Galician
History of Galician
• Origins.
• Middle Ages:
– Political background: barbarians, moors,
Reconquista, splitting Galicia, Catholic Monarchs.
– Social background: peasants VS lords.
– Religious background: Christianity, Cluny, Santiago.
– Economical background: commerce, fish, wine.
• Literary background: Alfonso X, Cantigas, lyric
poetry
• Middle Ages to 1936:
– Siglos Oscuros.
– Rexurdimento.
– Rosalía de Castro.
– Late industrial revolution – not an obstacle for the
language.
• Franco period:
– Minorized and forbidden language.
– Larga Noche – exile of some writers.
– Galaxia magazine.
– 1960.
– 1965 – Cátedra de literatura en lengua gallega.
– Official language – 1978.
Education in Galicia (1)
• Linguistic Standardization Act (1983) establishes
the official status of Galician at all levels of
education, recognizes the right of children to
receive their initial education in their own
mother tongue, and requires the regional
government to promote the use of Galician in
that domain.
• Plan de normalización lingüística (2002) – 50% of
classes to be taught in Galician in public schools
Education in Galicia (2)
• -In primary and secondary education,
between 64% and 89% of pupils are taught at
least partly in Galician, and Galician is a
compulsory subject in almost all schools.
• The establishment of Galescolas
Education in Galicia (3)
• Competence and Uses of Galician
Entenden
Falan
Len
Escriben
2001
99,16%
91,04%
68,65%
57,64%
1991
96,96%
91,39%
49,30%
34,85%
Táboa extraída do Plan xeral de normalización da lingua
galega. Comparativa do Censo 1991 e dos provisionais do
Censo do 2001. Fonte: Instituto Galego de Estatística.
Competencia en Galego:
Education in Galicia (4)
Why isn’t it working?
1)Only 8,5% of the pre-primary and primary
centres meets the requirement stated in the
decree. In secondary schools, requirements
are met in only 22.9% of the school
2)Only 20-25% of the education is delivered in
Galician
3)Private schools do not have to meet the same
legal requirements
Education in Galicia (5)
4) The problem of the normalised Galician that
is taught in schools
5) The lack of teaching in Galician in pre-school
education
6) The opinions of school children, especially in
the cities
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=7399630610169788180# 7.12 – 12.30
Education in Galicia (6)
The current debate
In 2009, PP (Partido Popular) won the elections
and are toying with the idea of 1) Removing
the Galescolas, and 2) Lowering the
percentage of classes taught in Galician to
30%.
Galician and Law
The Law for Linguistic Standardisation
passed unanimously in the Spanish
Parliament on 15 June 1983. This develops
the statutory mandate and covers the rights
of the citizens to use the Galician language,
with special application to the fields of
administration, education and the media.
• Further regulations were passed to complete the legal
framework and to ensure the full recovery of the use of the
Galician language in local administration, the judiciary, the
armed forces, etc.
As a result of the creation of this legal framework, any
communication in the local language with the various
administrative bodies acting in Galicia is valid for all purposes,
•
all place names are given in Galician only,
• the autonomous and local administration is under the
obligation to write its official documents in Galician,
•
the Galician language was introduced into education from the
primary level and the promotion of Galician is guaranteed
wherever there are nuclei of emigrants and in the areas
bordering the Autonomous Community.
Galician in the Administration
• The Autonomous Administration is under the
obligation to promote the widespread use of
Galician, not only because of the legislation,
but also because this language is the
vernacular of the country it governs and it
gives prestige with relation to other
administrative bodies.
• Promotion and encouragement of the use of
Galician at all levels of public life is regulated
by the General Direction of Language Policy,
part of the Education and Universities Council.
This organisation was helped in its task by the
creation in 1990 of the Coordinating
Committee for Linguistic Normalization, which
was designed to coordinate and support the
activities of the different Councils in this area,
that is, to reach those public sectors where
the Directorate General had no competence.
• The activity of the administration centred on;
• the importance given to staff training through courses, for both
beginners and improvers,
•
Designed to given oral and written competence in Galician so that
citizens' needs could be satisfied and information provided in this
language.
•
Stress was given to the education area, but these services were
provided in all the central departments and delegations of the
Councils.
•
Courses were also given for the staff of town halls, provincial
government offices, the military administration, etc.
Escola Galega de Administración Pública
(Galician School for Public Administration)
• Objectives:
• Extension and standardisation of the Galician language in the public
administration,
•
Linguistic training of staff
• Collaboration in the stabilisation of the technical, legal and
administrative language
• Since 1993 this School holds a specialised section for Galician
language normalization and standardisation in the field of the
administration.
