Galician History of Galician • Origins. • Middle Ages: – Political background: barbarians, moors, Reconquista, splitting Galicia, Catholic Monarchs. – Social background: peasants VS lords. – Religious background: Christianity, Cluny, Santiago. – Economical background: commerce, fish, wine. • Literary background: Alfonso X, Cantigas, lyric poetry • Middle Ages to 1936: – Siglos Oscuros. – Rexurdimento. – Rosalía de Castro. – Late industrial revolution – not an obstacle for the language. • Franco period: – Minorized and forbidden language. – Larga Noche – exile of some writers. – Galaxia magazine. – 1960. – 1965 – Cátedra de literatura en lengua gallega. – Official language – 1978. Education in Galicia (1) • Linguistic Standardization Act (1983) establishes the official status of Galician at all levels of education, recognizes the right of children to receive their initial education in their own mother tongue, and requires the regional government to promote the use of Galician in that domain. • Plan de normalización lingüística (2002) – 50% of classes to be taught in Galician in public schools Education in Galicia (2) • -In primary and secondary education, between 64% and 89% of pupils are taught at least partly in Galician, and Galician is a compulsory subject in almost all schools. • The establishment of Galescolas Education in Galicia (3) • Competence and Uses of Galician Entenden Falan Len Escriben 2001 99,16% 91,04% 68,65% 57,64% 1991 96,96% 91,39% 49,30% 34,85% Táboa extraída do Plan xeral de normalización da lingua galega. Comparativa do Censo 1991 e dos provisionais do Censo do 2001. Fonte: Instituto Galego de Estatística. Competencia en Galego: Education in Galicia (4) Why isn’t it working? 1)Only 8,5% of the pre-primary and primary centres meets the requirement stated in the decree. In secondary schools, requirements are met in only 22.9% of the school 2)Only 20-25% of the education is delivered in Galician 3)Private schools do not have to meet the same legal requirements Education in Galicia (5) 4) The problem of the normalised Galician that is taught in schools 5) The lack of teaching in Galician in pre-school education 6) The opinions of school children, especially in the cities http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=7399630610169788180# 7.12 – 12.30 Education in Galicia (6) The current debate In 2009, PP (Partido Popular) won the elections and are toying with the idea of 1) Removing the Galescolas, and 2) Lowering the percentage of classes taught in Galician to 30%. Galician and Law The Law for Linguistic Standardisation passed unanimously in the Spanish Parliament on 15 June 1983. This develops the statutory mandate and covers the rights of the citizens to use the Galician language, with special application to the fields of administration, education and the media. • Further regulations were passed to complete the legal framework and to ensure the full recovery of the use of the Galician language in local administration, the judiciary, the armed forces, etc. As a result of the creation of this legal framework, any communication in the local language with the various administrative bodies acting in Galicia is valid for all purposes, • all place names are given in Galician only, • the autonomous and local administration is under the obligation to write its official documents in Galician, • the Galician language was introduced into education from the primary level and the promotion of Galician is guaranteed wherever there are nuclei of emigrants and in the areas bordering the Autonomous Community. Galician in the Administration • The Autonomous Administration is under the obligation to promote the widespread use of Galician, not only because of the legislation, but also because this language is the vernacular of the country it governs and it gives prestige with relation to other administrative bodies. • Promotion and encouragement of the use of Galician at all levels of public life is regulated by the General Direction of Language Policy, part of the Education and Universities Council. This organisation was helped in its task by the creation in 1990 of the Coordinating Committee for Linguistic Normalization, which was designed to coordinate and support the activities of the different Councils in this area, that is, to reach those public sectors where the Directorate General had no competence. • The