principal for C&I
 Eight-ten members – teachers & admin.
 Target area depts. represented (Testing
areas, Sped, Bilingual)
39
Empowerment: Building a Leadership Team
“Getting the right people on the bus” and
“Getting the right people in the right seats”
Restructuring Committee Mission:
FOCUS, FOCUS, FOCUS!!!!
40
YOUR TURN: EMPOWERMENT
Think about someone on your
staff who you think has the
disposition to lead but has not
been involved. How can you
bring that person in?
41
RIGOR, RELEVANCE, RELATIONSHIPS
For us, two goals:
 Increase student academic
achievement
 Personalize the educational
experience for every student
42
We had to look in the mirror:
We HAD to think
differently and ask
ourselves a new set of
questions…
43
WHAT
are we teaching?
 HOW are we teaching it?
 HOW do we know our
students are learning it?
44
What can we control,
what can’t we control?
What do we have now
that we can use
differently?

45
What
will my BEST
teachers think?
What’s best
for our kids?
46
And, our favorite…
QUESTION:
WHY do we do it this way???
ANSWER:
Because we’ve ALWAYS
done it this way!!!
47
Eight Components of School Reform
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Embrace a Common Vision and Goals
Inform Decisions Through Data Systems
Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and Innovate
Clarify Student Learning Expectations
Adopt Effective Instructional Practices
Address Organizational Structures
Monitor Progress/Improve Support Systems
Refine Process on an Ongoing Basis
48
Inform Decisions Through Data Systems
“Confront the brutal facts.”
Jim Collins in Good to Great
For us – 76% Failure!!! Below the state average
on EVERY open response (writing) question
PICK ONE THING!!! (We started with literacy/writing!)
49
Embrace a Common Vision and Goals
Clarify Student Learning Expectations
FOUNDATION LEARNING:
What are the NON-negotiable
skills and knowledge that ALL
students must master?
Our school wide Literacy Initiative
50
The “WHAT”:
LITERACY for ALL:
Reading, Writing,
Speaking, Reasoning
51
Two pronged approach:
1. Literacy skills for ALL –
NO EXCEPTIONS!!!
2. Safety nets and
interventions for stuggling
learners (More later on that)
52
How did we determine our focus?
Literacy Skills Drafted:
L IT E R A C Y C H A R T : W R IT IN G
SC IE N C E
M ATH
E N G L ISH









to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
W R IT IN G
SO C IAL
SC IE N C E
ELEC TIVE
ta k e n o te s
e xp la in o n e ’s th in k in g
a rg u e a th e sis a n d su p p o rt o n e ’s th in k in g
c o m p a re a n d c o n tra st
w rite a n o p e n re sp o n se
d e sc rib e a n e xp e ri m e n t, re p o rt o n e ’s fin d in g s, a n d re p o rt o n e ’s c o n c lu sio n
g e n e ra te a re sp o n se to w h a t o n e h a s re a d , v ie w e d , o r h e a rd
c o n v e y o n e’s th in k in g in c o m p le te se n te n c e s
d e v e lo p a n e xp o sito ry e s sa y w ith a fo r m a l st r u c tu re
c B ro ck to n H igh S ch o o l, 2 0 0 2
53
Our Mission: LITERACY
L IT E R A C Y C H A R T : W R IT IN G
LITERACY CHART: READING
MATH
ENGLISH
SCIENCE
SC IE N C E
SOCIAL
SCIENCE
M ATH
E N G L I SH
ELECTIVE
READING
 for content ( both literal and inferential )
 to apply pre-reading, during reading and post-reading strategies to all
reading assignments, including determining purpose and pre-learning
vocabulary
 to research a topic
 to gather information
 to comprehend an argument
 to determine the main idea of a passage
 to understand a concept and construct meaning
 to expand one’s experiences
LITERACY CHART: SPEAKING









to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
take n otes
exp lain on e’s th in kin g
argu e a th esis an d su p p ort on e’s thin kin g
com p are an d con trast
w rite an op en resp on se
d escrib e an exp e rim en t, rep o rt on e’s fin d in gs, an d rep ort on e’s con clu sion
gen erate a resp on se to w h at on e h as read , view ed , or h eard
con vey on e’s th in kin g in com p lete sen ten ces
d evelop anLITERACY
exp ository essay
w ith a form
a l stru ctu re
CHART:
REASONING
SCIENCE
ENGLISH








ELEC TIVE
W R IT IN G
c B rockton H igh S ch ool, 2002
c Brockton High School, 2002
MATH
SO C I A L
SC IE N C E
SCIENCE
SPEAKING
MATH
SOCIAL
SCIENCE
ELECTIVE
to convey one’s thinking in complete sentences
to interpret a passage orally
to debate an issue
to participate in class discussion or a public forum
to make an oral presentation to one’s class, one’s peers, one’s community
to present one’s portfolio
to respond to what one has read, viewed, or heard
to communicate in a manner that allows one to be both heard and
understood
ENGLISH









REASONING
SOCIAL
SCIENCE
ELECTIVE
to create, interpret and explain a table, chart or graph
to compute, interpret and explain numbers
to read, break down, and solve a word problem
to interpret and present statistics that support an argument or hypothesis
to identify a pattern, explain a pattern, and/or make a prediction based on a
pattern
to detect the fallacy in an argument or a proof
to explain the logic of an argument or solution
54
to use analogies and/or evidence to support one’s thinking
to explain and/or interpret relationships of space and time
How we communicated our literacy focus:
ENGAGING THE FACULTY:
Interdisciplinary discussion groups on
the drafts using 3 guiding questions:
1. In each of the four areas of Reading, Writing,
Speaking and Reasoning, have we included
what is required for students to be successful
in your class/your content area?
2. Is the skill stated clearly so that all teachers
and students can understand it?
3. Is the skill applicable to ALL content areas?
55
“Lessons Learned the Hard Way”
Tip:
Put all your negative folks
together in a group so they
don’t spread their toxic
fumes.
56
How we communicated our focus:
- MCAS scores listed on the top of all materials
- Newsletter reporting discussion results
- So which of these kids is
not going to graduate???
57
Clarify Student Learning Expectations
For us: Our Literacy Initiative –
 Clearly defined objectives for ALL
students in Reading, Writing,
Speaking, Reasoning
 Rubrics for those Literacy Objectives
58
Our Mission: LITERACY
L IT E R A C Y C H A R T : W R IT IN G
LITERACY CHART: READING
MATH
ENGLISH
SCIENCE
SC IE N C E
SOCIAL
SCIENCE
M ATH
E N G L I SH
ELECTIVE
READING
 for content ( both literal and inferential )
 to apply pre-reading, during reading and post-reading strategies to all
reading assignments, including determining purpose and pre-learning
vocabulary
 to research a topic
 to gather information
 to comprehend an argument
 to determine the main idea of a passage
 to understand a concept and construct meaning
 to expand one’s experiences
LITERACY CHART: SPEAKING









