SURVEY OF METHODS
Summary collected by T. Navés
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
1
I. History / Evolution / Changes
of ELT Methodology
II. Recent developments in ELT
Methodology /Innovative ELTM
III. The umbrella of
Communicative Approaches
© Teresa Naves [email protected]
http://lada.fil.ub.es/Angles/ELTM
Universitat de Barcelona
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
2
Introduction (I) XX Century
Age of the
Refugee:
(Immigrants)
New nations
Democracy
Universal
schooling
Coping with
difficulties in
Learning and schooling
The role and teaching
of languages: L1/L2
FLA
SLA
AL
Language
Policy
Linguistics
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
3
Technique/ Syllabus/
Curriculum
Theory
Approach
Methodology
Method
Technique
Syllabus
Curriculum
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
4
Theory
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman
Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.).
Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited.
A statement of a general principle, based
upon reasoned argument and supported by
evidence, that is intended to explain a
particular fact, event or phenomenon.
A Theory is more strongly supported by
evidence than a hypothesis.
The part of a science or art that deals with
general principles and methods as opposed to
practice: a set or rules or principles for the
study of a subject
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
5
Approach
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK Limited based on Anthony, 1963 and Richards and Rodgers 1986
Language teaching is something discussed
in terms of three related aspects: approach,
method and technique
Different theories about the nature of
langauge and how languages are learned
(the approach) imply different ways of
teaching language (the method) and
different methods make use of different
kinds of classroom activities (the tecniques)
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
6
Approach (II)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK Limited based on Anthony, 1963 and Richards and Rodgers 1986
Examples of different approaches are


The aural-oral approach (see audiolingual method)
The communicative approach etc.
Examples of different methods which are based
on a particular approach are


The Audiolingual method
The Direct Method
Examples of techniques used in particular
methods are:


Drills
Dialogues,
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
7
Method (I)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992).
Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.).
Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited based on Richards and Rodgers 1986
A way of teaching a language which is based on
systematic principles and procedures, i.e., which
is an implication of views on how language is best
taught and learned.
Examples:





