EE 5301 – VLSI Design Automation I
Part I: Introduction
Kia Bazargan
University of Minnesota
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
1
Administrative Issues
• Class
 Time and venue: ___________________________
 Web page:
o http://www.ece.umn.edu/users/kia/Courses/EE5301
o http://webct.umn.edu/ (required x.500 ID & pwd)
o !!!! Check the class web page & discussion group regularly !!!!
 Textbook:
S. H. Gerez, "Algorithms for VLSI Design Automation",
John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
• Grades




Fall 2003
40% homework and projects
15% quizzes
20% midterm – open book. Date: ________________
25% Final exam – open book.
Date: ______________________________
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
2
Administrative Issues (cont.)
• Personnel
 Instructor: Kia Bazargan
o Email: [email protected]
o Phone: (612) 625-4588
o Office: EE/CSci 4-159
o Office hours: ________________________
 TA: ___________________
o Email: ___________________________
o Phone: _____________________________
o Office: ______________________________
o Office hours: __________________________
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
3
Administrative Issues (cont.)
• Policies
 Homework must be received before the class
o 1min – 24 hours late: 50% of the grade
o > 24 hours late: 0%
Zero tolerance for cheating
Collaboration OK, copying NOT OK
Include ID on all homework, exams, etc.
No extra work for extra credit
Check the class web pages regularly, the students are
responsible for checking the discussion threads and
announcements regularly
 Subscribe to the class mailing list





Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
4
Online Slides
• Slides are posted on the web
 Handouts as .pdf file
 Powerpoint slides provided too
o NOTE: some slides are animated (like this one)
o Click on the slide to see the animation
o Click once more.
o Note: some slides have notes! (like this one)
o Some slides contain text that is not printed in the handouts,
but animated. These are left for you to fill out in the handouts.
An example is shown below (animated: click to see)
This is a sample text, not printed, but animated
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
5
References and Copyright
• Textbooks referred (none required)
 [Mic94] G. De Micheli
“Synthesis and Optimization of Digital Circuits”
McGraw-Hill, 1994.
 [CLR90] T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest
“Introduction to Algorithms”
MIT Press, 1990.
 [Sar96] M. Sarrafzadeh, C. K. Wong
“An Introduction to VLSI Physical Design”
McGraw-Hill, 1996.
 [She99] N. Sherwani
“Algorithms For VLSI Physical Design Automation”
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 3rd edition, 1999.
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
6
References and Copyright (cont.)
• Slides used: (Modified by Kia when necessary)
 [©Sarrafzadeh] © Majid Sarrafzadeh, 2001;
Department of Computer Science, UCLA
 [©Sherwani] © Naveed A. Sherwani, 1992
(companion slides to [She99])
 [©Keutzer] © Kurt Keutzer, Dept. of EECS,
UC-Berekeley
http://www-cad.eecs.berkeley.edu/~niraj/ee244/index.htm
 [©Gupta] © Rajesh Gupta
UC-Irvine
http://www.ics.uci.edu/~rgupta/ics280.html
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
7
What is This Course All About?
• Prerequisite
 C / C++ programming experience
• What is covered?
 Basic algorithms, complexity theory
 Integrated circuit (IC) Design flow
 Computer Aided Design (CAD) tool development for
Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI)
 Lots of programming!
• Next slides:
 Overview of IC design steps
 Related courses at U of M
 Outline of this course
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
8
The Inverted Pyramid
Electronic Systems > $1 Trillion
Semiconductor > $220 B
CAD $3 B
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
[©Keutzer]
9
IC Products
• Processors
 CPU, DSP, Controllers
• Memory chips
 RAM, ROM, EEPROM
• Analog
 Mobile communication,
audio/video processing
• Programmable
 PLA, FPGA
• Embedded systems
 Used in cars, factories
 Network cards
• System-on-chip (SoC)
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
Images: amazon.com
10
IC Product Market Shares
Source: Electronic Business
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
11
Semiconductor Industry Growth Rates
Source: http://www.icinsight.com/ (McClean Report)
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
12
More Demand for EDA
CAE = Computer Aided Engineering
Source: http://www.edat.com/edac
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
13
Growth in System Size
CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate
Source: http://www.edat.com/edac
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
14
Example: Intel Processor Sizes
Silicon Process 1.5m
Technology
1.0m
0.8m
0.6m
0.35m 0.25m
Intel386TM DX
Processor
Intel486TM DX
Processor
Pentium® Processor
Pentium® Pro &
Pentium® II Processors
Source: http://www.intel.com/
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
15
Moore’s Law
Transistors
Microprocessors
10M
80386
68020
68000
1M
100K
10K
PPC603
Pentium
80486
Pentium Pro
PPC601
MIPS R4000
68040
8086
4004
8080
1K
10x/6 years
100
10
1
1975
Fall 2003
1980
1985
1990
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
1995
[©Keutzer]
16
NRTS: Chip Frequencies
Clock speed GHz
11
9
7
5
3
1
0
1997
1999
2001 2003
2006 2009
2012
On-chip, local clock, high performance
On-chip, global clock, high performance
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
[©Keutzer]
17
Increasing Device and Context Complexity
• Exponential increase in device
complexity
• More complex system contexts
 System contexts in which devices are
deployed (e.g. cellular radio) are increasing
in complexity
Complexity
 Increasing with Moore's law (or faster)!
• Require exponential increases in design
productivity
We have exponentially more transistors!
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
[©Keutzer]
18
Deep Submicron Effects




Crosscoupled capacitances
Signal integrity
Resistance
Inductance
DSM Effects
• Smaller geometries are causing a wide
variety of effects that we have largely
ignored in the past:
Design of each transistor is getting more difficult!
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
[©Keutzer]
19
Heterogeneity on Chip
• Greater diversity of onchip
elements