to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
take n otes
exp lain on e’s th in kin g
argu e a th esis an d su p p ort on e’s thin kin g
com p are an d con trast
w rite an op en resp on se
d escrib e an exp e rim en t, rep o rt on e’s fin d in gs, an d rep ort on e’s con clu sion
gen erate a resp on se to w h at on e h as read , view ed , or h eard
con vey on e’s th in kin g in com p lete sen ten ces
d evelop anLITERACY
exp ository essay
w ith a form
a l stru ctu re
CHART:
REASONING
SCIENCE
ENGLISH








ELEC TIVE
W R IT IN G
c B rockton H igh S ch ool, 2002
c Brockton High School, 2002
MATH
SO C I A L
SC IE N C E
SCIENCE
SPEAKING
MATH
SOCIAL
SCIENCE
ELECTIVE
to convey one’s thinking in complete sentences
to interpret a passage orally
to debate an issue
to participate in class discussion or a public forum
to make an oral presentation to one’s class, one’s peers, one’s community
to present one’s portfolio
to respond to what one has read, viewed, or heard
to communicate in a manner that allows one to be both heard and
understood
ENGLISH









REASONING
SOCIAL
SCIENCE
ELECTIVE
to create, interpret and explain a table, chart or graph
to compute, interpret and explain numbers
to read, break down, and solve a word problem
to interpret and present statistics that support an argument or hypothesis
to identify a pattern, explain a pattern, and/or make a prediction based on a
pattern
to detect the fallacy in an argument or a proof
to explain the logic of an argument or solution
59
to use analogies and/or evidence to support one’s thinking
to explain and/or interpret relationships of space and time
Eight Components of School Reform
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Embrace a Common Vision and Goals
Inform Decisions Through Data Systems
Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and Innovate
Clarify Student Learning Expectations
Adopt Effective Instructional Practices
Address Organizational Structures
Monitor Progress/Improve Support Systems
Refine Process on an Ongoing Basis
60
How did we implement our focus?
Using data to guide the process
 Help the faculty understand the assessment
 At
BHS all teachers examined the
MCAS test
 Key question: “What did you notice?”
61
FOCUS, FOCUS,
FOCUS!!!
We started with
writing!
62
Why writing???
We examined the test. Asked
What did you notice?
AND… We needed a WIN!!!
Pick something measurable.
63
We started with writing.
FOCUS, FOCUS, FOCUS!!!
L IT E R A C Y C H A R T : W R IT IN G
SC IE N C E
M ATH
E N G L ISH









to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
W R IT IN G
SO C IAL
SC IE N C E
ELEC TIVE
ta k e n o te s
e xp la in o n e ’s th in k in g
a rg u e a th e sis a n d su p p o rt o n e ’s th in k in g
c o m p a re a n d c o n tra st
w rite a n o p e n re sp o n se
d e sc rib e a n e xp e ri m e n t, re p o rt o n e ’s fin d in g s, a n d re p o rt o n e ’s c o n c lu sio n
g e n e ra te a re sp o n se to w h a t o n e h a s re a d , v ie w e d , o r h e a rd
c o n v e y o n e’s th in k in g in c o m p le te se n te n c e s
d e v e lo p a n e xp o sito ry e s sa y w ith a fo r m a l st r u c tu re
c B ro ck to n H igh S ch o o l, 2 0 0 2
64
Faculty Meetings
became
Literacy Workshops
65






Our Professional Development
Model:
Development of Scripts
Train the Trainer
Interdisciplinary and Dept.
workshops
Implementation calendar
Assessing with rubric
Monitoring/collecting
student work
66
OPEN RESPONSE STEPS TO FOLLOW
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
READ QUESTION CAREFULLY.
CIRCLE OR UNDERLINE KEY WORDS.
RESTATE QUESTION AS THESIS (LEAVING BLANKS).
READ PASSAGE CAREFULLY.
TAKE NOTES THAT RESPOND TO THE QUESTION.
BRAINSTORM & MAP OUT YOUR ANSWER.
6. COMPLETE YOUR THESIS.
7. WRITE YOUR RESPONSE CAREFULLY, USING YOUR
MAP AS A GUIDE.
8. STATEGICALLY REPEAT KEY WORDS FROM THESIS
IN YOUR BODY AND IN YOUR END SENTENCE.
9. PARAGRAPH YOUR RESPONSE.
10. REREAD AND EDIT YOUR RESPONSE.
67