activity of the administration centred on; • the importance given to staff training through courses, for both beginners and improvers, • Designed to given oral and written competence in Galician so that citizens' needs could be satisfied and information provided in this language. • Stress was given to the education area, but these services were provided in all the central departments and delegations of the Councils. • Courses were also given for the staff of town halls, provincial government offices, the military administration, etc. Escola Galega de Administración Pública (Galician School for Public Administration) • Objectives: • Extension and standardisation of the Galician language in the public administration, • Linguistic training of staff • Collaboration in the stabilisation of the technical, legal and administrative language • Since 1993 this School holds a specialised section for Galician language normalization and standardisation in the field of the administration. Specific Actions • Housing, • Transport, • Town planning, • Public works, • Fishing and shellfish collection. • In addition forms, letters and circulars were published, departments were renamed and labelled, information campaigns were carried out and vocabulary lists drawn up. • In the area of health, the public receives attention in both oral and written Galician. Access to any public administration post includes tests in the Galician language to guarantee a minimum knowledge. Municipal Government • • The task of standardisation is most effective through the local administration. Creation of Departments for Linguistic Normalization, with at least one specialist in Galician, which were partially subsidised in some cases by the Autonomous Government and in others by the respective town council alone. • Functions - Two levels: • Internal, with the translation of forms and writing of minutes, edicts, notices, etc in Galician; • External, offering linguistic advice to the public and guaranteeing the presence of the Galician language in all municipal activities of a public nature, necessary to establish a shared concern for the language by the local people. • The Linguistic Normalization Departments within the Provincial Governments reflect their concern for the linguistic conflict. The first steps towards normalization were given through their cultural, sporting and leisure activities. • The presence of the Galician language in legal spheres gives it social prestige. The determination shown by the bodies of the Administration of Justice led to an agreement for cooperation with the Autonomous Government for the creation of the "Gabinete de Traducción e Asesoramento Lingüístico" (Department for Translation and Linguistic Advice) within the Higher Court of Justice. • Non-institutional campaigns have also been carried out in the area of normalization by associations such as the Mesa pola Normalización Lingüística and the Asociación de Funcionarios pola Normalización Lingüística. They have a leading role in the field of promotion and encouragement of the use of Galician Communication Media and Cultural Production • Galician has not had a significant impact in these media, except for very specific cases such as Radio Popular de Lugo and, especially, Radio Popular de Vigo. • The change in the political situation and the re-establishment of democracy have had decisive effects on the levels of usage of the Galician language in the State-owned media. • The centres for Galicia of Radio Nacional de España and Televisión Española have started to broadcast programmes in the Galician language, although without the same repercussions as with similar situations in other autonomous communities. In 1984 the Xunta de Galicia approved the creation of the Compañía de Radio e Televisión de Galicia. Radio Galega and the Televisión de Galicia has had great effects on advertising since, with the channel being in Galician, advertisers and agencies have begun to adapt both national and European slogans and campaigns to the Galician language and to produce specific campaigns in Galician. Since 25 July 1996, Galician Radio started to broadcast to the whole World via Internet, Cultural Production • The publication of books in Galician has increased gradually since 1983 - not limited to the field of literary creation but cover all areas (historiography, teaching, economics, sociolinguistics, etc.); • Number