Specific Actions
• Housing,
• Transport,
• Town planning,
• Public works,
• Fishing and shellfish collection.
• In addition forms, letters and circulars were
published, departments were renamed and
labelled, information campaigns were carried out
and vocabulary lists drawn up.
• In the area of health, the public receives
attention in both oral and written Galician. Access
to any public administration post includes tests in
the Galician language to guarantee a minimum
knowledge.
Municipal Government
•
•
The task of standardisation is most effective through the local administration.
Creation of Departments for Linguistic Normalization, with at least one specialist in
Galician, which were partially subsidised in some cases by the Autonomous
Government and in others by the respective town council alone.
•
Functions - Two levels:
•
Internal, with the translation of forms and writing of minutes, edicts, notices, etc
in Galician;
•
External, offering linguistic advice to the public and guaranteeing the presence of
the Galician language in all municipal activities of a public nature, necessary to
establish a shared concern for the language by the local people.
•
The Linguistic Normalization Departments within the Provincial Governments
reflect their concern for the linguistic conflict. The first steps towards
normalization were given through their cultural, sporting and leisure activities.
• The presence of the Galician language in legal spheres
gives it social prestige. The determination shown by
the bodies of the Administration of Justice led to an
agreement for cooperation with the Autonomous
Government for the creation of the "Gabinete de
Traducción e Asesoramento Lingüístico" (Department
for Translation and Linguistic Advice) within the Higher
Court of Justice.
• Non-institutional campaigns have also been carried out
in the area of normalization by associations such as the
Mesa pola Normalización Lingüística and the
Asociación de Funcionarios pola Normalización
Lingüística. They have a leading role in the field of
promotion and encouragement of the use of Galician
Communication Media and Cultural
Production
• Galician has not had a significant impact in these media, except for
very specific cases such as Radio Popular de Lugo and, especially,
Radio Popular de Vigo.
• The change in the political situation and the re-establishment of
democracy have had decisive effects on the levels of usage of the
Galician language in the State-owned media.
• The centres for Galicia of Radio Nacional de España and Televisión
Española have started to broadcast programmes in the Galician
language, although without the same repercussions as with similar
situations in other autonomous communities.
In 1984 the Xunta de Galicia approved the creation
of the Compañía de Radio e Televisión de Galicia.
Radio Galega and the Televisión de Galicia has had
great effects on advertising since, with the channel
being in Galician, advertisers and agencies have
begun to adapt both national and European
slogans and campaigns to the Galician language
and to produce specific campaigns in Galician.
Since 25 July 1996, Galician Radio started to
broadcast to the whole World via Internet,
Cultural Production
• The publication of books in Galician has
increased gradually since 1983 - not limited to
the field of literary creation but cover all areas
(historiography, teaching, economics,
sociolinguistics, etc.);
• Number of Galician publishers has increased
as well as that of publishers which, though
national, compete in the Galician market with
their own collections and/or translate works in
various languages to Galician.
• The creation of literary awards and competitions
enriches publishing in Galician.
• Awards for long novels, childrens stories,
playwriting etc
• Cinema and video production in Galicia is growing
up slowly. Films have been followed by new
productions even foreign films have been dubbed
Music
• Galician music is beginning to recover slowly
after a quiet period at the end of the sixties
and beginning of the seventies.
• “Milladoiro” is probably the group which has
achieved the greatest fame both in Galicia and
abroad. “Luar na Lubre”.
The Press
• In 1995 a daily newspaper entirely written in
Galician, O Correo Galego, was launched.
Following on from this, in June 1995, the
Galician Parliament passed a Green Paper
whereby both the Galician Government
(Xunta de Galicia) and the Parliament itself
would appeal to the media to give out their
news items in Galician.
• Facebook in Galician
RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN
GOVERNMENT
AND LANGUAGE
INTRODUCTION
RELATIONSHIP GALICIAN LANGUAGE – XUNTA DE GALICIA:
-controversies
-present in the day to day life of the community of Galicia:
-Continuous opinionated articles in local newspapers.
-Demonstrations in favour of its use. Eg: 17th of May, “Día das Letras Galegas”.
POLITICAL PARTIES
RELEVANT IN THE
XUNTA DE GALICIA
NOWADAYS
-Right-wing party.
-Galician employed in public speeches.
-Idea that Galician can’t have more importance than Castilian as this later is
the one which opens more doors, a language which is on the path towards
universalism.
-Central / left-wing party.
-Galician employed in public speeches.
