The Rise of States
National Monarchies
• 200 years in the making-it was the rise of
towns and the new middle class of the
1100’s that set the process in motion and
prepared the foundation for the modern,
political world
• European elites, whether nobles or
burghers, grudgingly gave allegiance to
ambitious monarchs- a single, strong ruler
seemed the only alternative to the brutal
pattern of war and civil strife so common
during the era of feudalism
The “tools” of the new monarchies…
• Use of vernacular languages
• Creation of a standing army
• A system of tax collection to par for the army and
its ability to wage war -the two were inseparable
• Subjecting the church to its secular power
• Marriage to reassert royal lands
• Extending Royal justice
• Promoting the interests of the new “middle class”
France: Hugh Capet,
r 987-996
Philip Augustus
r 1180-1223
• Solidified France by
gradually establishing
control over the Dukes
and Counts of his land
• Defeated King John of
England who held
more territory as a
feudal lord in France
that King Philip did.
Louis IX
r 1226-1270
• “Saint Louis”
• Issued laws for
his entire realm
• Prohibited private
warfare among
his nobles
The Italian states
• The various Italian states never developed
a national monarchy during this time…
• Dukes ruled in Venice, Genoa and Pisa
• After 1125, Normans (Vikings) controlled
Naples and Sicily
• These states played a major role in the
sea trade that connected the Byzantine
and Arab world with Europe
Holy Roman Empire; Otto the Great, r 936-973
• 955 defeated
the Magyars
• Established
forts along the
Slavic border
• 962 crowned
Holy Roman
• Initiated the
Alfred the Great,
King of Wessex,
William, Duke of Normandy; The Battle of Hastings, 1066
William of Normandy
William the Bastard
aka William the Conqueror
r 1066-1087
• Salisbury Oath
• Domesday Book
Henry II r 1154-1189
> Traveling royal judges – common law
> Trial by Jury
> primitive Grand Jury
King John
r 1199-1216
• Fought a costly and
losing war against
King Louis-Philippe
• Coerced his vassals
to giving him more
and more revenues
• Punished vassals
without a trial by Jury
King John, at Runnymede, 1215
• King John signs
the Magna Carta,

The High Middle Ages