Processors
Software
Memory
Analog
Heterogeneity
More transistors doing different things!
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
[©Keutzer]
20
Stronger Market Pressures
• Decreasing design window
• Less tolerance for design
revisions
Time-to-market
Exponentially more complex, greater design risk,
greater variety, and a smaller design window!
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
[©Keutzer]
21
A QuadrupleWhammy
Complexity
Time-to-market
Heterogeneity
DSM Effects
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
[©Keutzer]
22
How Are We Doing?
10,000,000
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
1,000
100,000
Productivity
gap
10,000
1,000
100
2005
2001
1997
1989
1981
1993
100
21% / Yr. compound
productivity growth rate
10
10
Role of EDA: close the productivity gap
Fall 2003
Productivity
Trans. / Staff . Month
58% / Yr. compound
complexity growth rate
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
2009
1,000,000
100,000,000
1985
Logic transistors per chip
(K)
10,000,000
Source:
SEMATECH
[©Keutzer]
23
Evolution of the EDA Industry
Results
(design productivity)
What’s next?
Synthesis – Cadence, Synopsys
Schematic entry – Daisy, Mentor, Valid
Transistor entry – Calma, Computervision, Magic
McKinsey S-Curve
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
Effort
(EDA tool effort)
[©Keutzer]
24
IC Design Steps (cont.)
Specifications
Fall 2003
High-level
Description
Functional
Description
Behavioral
VHDL, C
Structural
VHDL
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
Figs. [©Sherwani]
25
IC Design Steps (cont.)
High-level
Description
Specifications
Physical
Design
Placed
& Routed
Design
Packaging
Fall 2003
Functional
Description
Synthesis
Technology
Mapping
Gate-level
Design
Fabrication
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
Logic
Description
X=(AB*CD)+
(A+D)+(A(B+C))
Y = (A(B+C)+AC+
D+A(BC+D))
Figs. [©Sherwani]
26
The Big Picture: IC Design Methods
Design
Methods
Cost /
Development
Time
Quality
# Companies
involved
Full Custom
Standard Cell
Library Design
ASIC – Standard
Cell Design
RTL-Level Design
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
27
Optimization: Levels of Abstraction
• Gate-level
 Reduce fan-out, capacitance
 Gate duplication, buffer insertion
• Layout / Physical-Design
 Move cells/gates around to
shorten wires on critical paths
 Abut rows to share power /
ground lines
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
Level of detail
 Encoding data, computation
scheduling, balancing delays of
components, etc.
Effectiveness
• Algorithmic
28
Full Custom Design
Structural/RTL Description
Component Design
Ctrl
Mem
Reg
File
Comp.
Unit
Place & Route
I/O
...
PLA
comp
RAM
A/D
Floorplan [©Sherwani]
Layouts [© Prentice Hall]
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
29
Full Custom Design Example
I/O Pad
Via
comp
PLA
I/O
Metal2
Metal1
Macro
cell
design
RAM
A/D
Glue logic
(standard
cell design)
[©Sherwani]
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
30
ASIC Design
HDL Programming
Structural/
RTL Description
P_Inp: process (Reset, Clock)
begin
if (Reset = '1') then
sum <= ( others => '0' );
input_nums_read <= '0';
sum_ready <= '0';
Ctrl
Mem
Reg
File
Comp.
Unit
add82 : kadd8 port map (
a => add_i1, b => add_i2,
ci => carry, s => sum_o);
Mult_i1 <= sum_o(7 downto 0);
D
C
A
D
C
Fall 2003
C
C
C
C
B
C
D
C
B
B
Cell library
A
C
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
B
D
Floorplan [©Sherwani]
31
ASIC (Standard Cell) Design Example
VDD
Metal1
D
C
C
GND
B
C
B
A
D
D
C
Fall 2003
Feedthrough
Metal2
C
A
Cell library
C
Cell
C
C
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
D
C
B
B
32
Where Is This Course in the Big Picture?
• VLSI related courses:
VLSI CAD
EE 5301
VLSI Design
EE 5323
VLSI Design
Automation I
VLSI Design I
EE 5302
EE 5324
VLSI Design
Automation II
VLSI Design II
EE 5333
Analog
Integrated Circuit
Design
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
Others
EE 4301
Digital Design
With Programmable
Logic
EE 5329
VLSI Digital
Signal Processing
Systems
EE 5549
Digital
Signal Processing
Structures for VLSI
33
Course Outline
• Basic algorithms and complexity theory
 Circuit representations
 Classes of problems (P, NP)
 Classes of algorithms (dynamic programming, network
flow, greedy, linear programming, etc.)
 Graph algorithms
• High-level synthesis
 Converting high-level languages to RTL
 Scheduling operations
 Allocating functional resources (adders, multipliers,
registers, etc.)
 Register minimization
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
34
Course Outline (cont.)
• Partitioning
 FM, KL, hMetis algorithms
• Floorplanning
 Slicing, non-slicing floorplans
 Simulated annealing floorplanning algorithms
• Placement / Packing
 Force-directed
 Simulated annealing
 Quadratic placement
• Global / detailed routing
 Maze routing, line-search, Steiner trees, channel
routing,
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
35
To Probe Further...
• International Technology Roadmap for
Semiconductors (ITRS)
 http://public.itrs.net/
• SEMATECH
 http://www.sematech.org/public/index.htm
• The EDA Consortium's 2001 Forecast Panel
 http://www.edat.com/edac
• Textbook
 Chapters 1, 2
Fall 2003
EE 5301 - VLSI Design Automation I
36
Descargar

PowerPoint Presentation: EE5324-Intro