-It defends Galicia’s own language and its use to a certain extent.
-left-wing party (nationalist)
-arduous defense of Galician language
-Galician: prime element of identity of Galician homeland.
-continuous insistence on checking the practice and effectiveness of the
laws related to the language.
-continuous demonstrations in favour of Galician language.
DIFFERENT ATTITUDES TOWARDS LANGUAGE HAVE
DIFFERENT EFFECTS ON REALITY.
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
BNG
PSOE
PP
Initiatives related with Galician language and its use in the
media
POLITICAL PARTIES
THAT HAVE RULED
GALICIA
AND THEIR ACTUATIONS
TOWARDS GALICIAN
LANGUAGE
YEARS
PRESIDENT
POLITICAL PARTY
1978 – 1979
(pre-autonomy)
Antonio Rosón Pérez UCD
1979 – 1982
(pre-autonomy)
1982 -1987
José Quiroga Suárez
UCD
Xerardo Fernández
Albor
PP
1987 – 1990
Fernando González
Laxe
1990 – 2005
Manuel Fraga
Iribarne
PSOE (coalition with
Coalición Galega and
Partido Nacionalista
Galego)
PP
2005 – 2009
Emilio Pérez Touriño PSOE (coalition with
BNG)
2009 -
Alberto Núñez Feijoo PP
MAIN LINGUISTIC EVENTS
-translation of the Spanish Constitution
to Galician
-support to a statute that didn’t
benefit Galician (in the end, it wasn’t
passed)
-“Estatuto de Autonomía de Galicia”
(1981)
-“Ley de Normalización Lingüística”
(1983)
-“Plan Xeral de Normalización
Lingüística” (2004)
-demotion of Galician’s use: number of
people who never spoke Galician
doubled in 12 years (from 13 to 25.8%)
-creation of “galescolas” (for children
aged 0-3; Galician as only language of
teaching)
-denunciation Galician isn’t official in
the European Parliament
-linguistic policies aimed at ruining
some of the advances reached until the
moment
-PP: 6 terms of office.
-PSOE: 2 terms of office.
-BNG: any term of office.
*PARADOX: great part of the GALICIAN POPULATION IN FAVOUR OF
THE USE OF GALICIAN but PP IS THE POLITICAL PARTY MOST
SUPPORTED (despite of its linguistic policy). Main reason:
-people who vote for the PP are mainly OLD PEOPLE.
-in Galicia there is more presence of old people than young
people (for every 100 youths under 20 years old, there are 135
elders of more than 64 years old).
CURRENT
GOVERNMENT
AT GALICIA
-Since the 1st of March of 2009,
the PP is ruling the “Xunta de
Galicia” (with Núñez Feijoo at
its head).
-NEW LINGUIST POLICY
(aimed at ruining some of
the advances reached until
now).
1. CONCEPTION OF GALICIAN LANGUAGE AND ITS USE (expressed
on the section number 8 of Feijoo’s election manifesto):
“CHEGOU O MOMENTO DO IDIOMA GALEGO COMO MOSTRA DA
NOSA RIQUEZA, sinal de identidade e medio de conversación, de
comunicación e expresión do noso talento. Temos que amalo e usalo
como medio de integración, respecto e deferencia. NUNCA
UTILIZALO COMO ARMA DE IMPOSICIÓN, NIN FOMENTALO POLA
FORZA NIN CONSENTIR A SÚA PROHIBICIÓN OU MENOSPREZO.
Non podemos permitirnos que a nosa principal referencia identitaria se
convirta no medio de división, símbolo de imposición administrativa ou
nunha referencia artificial.
Podemos compatibilizar as riquezas lingüísticas da nosa pertenza a
España, á nación común que finalmente, a finais do século XX, logrou
sentar as bases dunha convivencia estable, harmoniosa e fecunda
baixo o manto da Constitución. Que tamén nos ten outorgado a
lexitimidade orixinaria do noso Estatuto de Autonomía”.
-USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS (to denounce the supposed imposition of Galician).
-ENDING (praise to Spain and Castilian).
-SELECTION OF VOCABULARY: “fomentalo pola forza”.
This all leads to a
DEVALUATION OF GALICIAN’S PRESTIGE.
2. AIM OF REMOVING THE CURRENT EDUCATIONAL
DECREE
(which binds to teach the core subjects in Galician and that
establishes that at least the 50% OF THE SUBJECTS HAS TO
BE TAUGHT IN GALICIAN).
3.
CLOSURE OF “GALESCOLAS”.