Our Professional Development
Model:
Development of Scripts
Train the Trainer
Interdisciplinary and Dept.
workshops
Implementation calendar
Assessing with rubric
Monitoring/collecting
student work
68
Implementation according
to a specific timeline…
Example...
69
As a follow up to this activity, I am requiring Department Heads to
collect from each teacher at least one student sample from each of the
teachers’
classes.
The student
samplesof
should
include:
The Open
Response
calendar
implementation
for
Name
2009Student
is as follows:
Teacher Name
Jan.Date
12–16: Social Science, Social Science Biling.
Jan.Course
20–23:
Wellness,
Name
and LevelJROTC
Jan.Period
26-30: Final Exams /Beginning of Term
copy of the
reading selection
Feb.A2-6:
Beginning
of Termand
3 question
the student’s
activeBilingual
reading
Feb.Evidence
9-13: ofScience,
Science
All pre-writing work that the student has done, e.g. webs
Feb.A16-20:
VACATION
copy of the written open response
Feb.The
23-27:
Business,
Career Ed.
new scoring
rubric Technology
and completedand
assessment
March 2-6: Math, Math Bilingual
After
you have
collected
the Lang,
samples
from each
and have had
March
9-13:
Foreign
Special
Ed,teacher
ESL Bilingual
theMar.
opportunity
review them
for quality
and completeness,
please
16-20:to Family
&Cons.
Science,
Project Grads
send them to me in a department folder with a checklist of your
Mar. 23-27: Music, Art
teachers. Again, please be sure that your teachers clearly label their
student samples.
70
So, HOW do we know our
students are learning it?
One method:
School wide rubrics
71
Assessment using our
specific Open Response
Writing Rubric
Example...
72
CONTENT
FORM
8
4
6
3
Response contains a clear thesis and insightfully answers all
parts of the question.
Response provides relevant and specific textual evidence.
Explanations of evidence are clear and accurate, and
demonstrate superior understanding of the material.
Response contains a clear thesis and adequately answers all
parts of the question.
Response provides relevant but general textual evidence.
Explanations of evidence are mostly clear and accurate, and
demonstrate good understanding of the material.
Response contains sophisticated and effective use of transitions and strategic
repetition indicating complete control of the material.
Response is logically and effectively organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and
sequencing of examples.
Response contains clear sentence structure with few or no errors.
Response contains adequate but simplistic use of transitions and strategic
repetition.
Response is organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples.
Response contains clear sentence structure with no distracting errors.
4
2
2
1
Response contains a thesis but only partially answers the
question.
Response provides a mix of accurate and inaccurate textual
evidence.
Explanations of evidence are vague and/or demonstrate limited
understanding of the material.
Response contains a thesis but only minimally answers the
question.
Response provides insufficient and/or largely inaccurate
textual evidence.
Explanations of evidence are unclear and/or demonstrate
minimal understanding of the material.
0
Peer
Teacher
1
Easy to read
0
Difficult to read
Response contains some inappropriate use of transitions and strategic repetition.
Response demonstrates lapses in the organization of its thesis, paragraphing,
and/or sequencing of examples.
Response contains lapses in sentence structure that interfere with the clarity of
thought.
LENGTH
Response contains incorrect or inadequate use of transitions and strategic
repetition.
Response reflects minimal organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or
sequencing of examples.
Response contains major errors in sentence structure.
Response is incorrect.
Response contains insufficient evidence to show understanding
of the material.
Response is off-topic and/or contains irrelevant content.
Evaluated by: Self
LEGIBILITY
1
Sufficient
0
Insufficient
0
Response contains no evidence of transitions and strategic repetition.
Response reflects no organization.
Response contains little to no evidence of sentence structure.
(Circle One)
SCORING
13-14 = Advanced
11-12 = Proficient
8-10 = Needs Improvement
0-7 = Failing
73
CONTENT
FORM
8
Response contains a clear thesis and insightfully answers all
parts of the question.
Response provides relevant and specific textual evidence.
Explanations of evidence are clear and accurate, and
demonstrate superior understanding of the material.
4
Response contains sophisticated and effective use of transitions and strategic
repetition indicating complete control of the material.
Response is logically and effectively organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and
sequencing of examples.
Response contains clear sentence structure with few or no errors.
CONTENT:
8
LEGIBILITY
6
3
Response contains a clear thesis and adequately answers all
Response contains adequate but simplistic use of transitions and strategic
Response contains a clear
thesis and insightfully 1Easy to read
parts of the question.
repetition.
Response provides relevant but general textual evidence.
Response is organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples.
0
answers
allclear
parts
question.
Explanations
of evidence are mostly
and accurate,of
and the
Response
contains clear sentence structure with no distracting errors.
Difficult to read
demonstrate good understanding of the material.
Response provides relevant
and specific textual
4
2
Response contains a thesis but only partially answers the
Response contains some inappropriate use of transitions and strategic repetition.
evidence.
question.
Response demonstrates lapses in the organization of its thesis, paragraphing,
Response provides a mix of accurate and inaccurate textual
and/or sequencing of examples.
Explanations of evidence
clear
accurate,
and
evidence.
Response are
contains lapses
in sentenceand
structure that
interfere with the clarity of
Explanations of evidence are vague and/or demonstrate limited
thought.
understanding
of
the
material.
demonstrate superior understanding of the material.
LENGTH
2 6
1
1
Response contains a thesis but only minimally answers the
Response contains incorrect or inadequate use of transitions and strategic
question.
repetition.
Sufficient
Response
contains
a clear
thesis
andof itsadequately
answers
Response
provides insufficient and/or
largely inaccurate
Response reflects
minimal organization
thesis, paragraphing, and/or
0
textual evidence.
sequencing of examples.
Insufficient
Explanations
of evidence are of
unclearthe
and/or demonstrate
Response contains major errors in sentence structure.
all
parts
question.
minimal understanding of the material.
but general textual evidence.
0 Response provides relevant
0
Response is incorrect.
Response contains no evidence of transitions and strategic repetition.
Explanations
ofunderstanding
evidence
clear and accurate,
Response
contains insufficient evidence to show
Response are
reflects nomostly
organization.
of the material.
Response contains little to no evidence of sentence structure.
Response
is off-topic
and/or contains irrelevant content.good understanding of the material.
and
demonstrate
Evaluated by: Self
Peer
Teacher
(Circle One)
SCORING
13-14 = Advanced
11-12 = Proficient
8-10 = Needs Improvement
0-7 = Failing
74
CONTENT
FORM
8
Response contains a clear thesis and insightfully answers all
parts of the question.
Response provides relevant and specific textual evidence.
Explanations of evidence are clear and accurate, and
demonstrate superior understanding of the material.
4
Response contains sophisticated and effective use of transitions and strategic
repetition indicating complete control of the material.
Response is logically and effectively organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and
sequencing of examples.
Response contains clear sentence structure with few or no errors.
FORM:
4
LEGIBILITY
6
3
1
Response
sophisticated
effective
use and
ofstrategic
transitions
Response
contains a clear thesiscontains
and adequately answers
all
Response containsand
adequate but
simplistic use of transitions
parts of the question.
repetition.
Easy to read
Response
provides
relevant
but
general
textual
evidence.
Response
is
organized
in
its
thesis,
paragraphing,
and
sequencing
of
examples.
and strategic repetition indicating
complete control of the material.
0
Explanations of evidence are mostly clear and accurate, and
Response contains clear sentence structure with no distracting errors.
demonstrate
good understandingis
of the
material.
Response
logically
and effectively organized in its thesis, Difficult to read
4 paragraphing, and sequencing
2
of examples.
Response contains a thesis but only partially answers the
Response contains some inappropriate use of transitions and strategic repetition.
question.
Response demonstrates lapses in the organization of its thesis, paragraphing,
Response contains clear sentence
structure with few or no errors.
Response provides a mix of accurate and inaccurate textual
and/or sequencing of examples.
evidence.
contains lapses in sentence structure that interfere with the clarity of
3 of evidence are vague and/or demonstrate limited Response
Explanations
thought.
understanding of the material.
Response contains adequate but simplistic use of transitions and
LENGTH
2
1
1
strategic
Response
contains a thesis repetition.
but only minimally answers the
Response contains incorrect or inadequate use of transitions and strategic
question.
repetition.
Sufficient
Response
provides
insufficient
and/or
largely
inaccurate
Response
reflects
minimal
organization
of
its
thesis,
paragraphing,
and/or
Response is organized in sequencing
its thesis,
paragraphing, and sequencing
0
textual evidence.
of examples.
Insufficient
Explanations
of evidence are unclear and/or demonstrate
Response contains major errors in sentence structure.
of
examples.
minimal understanding of the material.
structure with no distracting
0 Response contains clear sentence
0
Response is incorrect.
Response contains no evidence of transitions and strategic repetition.
errors.
Response contains insufficient evidence to show understanding
Response reflects no organization.
of the material.
Response is off-topic and/or contains irrelevant content.
Evaluated by: Self
Peer
Teacher
Response contains little to no evidence of sentence structure.
(Circle One)
SCORING
13-14 = Advanced
11-12 = Proficient
8-10 = Needs Improvement
0-7 = Failing
75
CONTENT
FORM
8
4
6
Evaluated by: Self3
(Circle One)
Response contains a clear thesis and insightfully answers all
parts of the question.
Response provides relevant and specific textual evidence.
Explanations of evidence are clear and accurate, and
demonstrate superior understanding of the material.
Response contains sophisticated and effective use of transitions and strategic
repetition indicating complete control of the material.
Response is logically and effectively organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and
sequencing of examples.
Response contains clear sentence structure with few or no errors.
Peer
Teacher
Response contains a clear thesis and adequately answers all
parts of the question.
Response provides relevant but general textual evidence.
Explanations of evidence are mostly clear and accurate, and
demonstrate good understanding of the material.
Response contains adequate but simplistic use of transitions and strategic
repetition.
Response is organized in its thesis, paragraphing, and sequencing of examples.
Response contains clear sentence structure with no distracting errors.
4
2
SCORING
13-14 = Advanced
11-12 = Proficient
8-10 = Needs Improvement
1
0-7 = Failing
Response contains a thesis but only partially answers the
question.
Response provides a mix of accurate and inaccurate textual
evidence.
Explanations of evidence are vague and/or demonstrate limited
understanding of the material.
2
Response contains incorrect or inadequate use of transitions and strategic
repetition.
Response reflects minimal organization of its thesis, paragraphing, and/or
sequencing of examples.
Response contains major errors in sentence structure.
0
0
Evaluated by: Self
Peer
Teacher
1
Easy to read
0
Difficult to read
Response contains some inappropriate use of transitions and strategic repetition.
Response demonstrates lapses in the organization of its thesis, paragraphing,
and/or sequencing of examples.
Response contains lapses in sentence structure that interfere with the clarity of
thought.
Response contains a thesis but only minimally answers the
question.
Response provides insufficient and/or largely inaccurate
textual evidence.
Explanations of evidence are unclear and/or demonstrate
minimal understanding of the material.
Response is incorrect.
Response contains insufficient evidence to show understanding
of the material.
Response is off-topic and/or contains irrelevant content.
LEGIBILITY
LENGTH
1
Sufficient
0
Insufficient
Response contains no evidence of transitions and strategic repetition.
Response reflects no organization.
Response contains little to no evidence of sentence structure.
(Circle One)
SCORING
13-14 = Advanced
11-12 = Proficient
8-10 = Needs Improvement
0-7 = Failing
76
What gets monitored is
what gets done!!!
For the students AND the
teachers…
(More on this in next session)
77
LITERACY CHART: SPEAKING
SCIENCE
MATH
ENGLISH