of Galician publishers has increased as well as that of publishers which, though national, compete in the Galician market with their own collections and/or translate works in various languages to Galician. • The creation of literary awards and competitions enriches publishing in Galician. • Awards for long novels, childrens stories, playwriting etc • Cinema and video production in Galicia is growing up slowly. Films have been followed by new productions even foreign films have been dubbed Music • Galician music is beginning to recover slowly after a quiet period at the end of the sixties and beginning of the seventies. • “Milladoiro” is probably the group which has achieved the greatest fame both in Galicia and abroad. “Luar na Lubre”. The Press • In 1995 a daily newspaper entirely written in Galician, O Correo Galego, was launched. Following on from this, in June 1995, the Galician Parliament passed a Green Paper whereby both the Galician Government (Xunta de Galicia) and the Parliament itself would appeal to the media to give out their news items in Galician. • Facebook in Galician RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND LANGUAGE INTRODUCTION RELATIONSHIP GALICIAN LANGUAGE – XUNTA DE GALICIA: -controversies -present in the day to day life of the community of Galicia: -Continuous opinionated articles in local newspapers. -Demonstrations in favour of its use. Eg: 17th of May, “Día das Letras Galegas”. POLITICAL PARTIES RELEVANT IN THE XUNTA DE GALICIA NOWADAYS -Right-wing party. -Galician employed in public speeches. -Idea that Galician can’t have more importance than Castilian as this later is the one which opens more doors, a language which is on the path towards universalism. -Central / left-wing party. -Galician employed in public speeches. -It defends Galicia’s own language and its use to a certain extent. -left-wing party (nationalist) -arduous defense of Galician language -Galician: prime element of identity of Galician homeland. -continuous insistence on checking the practice and effectiveness of the laws related to the language. -continuous demonstrations in favour of Galician language. DIFFERENT ATTITUDES TOWARDS LANGUAGE HAVE DIFFERENT EFFECTS ON REALITY. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 BNG PSOE PP Initiatives related with Galician language and its use in the media POLITICAL PARTIES THAT HAVE RULED GALICIA AND THEIR ACTUATIONS TOWARDS GALICIAN LANGUAGE YEARS PRESIDENT POLITICAL PARTY 1978 – 1979 (pre-autonomy) Antonio Rosón Pérez UCD 1979 – 1982 (pre-autonomy) 1982 -1987 José Quiroga Suárez UCD Xerardo Fernández Albor PP 1987 – 1990 Fernando González Laxe 1990 – 2005 Manuel Fraga Iribarne PSOE (coalition with Coalición Galega and Partido Nacionalista Galego) PP 2005 – 2009 Emilio Pérez Touriño PSOE (coalition with BNG) 2009 - Alberto Núñez Feijoo PP MAIN LINGUISTIC EVENTS -translation of the Spanish Constitution to Galician -support to a statute that didn’t benefit Galician (in the end, it wasn’t passed) -“Estatuto de Autonomía de Galicia” (1981) -“Ley de Normalización Lingüística” (1983) -“Plan Xeral de Normalización Lingüística” (2004) -demotion of Galician’s use: number of people who never spoke Galician doubled in 12 years (from 13 to 25.8%) -creation of “galescolas” (for children aged 0-3; Galician as only language of teaching) -denunciation Galician isn’t official in the European Parliament -linguistic policies aimed at ruining some of the advances reached until the moment -PP: 6 terms of office. -PSOE: 2 terms of office. -BNG: any term of office. *PARADOX: great part of the GALICIAN POPULATION IN FAVOUR OF THE USE OF GALICIAN but PP IS THE POLITICAL PARTY MOST SUPPORTED (despite of its linguistic policy). Main reason: -people who vote for the PP are mainly OLD PEOPLE. -in Galicia there is more presence of old people than young people (for every 100 youths under 20 years old, there are 135 elders of more than 64 years old). CURRENT GOVERNMENT AT GALICIA -Since the 1st of March of 2009, the PP is ruling the “Xunta de Galicia” (with Núñez Feijoo at its head). -NEW LINGUIST POLICY (aimed at ruining some of the advances reached until now). 