4. POSSIBILITY OF CO-OFFICIALISING THE PLACE NAME 'LA
CORUÑA'
(Castilian version of “A Coruña”, the only one currently
recognised as the official form).
REACTIONS
AGAINST THE CURRENT
GOVERNMENT’S
LINGUISTIC POLICY
-DEMONSTRATION (last 18th of October).
Around 50.000 people.
-SIGNATURES. “Manifiesto a prol da convivencia
lingüística e a igualdade de dereitos para o galego”.
Around 20.000 people and 574 collectives.
-REAL ACADEMIA GALEGA :«las primeras decisiones
lingüísticas anunciadas por la Xunta sean todas
desprotectoras de la lengua gallega».
-“CIG-Ensino” (the Galician trade union of education)
WILL PARALYSE THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IF the
“Xunta de Galicia” proposes a NEW DECREE in which
the Galician language is unfavoured.
CONCLUSION
-HUGE IMPORTANCE OF A LINGUISTIC POLICY
that supports the use of a minority language.
-Non-defence policies of Galician caused a situation
of non-prestige.
-Nowadays, the situation is improving thanks to the
defence of Galician language.
Effectiveness of Language
Planning Measures
Most Relevant Language Planning Measures:
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1978 - SPANISH CONSTITUTION
1981 - ARTICLE 5 OF THE ESTATUTO DE AUTONOMÍA DE GALICIA
1983 - LEI DE NORMALIZACIÓN LINGÜÍSTICA DE GALICIA
2004 - PLAN XERAL DE NORMALIZACIÓN DA LINGUA GALEGA
Summary
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
First Language
Daily Language
Contrast between Urban & Rural Areas
Linguistic Competences
Galician Today in:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Administration
City Halls
Public Institutions
Mass Media
Education
Effective or not? To what extent?
1. First Language (1992 -2003)
- Fall: Galician as the ONLY language
- Rise: Castilian as the ONLY language
- Sharp Rise: FIRST Bilinguals (Galician & Castilian)
First language (2003)
Galician
Other
Spanish
Both
Apud 2003 CUIG-IGE 2003; elaborated by Henrique Monteagudo. Filoloxía Galega (USC)
First Language by Age (2003)
-
Apud 2003 CUIG-IGE 2003; elaborated by Henrique Monteagudo. Filoloxía Galega (USC)
2. Daily Language (1992-2003)
- Less Bilinguism: Galician & Castilian
- Sharp Rise of monolinguals: Galician + Castilian
Larger number in Castilian
ALTHOUGH Galician speakers keep on being the most numerous
group.
Daily language (2003)
Only Galician
More Galician
só galego
42,85%
máis galego
18,47%
máis castelán
18,82%
só castelán
19,86%
More Spanish
Only Spanish
Apud 2003 CUIG-IGE 2003; elaborated by Henrique Monteagudo. Filoloxía Galega (USC)
GENERAL RISE OF CASTILIAN
SPEAKERS EXPLAINED BY:
The Sharp Fall of Galician Bilinguals
3. Rural vs. Urban Areas
First Language in the Seven Greatest Towns
Daily Language in the Seven Greatest Towns
- RURAL: Bigger use of Galician
- URBAN: Bigger use of Castilian
- Fall of Galician Bilinguism in RURAL and URBAN AREAS
- Galician Monolinguism is the less used option in cities
- DIGLOSSIA?
Oral Competence (- to +)
LL
1. Vigo, Ferrol, A Coruña &
Pontevedra
2. Santiago, South Lugo & Ourense
3. North Lugo, East of A Coruña,
West of Pontevedra & S. Ourense
4. Interior of Pontevedra & West of
A Coruña (non-urban coast)
4. Linguistic Competences (1992-2003)
- Rise in all competences: especially Reading & Writing
- Main Cause: REGULARIZATION AT SCHOOLS
- Less common skill: Writing
Linguistic Competences (2003)
Apud 2003 CUIG-IGE 2003; elaborated by Henrique Monteagudo. Filoloxía Galega (USC)
5. Galician Today (2009)
5. 1. Administration
Justice Administration
Autonomous Administration
Parliament of Galicia
5.2. City Halls
5.3 Public Institutions
- HEALTH
- ENTERPRISES
5.4 Mass Media
NEWSPAPERS
BOOKS
RADIO
TV
MUSIC
INTERNET
DIGLOSSIA?