SPEAKING
SOCIAL
SCIENCE
ELECTIVE
to convey one’s thinking in complete sentences
to interpret a passage orally
to debate an issue
to participate in class discussion or a public forum
to make an oral presentation to one’s class, one’s peers, one’s community
to present one’s portfolio
to respond to what one has read, viewed, or heard
to communicate in a manner that allows one to be both heard and
understood
78
c Brockton High School, 2002
ORAL PRESENTATION RUBRIC
Presenter:______________________________ Evaluator:______________________________
Oral
Presentation
Rubric
Literacy in Speaking:
 to make an oral presentation to one’s class
 to communicate in a manner that allows one to be both heard and understood
 to convey one’s thinking in complete sentences
SPEAKING SKILLS
All elements
present
Most elements
present
Some elements
present
No elements
present
Delivery (Presenter doesn’t rush, shows
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
CONTENT
All elements
present
Most elements
present
Some elements
present
No elements
present
Introduction
4
3
2
1
a. Presentation includes all elements
previously determined by the teacher.
4
3
2
1
b. Presentation is clearly organized.
(Material is logically sequenced, related
to thesis, and not repetitive.)
4
3
2
1
c. Presentation shows full grasp and
understanding of the material.
4
3
2
1
a. Presentation highlights key ideas and
concludes with a strong final statement.
4
3
2
1
b. Presenter fields questions easily.
4
3
2
1
enthusiasm, avoids likes, ums, kind ofs, you
knows, etc. Uses complete sentences.)
Eye Contact (Presenter keeps head up,
does not read, and speaks to whole audience.)
Posture (Presenter stands up straight, faces
audience, and doesn’t fidget.)
Volume (Presenter can be easily heard by
all. No gum, etc.
Presentation begins with a clear focus/thesis.
Topic Development
Conclusion
TOTAL NUMBER OF POINTS:
35 – 40 = A
29 – 34 = B
23 – 28 = C
* Evaluator: Place comments beside each descriptor
17 – 22 = D
10 – 16 = F
79
ORAL PRESENTATION RUBRIC
Presenter:______________________________ Evaluator:______________________________
Literacy in Speaking:
 to make an oral presentation to one’s class
 to communicate in a manner that allows one to be both heard and understood
 to convey one’s thinking in complete sentences
SPEAKING SKILLS
SPEAKING SKILLS
All elements
elements
presentAll
present
(Presenter doesn’t rush, shows
enthusiasm, avoids likes, ums, kind ofs, you
knows, etc. Uses complete sentences.)
Most elements
Some elements
Some elements
elements
present
presentNo
present
present
Most elements
present
4
3
2
enthusiasm, avoids likes,
ums, kind ofs, you
Eye Contact (Presenter keeps head up,
does not read, and speaks to whole audience.)
knows, etc. Uses complete
sentences.)
4
3
2
1
Posture (Presenter stands up straight, faces
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
All elements
present
Most elements
present
Some elements
present
No elements
present
4
3
2
1
a. Presentation includes all elements
previously determined by the teacher.
4
3
2
b. Presentation is clearly organized.
(Material is logically sequenced, related
to thesis, and not repetitive.)
4
4
3
2
c. Presentation shows full grasp and
understanding of the material.
4
3
2
1
a. Presentation highlights key ideas and
concludes with a strong final statement.
4
3
2
1
b. Presenter fields questions easily.
4
3
2
1
Delivery
Delivery (Presenter doesn’t
rush, shows
4
3
2
1
No elements
present
1
audience, and doesn’t fidget.)
Volume
Eye Contact (Presenter
keeps head up,
4
(Presenter can be easily heard by
all. No gum, etc.
3
2
1
1
does not read, and speaks to whole audience.)
CONTENT
Introduction
Posture (Presenter stands
up straight, faces 4
Presentation begins with a clear focus/thesis.
3
2
1
audience, and doesn’t fidget.)
Topic Development
Volume (Presenter can be easily heard by
all. No gum, etc.
3
1
2
1
1
Conclusion
TOTAL NUMBER OF POINTS:
35 – 40 = A
29 – 34 = B
23 – 28 = C
* Evaluator: Place comments beside each descriptor
17 – 22 = D
10 – 16 = F
80
L IT E R A C Y C H A R T : R E A S O N IN G
S C IE N C E
M ATH
E N G L ISH