1. CONCEPTION OF GALICIAN LANGUAGE AND ITS USE (expressed on the section number 8 of Feijoo’s election manifesto): “CHEGOU O MOMENTO DO IDIOMA GALEGO COMO MOSTRA DA NOSA RIQUEZA, sinal de identidade e medio de conversación, de comunicación e expresión do noso talento. Temos que amalo e usalo como medio de integración, respecto e deferencia. NUNCA UTILIZALO COMO ARMA DE IMPOSICIÓN, NIN FOMENTALO POLA FORZA NIN CONSENTIR A SÚA PROHIBICIÓN OU MENOSPREZO. Non podemos permitirnos que a nosa principal referencia identitaria se convirta no medio de división, símbolo de imposición administrativa ou nunha referencia artificial. Podemos compatibilizar as riquezas lingüísticas da nosa pertenza a España, á nación común que finalmente, a finais do século XX, logrou sentar as bases dunha convivencia estable, harmoniosa e fecunda baixo o manto da Constitución. Que tamén nos ten outorgado a lexitimidade orixinaria do noso Estatuto de Autonomía”. -USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS (to denounce the supposed imposition of Galician). -ENDING (praise to Spain and Castilian). -SELECTION OF VOCABULARY: “fomentalo pola forza”. This all leads to a DEVALUATION OF GALICIAN’S PRESTIGE. 2. AIM OF REMOVING THE CURRENT EDUCATIONAL DECREE (which binds to teach the core subjects in Galician and that establishes that at least the 50% OF THE SUBJECTS HAS TO BE TAUGHT IN GALICIAN). 3. CLOSURE OF “GALESCOLAS”. 4. POSSIBILITY OF CO-OFFICIALISING THE PLACE NAME 'LA CORUÑA' (Castilian version of “A Coruña”, the only one currently recognised as the official form). REACTIONS AGAINST THE CURRENT GOVERNMENT’S LINGUISTIC POLICY -DEMONSTRATION (last 18th of October). Around 50.000 people. -SIGNATURES. “Manifiesto a prol da convivencia lingüística e a igualdade de dereitos para o galego”. Around 20.000 people and 574 collectives. -REAL ACADEMIA GALEGA :«las primeras decisiones lingüísticas anunciadas por la Xunta sean todas desprotectoras de la lengua gallega». -“CIG-Ensino” (the Galician trade union of education) WILL PARALYSE THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IF the “Xunta de Galicia” proposes a NEW DECREE in which the Galician language is unfavoured. CONCLUSION -HUGE IMPORTANCE OF A LINGUISTIC POLICY that supports the use of a minority language. -Non-defence policies of Galician caused a situation of non-prestige. -Nowadays, the situation is improving thanks to the defence of Galician language. Effectiveness of Language Planning Measures Most Relevant Language Planning Measures: • • • • 1978 - SPANISH CONSTITUTION 1981 - ARTICLE 5 OF THE ESTATUTO DE AUTONOMÍA DE GALICIA 1983 - LEI DE NORMALIZACIÓN LINGÜÍSTICA DE GALICIA 2004 - PLAN XERAL DE NORMALIZACIÓN DA LINGUA GALEGA Summary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. First Language Daily Language Contrast between Urban & Rural Areas Linguistic Competences Galician Today in: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Administration City Halls Public Institutions Mass Media Education Effective or not? To what extent? 1. First Language (1992 -2003) - Fall: Galician as the ONLY language - Rise: Castilian as the ONLY language - Sharp Rise: FIRST Bilinguals (Galician & Castilian) First language (2003) Galician Other Spanish Both Apud 2003 CUIG-IGE 2003; elaborated by Henrique Monteagudo. Filoloxía Galega (USC) First Language by Age (2003) - Apud 2003 CUIG-IGE 2003; elaborated by Henrique Monteagudo. Filoloxía Galega (USC) 2. Daily Language (1992-2003) - Less Bilinguism: Galician & Castilian - Sharp Rise of monolinguals: Galician + Castilian Larger number in Castilian ALTHOUGH Galician speakers keep on being the most numerous group. Daily language (2003) Only Galician More Galician só galego 42,85% máis galego 18,47% máis castelán 18,82% só castelán 19,86% More Spanish Only Spanish Apud 2003 CUIG-IGE 2003; elaborated by Henrique Monteagudo. Filoloxía Galega (USC) GENERAL RISE OF CASTILIAN SPEAKERS EXPLAINED BY: The Sharp Fall of Galician Bilinguals 3. Rural vs. Urban Areas First Language in the Seven Greatest Towns Daily Language in the Seven Greatest Towns - RURAL: Bigger use of Galician - URBAN: Bigger use of Castilian - Fall of Galician Bilinguism in RURAL and URBAN AREAS - Galician Monolinguism is the less used option in cities - DIGLOSSIA? Oral Competence (- to +) LL 1. Vigo, Ferrol, A Coruña & Pontevedra 2. Santiago, South Lugo & Ourense 3. North Lugo, East of A Coruña, West of Pontevedra & S. Ourense 4. Interior of Pontevedra & West of A Coruña (non-urban coast) 4. Linguistic Competences (1992-2003) - Rise in all competences: especially Reading & Writing - Main Cause: REGULARIZATION AT SCHOOLS - Less common skill: Writing Linguistic Competences (2003) Apud 2003 CUIG-IGE 2003; elaborated by Henrique Monteagudo. Filoloxía Galega (USC) 5. Galician Today (2009) 5. 