Receptive Language Assessments: The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) and the Pre-school Language Scale (PLS-4) By Craig Domanski & Allison Vieira PLS-4 Description The PLS-4 is an individually administered standardized test of communication typically used with infants to children aged 6 years and 11 months who present characteristics of a language disorder or delay. It consists of two subscales to assess auditory comprehension/receptive and expressive skills. It also provides three supplemental measures which include an articulation screener, a language sample checklist and a caregiver questionnaire. The administration materials are an examiner’s manual that describes the process of the administration, scoring and interpretation procedures, a record form, a picture manual with colored stimuli and a manipulative box (blanket,toys,spoons) used for assessment. The test time is 20-45 minutes (dependent on child). PLS-4 Description The auditory comprehension/ receptive subscale assesses areas such as: attention to speakers, object play, comprehension of basic vocabulary, grammatical markers, identifying rhyming words and making comparisons. The expressive communication subscale asks preschoolers to name objects, use concepts that describe objects, express quantity, use grammatical markers, etc. For older children it includes word segmentation, completing analogies, telling a short story in sequence, etc. This test also includes an articulation screener and a language sample checklist. There are a totally of 62 receptive and 42 expressive areas assessed. PLS-4 Description PLS-4 Description PLS-4 Description PLS-4 Pros There is a Spanish version of the assessment Info obtained from assessment can be used in portfolio Can be useful for children with severe language delays (autism)? Is non biased in cases of children in low SES areas Based on developmental milestones and research Includes additional supplemental assessments for accuracy (caregivers)? Detailed Aligned with IDEA legislation? Norms/questions based on 2000 U.S. Census figures for children birth through 6 years. The new norms are based on a larger, more diverse sample of approximately 1,500 children, including children with disabilities 13.2% (autism)? PLS-4 Cons The test is “standardized” Do we need IOA for assessment? Is not directed toward children 7 and older Spanish is only language used Recommended to be implemented by SLPs Based on US Census 2000 results Does not meet guidelines? Young,Hoffman & Ameer (2004) PLS-4 Cons Young,Hoffman & Ameer (2004) suggest that: the PLS-4 does not meet guidelines to accurately diagnose a disorder the PLS-4 revision from PLS-3 was made only to meet assessment standards PLS-4 Cons PLS-4 Supporting Research The development of the PLS-4 was based on: developmental milestones and current trends in developmental theories survey of clinicians who had used the PLS-3 for suggested modifications a list of new tasks tested and modified from tests results/data collected from 661 children from 46 US states task items and scoring rules were concluded to be sensitive to the US population according to the 2000 Census and a dialect committee PLS-4 Supporting Research Zimmerman,Castilleja (2005) Mental retardation and developmental disabilities research review Zimmerman,Steiner,Pond (2004) PsychCorp (authors) Both state that test is effective and based on “extensive reliability and validity” PLS-4 Individualized Spanish Version Separate assessment areas for younger and older children Provided case study example (task analysis, developmental checklist,varying age levels, determined mastered and where help is needed) PLS-4 Individualized PLS-4 Modifications A revision based on more recent population results with higher special population or in 2010 An edition geared toward other languages A scientific study focusing on the effectiveness in assessing children with ASDs A description of how IDEA regulations are met PLS-4 Conclusion Although standardized, the PLS-4 seems to be an adequate assessment of language but may not be suitable for children with autism Is a Curriculum-Based Measurement More research Improvement from the PLS-3 for varied ethnic and SES groups Based on developmental milestones to help professionals plan their individualized program Can be helpful when starting individual portfolio Based on IDEA regulations? References Ameer, J.,Hoffman, L., Young, J. (2004) Teachers College, Columbia University PLS-4: A real change or just more of the same? Zimmerman, I.L., Steiner, V., Pond, R. E. (2004) PsychCorp. Zimmerman, I.L., Castilleja, N.F. (2005).The role of a language scale for infant and preschool assessment. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Review,11 (3),238-246. Overview The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) Developed by Lloyd and Leota Dunn 1959 3 previous editions have been revised to create the PPVT-IV Overview Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) Individually administered Norm-referenced Measures listening comprehension for spoken words in standard English Screening test of verbal ability beginning at age 2.5 Overview Provides all professionals working with a student a “valid, reliable, normreferenced measure of receptive vocabulary” Overview Tests students in vocabulary acquisition Screens for both giftedness and mental retardation Measures English proficiency Demonstrates child’s linguistic skills as well as cognitive development For individuals who don’t speak English as their primary language Detects language impairments Tests for some visual disabilities Used in research studies Description Item types 20 content categories Items are presented as a four-item multiple choice Split into verbs, nouns, and adjectives 4 simple black and white pictures Student selects the most appropriate picture that illustrates the definition of the word orally presented by the instructor Sets are progressively difficult Description Training items A & B For students aged 2-6 through 7-11 Before testing, the student must be able to respond independently to at least 2 training words Noun (I.e. ball, dog, etc.) Verb (I.e. crying, sleeping, etc.) Can be taught during training, before going ahead with the assessment Description Training items A & B Description Training items C & D For students aged 8 years or older Similar procedure to A & B Receptively identifies the number associated with each picture Nouns (I.e. parrot, flower, etc.) Verbs (I.e. mowing the lawn, riding a bike) Description Training items C & D Description As test continues, items get more difficult… Description Age 6,7 Description Age 9, 10 Description Final set Pros & cons Pros is “the leading measure of receptive vocabulary for standard English and a screening test of verbal ability.” PPVT-III Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody is the assessment in Spanish Pros & cons Pros Individually administered Norm-referenced Applicable for age 2+ Untimed, quick administration Usually No 10-15 minutes reading, writing, or speaking required Pros & cons Pros Developed in compliance with the Standards of Educational and Psychological Testing Published jointly by: American Educational Research Association American Psychological Association National Council on Measurement in Education There is an abundance of research supporting its use Pros & cons Supplemented by Technical References book Development of each edition Process used to minimize bias How standardized Validity information Research Can be used for training, analysis, and research Pros & cons Cons Cost Supplemental materials cost more money Expressive test (EVT) must be purchased separately Some items are ambiguous even for professionals Cons Example Item for age 5 Individualization Items 204 stimulus words in all 17 sets of 12 words each However, each is a set of 4 nouns, verbs, and adjectives Each set only contains 4 items Individualization Untimed Gives everyone an equal chance to respond to known words Examinees Items can be answered Expressively Receptively By naming item By stating number of item By saying “yes” or “no” By pointing to the item By pointing to the number of the iteM Gesturally Nodding “yes” or “no” as instructor points to item 50% chance of guessing correctly Research There is an abundance of research supporting the use of the PPVT-III 231 articles are cited in the technical references manual Clingman & Fowler, 1976 Conclusion The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test is: Proven Valid Reliable Comprehensive Effective Any questions…?