R E A S O N IN G
SO C IAL
S C IE N C E
ELEC TIVE
to crea te, in terp ret a n d exp la in a ta b le, ch a rt o r g ra p h
to co m p u te, in terp ret a n d exp la in n u m b e rs
to rea d , b rea k d o w n , a n d so lv e a w o rd p ro b lem
to in terp ret a n d p resen t sta tistics th a t su p p o rt a n a rg u m en t o r h y p o th esis
to id en tify a p attern , exp la in a p a ttern , a n d /o r m a k e a p red ictio n b a sed o n a
p a ttern
to d etect th e fa lla cy in a n a rg u m en t o r a p ro o f
to exp la in th e lo g ic o f a n a rg u m en t o r so lu tio n
to u se a n a lo g ies a n d /o r ev id en ce to s u p p o rt o n e’s th in k in g
to exp la in a n d /o r in terp ret re la tio n sh ip s o f sp a c e a n d tim e
c B ro ck to n H igh S ch o o l, 2 0 0 2
81
Line Graphs
Line graphs compare two variables. Each variable is plotted along an axis. A line graph has
a vertical axis and a horizontal axis. So, for example, if you wanted to graph the height of a
ball after you have thrown it, you could put time along the horizontal, or x-axis, and height
along the vertical, or y-axis.
As I mentioned before, each type of graph has characteristics that make it useful in certain
situations. Some of the strengths of line graphs are that:
- They are good at showing specific values of data, meaning that given one variable the other
can easily be determined.
- They show trends in data clearly, meaning that they visibly show how one variable is affected
by the other as it increases or decreases.
-They enable the viewer to make predictions about the results of data not yet recorded.
Unfortunately, it is possible to alter the way a line graph appears to make data look a certain
way. This is done by either not using consistent scales on the axes, meaning that the value in
between each point along the axis may not be the same, or when comparing two graphs using
different scales for each. It is important that we all be aware of how graphs can be made to look
a certain way, when that might not be the way the data really is.
Let's take a look at an example.
In a few years, you might be interested in getting some kind of part-time job. You find the
following line graph, which plots the minimum wage versus time from October, 1938, to
September, 1997. What kinds of things might you be able to tell from it?
82
Line Graphs
Line graphs compare two variables. Each variable is plotted along an axis. A line graph has
a vertical axis and a horizontal axis. So, for example, if you wanted to graph the height of a
ball after you have thrown it, you could put time along the horizontal, or x-axis, and height
along the vertical, or y-axis.
-They are good at showing specific values of
As I mentioned before, each type of graph has characteristics that make it useful in certain
data,
meaning
given
one variable the
situations.
Some
of the strengthsthat
of line graphs
are that:
other
easily
determined.
- They
are goodcan
at showing
specificbe
values
of data, meaning that given one variable the other
can easily be determined.
-They
show
in that
data
clearly,
meaning
- They show trends
in data trends
clearly, meaning
they visibly
show how
one variable is affected
by the other as it increases or decreases.
that
they visibly show how one variable is
-They enable the viewer to make predictions about the results of data not yet recorded.
affected by the other as it increases or
Unfortunately, it is possible to alter the way a line graph appears to make data look a certain
way.decreases.
This is done by either not using consistent scales on the axes, meaning that the value in
between each point along the axis may not be the same, or when comparing two graphs using
-They
enable
the viewer
toaware
make
different
scales for
each. It is important
that we all be
of how predictions
graphs can be made to look
a certain way, when that might not be the way the data really is.
about the results of data not yet recorded.
Let's take a look at an example.
In a few years, you might be interested in getting some kind of part-time job. You find the
following line graph, which plots the minimum wage versus time from October, 1938, to
September, 1997. What kinds of things might you be able to tell from it?
83
Teaching Students How to Interpret Line Graphs:
Step One: Students should read the title and write what a graph is describing in their
own words using complete sentences.
Step Two: Students should then explain what is being described by each axis in
complete sentences. They should find the label and the unit of measure on
the horizontal axis (x-axis), and on the vertical axis (y-axis). Be sure to use
the appropriate vocabulary with the students. If the label or unit of
measurement is not apparent, the student needs to use the information in
the title and/or any descriptions provided to determine this information. Be
sure that students can identify the type of measurement units that are being
used for each axis (days, weeks, number, of people, etc.) Marks on each
axis must be evenly spaced and represent the same number of units
between each line that is marked along the axis. Because the numbers on
axes do not always start at 0, you will sometimes see a 0 followed by a zigzag line which indicates a missing potion of the graph.
Step 3: Students must mark data points with visible dots. These dots can then be
labeled as an ordered pair (x-value, y-value).
Step 4: Students should be able to create their own questions related to the graph.
Ultimately the students need to be able to interpret and explain a line graph
by identifying:
The title
The horizontal axis
The vertical axis
Relationship between the axes
84
Teaching Students How to Interpret Line Graphs:
Step One: Students should read the title and write what a graph is describing in their
own words using complete sentences.
Step Two: Students should then explain what is being described by each axis in
complete sentences. They should find the label and the unit of measure on
Step
4: Students
should
be
able
create
the horizontal
axis (x-axis),
and on the
vertical
axisto
(y-axis).
Be sure to use
the appropriate
vocabulary with
the students.
Ifthe
the label
or unit of
their
own
questions
related
to
graph.
measurement is not apparent, the student needs to use the information in
Ultimately
students
need
to be able
to
the title and/orthe
any descriptions
provided
to determine
this information.
Be
sure that students can identify the type of measurement units that are being
interpret
and explain a line graph by
used for each axis (days, weeks, number, of people, etc.) Marks on each
axis must be evenly spaced and represent the same number of units
identifying:
between each line that is marked along the axis. Because the numbers on