“Aunque, (…), el concepto de ‘diglosia’ no se aplica sólo a sociedades
multilingües que reconocen oficialmente varias lenguas, el
término ‘diglosia’ también alude a la COEXISTENCIA DE DOS
LENGUAS QUE SE UTILIZAN PARA DISTINTOS FINES SIGUIENDO
UNA PAUTA ACEPTADA POR LA COMUNIDAD; por ejemplo, una
se utiliza en el ámbito familiar y otra en el ámbito oficial, con
predominio de la oficial sobre la familiar. (…)”
(Diccionario de Lingüística Moderna, Enrique Alcaraz Varó y Mª
Antonia Martínez Linares)
5.5. Education
Aims:
- Vehicle of the Education System (124/2007)
- Full competence in both official languages
E.g.:
Lugo
Santiago
CONCLUSION
Despite all improvements in Administration, Education and
NOT an INCREASE IN THE ORAL
USE OF GALICIAN, BUT A GENERAL RISE OF
CASTILIAN SPEAKERS.
Mass Media there was
Why?
1. Is it a matter of POLITICS?
2. Is it a matter of CONFORMISM?
OUR THEORY:
The mass manifestations performed
during the last year are a Clear Evidence of
the Social Awarenes of Galician.
NEVERTHELESS,
why do some
people say that
they are bilingual
when they are
NOT?
The existence of different organizations
in Galician’s defense such as:
1. Galiza Nova
2. “Queremos Galego” platform
3. A Mesa pola Normalización
Lingüística
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKVvqDulYcs
Webs cited:
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
http://www.xunta.es/presidentes
http://www.bng-galiza.org/opencms/opencms/BNG/global/contidos/novas/novas/nova_0496.html
http://www.elcorreogallego.es/galicia/ecg/feijoo-estudiara-oficializar-toponimo-coruna-propone-mayoria-pleno-municipal/idEdicion2009-05-14/idNoticia-426792/
http://www.xunta.es/lingua
http://www.nucleosoa.org/InformacionAjena/ElRevolucionario/ReferendumGallego/REferendumGallego.html
http://www.lavozdegalicia.es/galicia/2009/05/12/00031242152357469160722.html
http://www.elcorreogallego.es/galicia/ecg/veinte-mil-firmas-respaldan-argumentos-marcha-17/idEdicion-2009-05-16/idNoticia427183/
http://www.farodevigo.es/sociedad-cultura/2009/10/19/bng-pide-reflexion-feijoo-historica-manifestacion-gallego/378626.html
http://www.elcorreogallego.es/galicia/ecg/mesa-acusa-xunta-galegofobia/idEdicion-2009-05-14/idNoticia-426799/
http://www.elcorreogallego.es/galicia/ecg/poblacion-gallega-estanca-envejece-ultimos-diez-anos/idEdicion-2009-03-07/idNoticia403208/
http://consellodacultura.org/mediateca/files/2009/04/lingua_sociedade_medios.pdf
http://www.xunta.es/linguagalega/plan_xeral_de_normalizacion
http://www.consellodacultura.org/arquivos/cdsg/loia/historia.php?idioma=3&id=96#f582
http://www.consellodacultura.org/arquivos/cdsg/
http://www.culturagalega.org
http://www.observatoriodalinguagalega.org/home.php
http://www.amesanl.org/noticias/noticia_tipo.asp?IDNOTICIA=1356
http://clasica.xornal.com/article.php?sid=20030508180055
http://www.xunta.es/linguagalega/contido/politica_linguistica?page=1
http://www.mundogaliza.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5378:en-doce-anos-duplicouse-a-poboacion-quenunca-fala-galego&catid=11:cultura&Itemid=2353
http://www.xunta.es/linguagalega/arquivos/PNL22x24_textointegro).pdf
http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/spain.php?aid=519
http://www.galego.org/english/today/laws.html
http://www.languageplanning.eu/home/Pages/Variation/Galician-English.aspx
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http://www.xunta.es/linguagalega/plan_xeral_de_normalizacion
www.xunta.es
www.uoc.es/euromosaic/web/document/gallec/an/i1/i1.html
www.consellodacultura.org/arquivos/cdsg/docs/plandenormalizacionlinguagalega.pdf
http://www.galego.org/english/today/education.html
http://www.xunta.es/galicia2003/es/02_02.htm
http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-12987.html
http://www1.euskadi.net/euskara_lingua/PDF/Galicia/Gaztela/ga_cs_hi.pdf
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Francisco Dubert García, Instituto da Lingua Galega. USC, Presencia de gallego y castellano en Galicia.
Datos cuantitativos
Diccionario de Lingüística Moderna, Enrique Alcaraz Varó y Mª Antonia Martínez Linares
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Thank You!!!!!
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Effectiveness of Language Planning Measures