1. Administration Justice Administration Autonomous Administration Parliament of Galicia 5.2. City Halls 5.3 Public Institutions - HEALTH - ENTERPRISES 5.4 Mass Media NEWSPAPERS BOOKS RADIO TV MUSIC INTERNET DIGLOSSIA? “Aunque, (…), el concepto de ‘diglosia’ no se aplica sólo a sociedades multilingües que reconocen oficialmente varias lenguas, el término ‘diglosia’ también alude a la COEXISTENCIA DE DOS LENGUAS QUE SE UTILIZAN PARA DISTINTOS FINES SIGUIENDO UNA PAUTA ACEPTADA POR LA COMUNIDAD; por ejemplo, una se utiliza en el ámbito familiar y otra en el ámbito oficial, con predominio de la oficial sobre la familiar. (…)” (Diccionario de Lingüística Moderna, Enrique Alcaraz Varó y Mª Antonia Martínez Linares) 5.5. Education Aims: - Vehicle of the Education System (124/2007) - Full competence in both official languages E.g.: Lugo Santiago CONCLUSION Despite all improvements in Administration, Education and NOT an INCREASE IN THE ORAL USE OF GALICIAN, BUT A GENERAL RISE OF CASTILIAN SPEAKERS. Mass Media there was Why? 1. Is it a matter of POLITICS? 2. Is it a matter of CONFORMISM? OUR THEORY: The mass manifestations performed during the last year are a Clear Evidence of the Social Awarenes of Galician. NEVERTHELESS, why do some people say that they are bilingual when they are NOT? The existence of different organizations in Galician’s defense such as: 1. Galiza Nova 2. “Queremos Galego” platform 3. A Mesa pola Normalización Lingüística http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKVvqDulYcs Webs cited: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www.xunta.es/presidentes http://www.bng-galiza.org/opencms/opencms/BNG/global/contidos/novas/novas/nova_0496.html http://www.elcorreogallego.es/galicia/ecg/feijoo-estudiara-oficializar-toponimo-coruna-propone-mayoria-pleno-municipal/idEdicion2009-05-14/idNoticia-426792/ http://www.xunta.es/lingua http://www.nucleosoa.org/InformacionAjena/ElRevolucionario/ReferendumGallego/REferendumGallego.html http://www.lavozdegalicia.es/galicia/2009/05/12/00031242152357469160722.html http://www.elcorreogallego.es/galicia/ecg/veinte-mil-firmas-respaldan-argumentos-marcha-17/idEdicion-2009-05-16/idNoticia427183/ http://www.farodevigo.es/sociedad-cultura/2009/10/19/bng-pide-reflexion-feijoo-historica-manifestacion-gallego/378626.html http://www.elcorreogallego.es/galicia/ecg/mesa-acusa-xunta-galegofobia/idEdicion-2009-05-14/idNoticia-426799/ http://www.elcorreogallego.es/galicia/ecg/poblacion-gallega-estanca-envejece-ultimos-diez-anos/idEdicion-2009-03-07/idNoticia403208/ http://consellodacultura.org/mediateca/files/2009/04/lingua_sociedade_medios.pdf http://www.xunta.es/linguagalega/plan_xeral_de_normalizacion http://www.consellodacultura.org/arquivos/cdsg/loia/historia.php?idioma=3&id=96#f582 http://www.consellodacultura.org/arquivos/cdsg/ http://www.culturagalega.org http://www.observatoriodalinguagalega.org/home.php http://www.amesanl.org/noticias/noticia_tipo.asp?IDNOTICIA=1356 http://clasica.xornal.com/article.php?sid=20030508180055 http://www.xunta.es/linguagalega/contido/politica_linguistica?page=1 http://www.mundogaliza.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5378:en-doce-anos-duplicouse-a-poboacion-quenunca-fala-galego&catid=11:cultura&Itemid=2353 http://www.xunta.es/linguagalega/arquivos/PNL22x24_textointegro).pdf http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/spain.php?aid=519 http://www.galego.org/english/today/laws.html http://www.languageplanning.eu/home/Pages/Variation/Galician-English.aspx • • • • • • • • http://www.xunta.es/linguagalega/plan_xeral_de_normalizacion www.xunta.es www.uoc.es/euromosaic/web/document/gallec/an/i1/i1.html www.consellodacultura.org/arquivos/cdsg/docs/plandenormalizacionlinguagalega.pdf http://www.galego.org/english/today/education.html http://www.xunta.es/galicia2003/es/02_02.htm http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-12987.html http://www1.euskadi.net/euskara_lingua/PDF/Galicia/Gaztela/ga_cs_hi.pdf • Francisco Dubert García, Instituto da Lingua Galega. USC, Presencia de gallego y castellano en Galicia. Datos cuantitativos Diccionario de Lingüística Moderna, Enrique Alcaraz Varó y Mª Antonia Martínez Linares • Thank You!!!!!