Thestart
title
axes do not always
at 0, you will sometimes see a 0 followed by a zigzag line whichThe
indicates
a missing potion
of the graph.
horizontal
axis
Step 3: Students must mark data points with visible dots. These dots can then be
axis
labeled as an The
orderedvertical
pair (x-value,
y-value).
Step 4: Students should
be able to create their
own questions
related
to the graph.
Relationship
between
the
axes
Ultimately the students need to be able to interpret and explain a line graph
by identifying:
The title
The horizontal axis
The vertical axis
Relationship between the axes
85
Labels and Titles
Numerical Correctness
Visual Presentation
8 Points
Numerical data is placed correctly on the graph.
Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in
values).
Answers to interpretive questions are correct and
complete.
4 Points
Graph is titled appropriately
Graph is labeled correctly and appropriately placed
Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with
correct units
3 Points
6 Points
2 Points
4 Points
1 Point
2 Points
0 Points
0 Points
Graph is titled appropriately
Most labels are correct and placed appropriately
Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with
correct units in most cases.
Numerical data is placed on the graph correctly in
most cases.
Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in
values).
Answers to interpretive questions are mostly correct
and complete.
Graph is not titled
Some labels are correct and appropriately placed.
Interpretive questions are labeled with correct units in
some cases.
Graph is not titled
Most labels are incorrectly or inappropriately placed.
Interpretive questions are labeled with incorrect units
in the majority of cases.
Graph is not titled.
Labels are not present.
No units are given with answers on interpretive
questions.
Evaluated by: Self
Peer
2 Points
Graph is neat and legible
Reader is able to find values by looking at the graph.
Interpretive questions are written neatly and in
complete sentences.
Numerical data is placed on the graph correctly in
some cases.
Graph scaling is attempted
Answers to some interpretive questions are correct
and complete.
Numerical data is placed on the graph incorrectly in
most cases.
Graph scaled incorrectly.
Answers to most interpretive questions are incorrect
and incomplete.
1 Point
Neatness and legibility are lacking, but the graph is
readable.
 Reader will have some difficulty finding values on
the graph.
Answers to interpretive questions need to be neater
and complete sentences must be written
No data placed on graph.
Graph not scaled at all.
Answers to interpretive questions entirely incorrect or
missing
Teacher
(Circle One)
Comments:
SCORING
13-14 = Advanced
11-12 = Proficient
8-10 = Needs Improvement
_________Total Score
0-7 = Failing
86
Labels and Titles
Numerical Correctness
Visual Presentation
8 Points
4 Points
Graph is titled appropriately
Graph is labeled correctly and appropriately placed
Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with
correct units
Numerical data is placed correctly on the graph.
Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in
values).
Answers to interpretive questions are correct and
complete.
4 Points
8 Points
Graph is titled appropriately
Numerical data is placed correctly on
3 PointsGraph is labeled correctly
6 Pointsand
2 Points
the graph.
Graph is titled appropriately
Numerical data is placed on the graph correctly in
Graph is neat and legible
appropriately
placed most cases.
Graph scaled appropriately
(no
Most labels
are correct and placed appropriately
Reader is able to find values
by looking at the graph.
Answers to interpretive questions are labeled with
Graph scaled appropriately (no awkward jumps in
Interpretive questions are written neatly and in
Answers
to interpretivevalues).
awkward jumpscomplete
in values).
correct units
in most cases.
sentences.
Answers to interpretive questions are mostly correct
questions are labeled and
with
Answers to interpretive questions are
complete.
correct and complete.
2 Pointscorrect units
4 Points
Graph is not titled
Numerical data is placed on the graph correctly in
Some labels
are
correct and appropriately placed.
some cases.
3
Points
6 Points
Interpretive questions are labeled with correct units in
Graph scaling is attempted
some cases.
Answers to some interpretive
questions are correct
Graph is titled appropriately
Numerical
data is placed on the graph
and complete.
Most labels are correct and
correctly in most cases.
1 Point
2 Points
1 Point
Graph is not
titled
on the graph scaled
incorrectly in appropriately
Neatness and legibility are(no
lacking, but the graph is
placed
appropriately Numerical data is placedGraph
Most labels are incorrectly or inappropriately placed.
most cases.
readable.
Interpretive
questions are labeled
incorrect units
Graph scaled incorrectly.
Answers
towith
interpretive
awkward jumps in
values).
Reader
will have some difficulty finding values on
in the majority of cases.
Answers to most interpretive questions are incorrect
the graph.
incomplete.
questions are labeled and
with
Answers to interpretive
questions
are
Answers to interpretive
questions need to
be neater
and complete sentences must be written
correct units in most cases.
mostly correct and complete.
0 Points
Graph is not titled.
Labels are not present.
No units are given with answers on interpretive
questions.
Evaluated by: Self
Peer
0 Points
No data placed on graph.
Graph not scaled at all.
Answers to interpretive questions entirely incorrect or
missing
Teacher
(Circle One)
Comments:
SCORING
13-14 = Advanced
11-12 = Proficient
8-10 = Needs Improvement
_________Total Score
0-7 = Failing
87
LITERACY CHART: READING
MATH
ENGLISH
SCIENCE
READING
SOCIAL
SCIENCE
ELECTIVE
 for content ( both literal and inferential )
 to apply pre-reading, during reading and post-reading strategies to all
reading assignments, including determining purpose and pre-learning
vocabulary
 to research a topic
 to gather information
 to comprehend an argument
 to determine the main idea of a passage
 to understand a concept and construct meaning
 to expand one’s experiences
c Brockton High School, 2002
88
Reading Workshop on TOVANI’S
I Read It But I Don’t Get It
and
Do I Really Have to Teach
Reading?
89
Active Reading Strategies
1. Read the question.
2. a. Circle key direction verbs.
 For example – write, draw,
explain, compare, show, copy
b. Underline important information.
 Often there is information in a
question that is irrelevant to
finding the answer.
3. In your own words, write what the
question is asking you to do.
4. Develop your plan/Answer the
question.
90
FOUNDATION LEARNING: Training ALL students
STUDY SKILLS LESSONS through the LITERACY OBJECTIVES




Reading: Active Reading Strategies- Previewing
a text – Using visuals to preview a chapter
Writing: Note-taking – Summarizing
Speaking: Street talk vs. school talk – speaking in
complete sentences - Listening
Reasoning – Time management, Organizational
strategies, Study strategies
91
Using Graphic
Organizers/Foldables
and Quick-Writes
Follow-up to presentation by
Lin Kuzmich
Faculty Meeting
April 2, 2009
92
Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables
and Quick-Writes
Content Objectives
1.
To be able to use a foldable to demonstrate
understanding of a concept and organization of
information
2.
To be able to demonstrate understanding and use of a
quick write in order to increase our students’
understanding of a concept.
Literacy Objectives
1.
To take notes
2.
To generate a response to what one has read, viewed,
or heard.
93
Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables
and Quick-Writes
Activities
1.
Review the assessment graphic as it relates to
formative assessment and ways to change instruction.
2.
Create a foldable.
3.
Take notes on a foldable in response to questions to
demonstrate understanding of a quick-write.
4.
Respond to a quick-write prompt.
5.
Apply how a quick-write can be used to a new
situation.
94
ASSESSMENT
… is an educative tool:
to aide in the development of student understanding of a concept or skill
to measure the students’ attained proficiency in a concept or skill
to inform daily and long term instruction in order to ensure the attainment of concepts and
skills
Formative
Ongoing assessment that monitors
student progress toward proficiency of a
concept, process, or skill
INFERENCES
made from
assessments can be
formative
and/or
summative.
Summative
Assessment that measures student
proficiency of an objective taught within
a unit of study/course/year
teacher
observations
3-2-1
ticket to leave
tests
dipsticking
quizzes
self evaluation
essays
presentations
artifacts
questioning
class
discussions
peer evaluation
open responses
performances
reflections
homework
writing logs
portfolios
graded
discussion
research
district
unit tests
demonstrations
exhibits
Preparation of Assessment
Implementation of Assessment
Reflection/Evaluation of
Assessment
of
Revision of Instruction
95
Graphic Organizers/Foldables
“The best
worksheet
is a
blank piece of paper.”
96
Graphic Organizers/Foldables
What is a quick-write?
97
Graphic Organizers/Foldables
How can I use a quick-write?
98
Graphic Organizers/Foldables
What are the benefits of a quick-write?
99
Quick-Writes
“Writing is to Thinking
Fluency
As
Phonics is to Reading
Fluency”
100
Writing Matters:
Writing IS Thinking
Writing supports assembly and binding in the
brain because:
 Writing uses multiple parts of the brain
simultaneously.

Writing increases performance in every
content area.

Writing is a multi-sensory rehearsal for the
brain.

Writing is highly correlated to increased
performance on assessments.
Kuzmich 2007
101
What Does the Evidence Really
Say?
Effective performance assessment
REQUIRES writing
 More writing reduces “coverage” of
standards and curriculum
 Less coverage with MORE writing does
NOT hurt multiple choice scores

Kuzmich 2007
102
Writing and Social Studies Scores
Virginia Department of Education, 1998
Multiple Choice Scores
R = .87
Data Source: Center
for Performance
Assessment
Writing Performance Assessment
Kuzmich 2007
103
Writing and Math Scores
Virginia Department of Education, 1998
Multiple Choice Scores
R = .88
Data Source: Center
for Performance
Assessment
Writing Performance Assessment
Kuzmich 2007
104
Writing and Science Scores
U. S. Department of Education, 1998
Multiple Choice Scores
R = .86
Data Source: Center
for Performance
Assessment
Writing Performance Assessment
Kuzmich 2007
105
Quick-Writes
1 to 3 minutes
 Diagnostic
 Not for grading
 Allows teacher to check for understanding,
adjust pacing and emphasis, offer
assistance to those who need additional
help or extension of learning

Kuzmich 2007
106
Quick-Writes
Prompt:
Define global warming and
explain three factors that
contribute to it.
107
Quick-Writes
How can I use quick writes?
 Assessment Tool
GOT
IT
GOT SOME OF IT
HASN’T A CLUE
108
Quick-Writes
How can I use quick writes?

Follow-up to Assessment
Address individual learning needs of students
through grouping
 Tailor assignments to specific group
 Assist students who need help

109
Why is Writing so Powerful?
Cognitive Effect - Writing allows students to show
what they know.
Teaching Effect - Student writing provides teachers
with valuable diagnostic information.
Conclusion - We must recognize the power of writing
across the curriculum and the vital role it plays in student
success!
Kuzmich 2007
110
Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables
and Quick-Writes
How might I use quick-writes in my classes?
111
Using Graphic Organizers/Foldables
and Quick-Writes
THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU
112
Professional Development Literacy Workshops
Open Response Writing
Analyzing Graphs & Charts
Teaching Multiple Choice
Strategies
Using Visuals to Preview
a Chapter
Thinking About Words
Assessment – Checking for
Understanding
Previewing a Table of Contents
Using Summarizers
Oral Presentations
Vocabulary in Context
Teaching Non-fiction Reading
Active Reading Strategies
ELL /SIOP Strategies
Using Quick Writes
Foldables /Graphic Organizers
113
What gets monitored is
what gets done!!!
For the students AND the
teachers…
114
So, HOW do we know our
teachers are implementing
this?
Formal and informal evaluation,
and collection of student work
(Specifics in the next session)
115
RECAP:
Empowering a team
Using the data to inform decisions
Literacy for ALL – NO exceptions
A Professional Development Model
that trained ALL teachers in
literacy strategies
Monitoring, monitoring, monitoring
116
RESULTS:
What can the results be for
the students when the
school takes action?
(HINT, HINT… GOOD THINGS!!!)
117
Proficiency Index – ELA - Mass. Urbans
District
Grade
Band
Sub
Grp
ELA
2003
ELA
2004
ELA
2005
ELA
2006
ELA
2007
ELA
2008
Brockton
Grd 10
Agg
76.4
78.1
79.2
84.0
83.2
88
11.6
Lynn
Grd 10
Agg
70.5
70.7
73.0
77.2
78.1
82.7
12.2
Worcester
Grd 10
Agg
67.9
68.6
71.8
75.3
79.3
82.6
14.7
Boston
Grd 10
Agg
64.4
67.7
69.7
76.5
78.1
82.3
17.9
Lowell
Grd 10
Agg
69.8
74.2
73.6
76.4
78.9
81.4
11.6
Fall River
Grd 10
Agg
69.8
71.7
72.1
72.6
81.4
79.2
9.4
New Bedford
Grd 10
Agg
66.1
69.1
70.5
74.3
74.5
78.2
12.1
Springfield
Grd 10
Agg
62.1
65.6
66.7
67.3
69.7
76.7
14.6
Brockton
Grd 10
SPED
51.3
50.2
54.0
61.8
63.3
70.4
19.2
Lawrence
Grd 10
Agg
59.9
58.3
63.6
61.4
61.9
69.2
Gain
9.3
118
CLOSING THE GAP!
ELA MCAS Scores
Ratio of State Average for Whites
Brockton
Scores
Asian
Black
8th grade
in 2006
.85
.80
.85
.97
10th grade
in 2008
1.01
.94
.94
1.08 .89
Hispanic White Other
.77
Source: Ron Ferguson, Achievement Gap Initiative,
Harvard University
But it’s not just about the numbers!!!
120
I am proud of this
school:
Total in Agreement Disagree
97%
0%
Source: WE Lead Survey, ICLE
Changing Attitudes:
 Everyone is responsible
for every student
 Believing that every
student CAN and MUST
 Our responsibility:
to figure out how to help
122
JOHN& ABIGAIL ADAMS
SCHOLARSHIP – 2009
246 Recipients – 25%
African American – 32%
Asian – 7%
Hispanic – 6%
MultiRace/NonHispanic-2%
Native American – <1%
White – 53 %
Low Income – 34%
W/ Disability – 3%
123







Massachusetts Compass School
Northwest Regional Educational
Laboratory – Schools Making Progress
International Center for Leadership in
Education – Model School
2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
U.S. Department of Education National
High School Summit
National School Change Award – 2006
Harvard Achievement Gap Initiative 2009
NASSP/CSSR Secondary School
Showcase 2010
124
Brockton High School
Brockton School District
Plymouth County
470 Forest Avenue
Brockton, Massachusetts
(508)580-7633
125
Dr. Susan E. Szachowicz, Principal
Brockton High School
470 Forest Avenue
Brockton, MA 02301
508-580-7633
[email protected]
Senior Advisor International Center for
Leadership in Education
www.leadered.com
126
Leadership Academy
January 29-31, 2010
New Orleans
www.LeaderEd.com
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Brockton High School - CESA 6