Direct Method
Audiolingual Method
Grammar-Translation Method
Silent way
Communicative Approach
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
8
Method (II)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992).
Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.).
Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited based on Richards and Rodgers 1986
The different methods result from
different views of
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The nature of language
The nature of language learning
Goals and objectives in teaching
Type of syllabus to use
The role of the teachers, learners and
intructional materials
The techniques and procedures to use.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
9
Methodology (I)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK Limited based on Rivers 1981, Omaggio, 1986 and Richards 1990
(1) The study of the practices and
procedures used in teaching, and the
principles and beliefs that underline them
Methodology include:
1.
2.
3.
Study of the nature of language skills
Lesson Plans
Evaluation and comparison of teaching
methods.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
10
Methodology (II)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK Limited based on Rivers 1981, Omaggio, 1986 and Richards 1990
(2) The study of practices,
procedures, principles and beliefs
themselves
(3) (in research) the procedures used
in carrying out an investigation,
including the methods used to collect
and analyze them.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
11
Syllabus
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language
Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK
Limited based on Johnson 1989, Nunan 1988, Wilkins 1976
A description of the contents of a course of instruction and
the order in which they are to be taught.
Language-teaching syllabus may be based on
 Grammatical items and vocabulary (structural syllabus)
 The language needed for different types of situations
(situational method)
 The meanings and communicative functions which the
learner needs to express in the target language
(notional sylalbus)
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
12
Curriculum
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language
Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK
Limited based on Nunan 1988, Pratt, 1980; White 1988
An educational programme which states
 An educational purpose of the programme
(the ends)
 The content, teaching procedures and
learning experiences which will be
necessary to achieve this procedure (the
means)
 Some means for assessing whether or not
the educational ends have been achieved
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
13
(I)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Howwat, 1983 Kelly 1969
A method of FL or SL teaching which makes
use of translation and grammar study as the
main teaching and learning activities.
The GTM was the traditional way Latin and
Greek were taught in Europe
IN the 19th Century it began to be used to
teach ‘modern’ languages such as French,
German and English, and it is still used in
many countries today.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
14
(II)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Howwat, 1983 Kelly 1969
A typical lesson consists of the
preparation of a grammatical rule, a
study of lists of vocabulary and a
translation exercise.
Because the GTM emphasizes reading
rather than the ability to communicate
in language there was a reaction to it in
the 19th century.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
15
Grammar Translation Method
(III)
It is teacher-centered
It is usually regarded as non-communicative,
non-motivational
It may be still be used today because of hte
lack of pressure put on hte teacher, who is
not required to speak the L2.
The only thing students may walk away in
this method is the ability to read and interpret
text
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
16
Direct Method (I)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Titone, 1968 and Richards & Rodgers 1986
A method of FL or SL teaching which has
the following features:
1. Only the TL should be used in class
2. Meanings should be communicated
‘directly’ (hence the name of the
method) by associating speech forms
with actions, objects, mime, gestures
and situations.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
17
Direct Method (II)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Titone, 1968 and Richards & Rodgers 1986
3. Reading and writing should be taught
only after speaking
4. Grammar should only be taught
inductively; i.e. Grammar rules should
not be taught to learners.
The DM was developed in the late 19th
century as a reaction to the GTM
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
18
Direct Method (III)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Titone, 1968 and Richards & Rodgers 1986
Introduced by Bertlitz
A typical class might go something like:
Read passage aloud, explain new
vocabulary, discuss text and paraphrase,
and complete some comprehension
questions and do some phonetic work on
new words
Translation and the use of L1 was not
appropriate in this method.
Lots of oral repetition was used for new
words
Written workTeresa
wasNavés
not
as improtant
tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
One criticisim is the lack of organization.
19
Audiolingual Method (I)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Rivers, 1964 and Richards & Rodgers 1986
A method of FL or SL teaching which
1. Empahsizes the teaching of speaking and
listening before reading and writing
2. Uses dialogues and drills
3. Discourages use of mother tongue in
classrooms
4. Often makes use of contrastive analysis
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
20
Audiolingual Method (I)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Rivers, 1964 and Richards & Rodgers 1986
The Audiolingual method was prominent in the
1950s and 1960s, especially in the US, and has
been widely used in many other parts of the
world.
The theory behing the audiolingual method is
hte aural-oral approach to language teaching,
which contains the following beliefs about
language and language learning:
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
21
Audiolingual Method (II)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Rivers, 1964 and Richards & Rodgers 1986
The following ideas were based partly on the theory
of Structural linguistics and partly on
Behaviourism
1. Speaking and listening are the most basic skils
2. Each language has its own unique structure
and rule system
3. A language is learned through forming habits
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
22
Audiolingual Method (III)
Emphasis lied on correction and not on
understanding the message
It was also known as the Mim-Mem
method because students would mime
and memorize dialogues before going on
with drills.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
23
Communicative Language Learning CLL (I)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching
and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Currant 1976
and Richards & Rogers 1986
1. A method of SL or FL teaching
devoloped by Charles Currant.
2. CLL is an application of counselling
learning to SL and FL teaching and
learning.
3. It uses techniques developed in group
counselling to help people with
psychological and emotional problems
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
24
Communicative Language Learning CLL
(II)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language
Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on
Currant 1976 and Richards & Rogers 1986
4. The method makes use of
grouplearning in small or large groups.
5. These groups are the ‘community’
6. The method palces emphasis on hte
learners’ personal feelings and thir
reactions to language learning.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
25
Communicative Language Learning CLL
(III)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language
Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on
Currant 1976 and Richards & Rogers 1986
7 Learners say things which they want
to talk about, int heir native language
8 The teacher (known as ‘councelor’)
translates the learner’s sentences into
the foreign language, and the learner
then repeats this to the other
members of the group
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
26
Communicative Language Learning CLL
(IV)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language
Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on
Currant 1976 and Richards & Rogers 1986
It follows Krashen’s Monitoring Theory
(affective filter)
Stages like L1 children
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
27
Silent Way
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language
Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on
Gattegno, 1976and Richards & Rogers 1986
A method of FL teaching developed by
Gattegno which makes use of gesture, mime,
visual aid, wall charts, and in particular
Cuisinière rods (wooden sticks of different
lengts and colours) that the teacher uses to
help the students to talk.
The method takes its name from the relative
silence of the teacher using these techniques.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
28
Suggestopedia
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language
Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on
Lozanov, 1979; Rogers 1986
A method of FL teaching developed by the
Bulgarian Lozanov.
It makes use of dialogues, situations, and
translations to present and practice languge
and in particular, makes use of music, visual
images and relaxation exercises to make
learninig more comfortable and effective.
It is said to be a pedagogical application of
‘Suggestology’, the influence of suggestions on
human behaviour.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
29
Total Physical Response TPT
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language
Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on
Asher, 1977 1979; Rogers 1986
A language teaching method developed
by Asher in which item are presented in
the FL as orders, commands, and
instructions requiring a physical
response from the learner (e.g. Opening
a window or standing up)
This is thought to lead to more
meaningful and effective learning
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
30
Notional-Functional Syllabus (I)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language
Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on
Wilinks 1976
A syllabus in which the language
content is arranged according to the
meanings a learner needs to
express through language and the
functions the learner will use the
language for.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
31
Notional-Functional Syllabus (II)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language
Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on
Wilinks 1976
The term ‘notional’ is taken from
‘notional grammar’.
A notional syllabus is contrasted with


a grammatical syllabus or ‘structural
syllabus’ (one which consists of a sequence
of graded language items)
or a ‘situational syllabus’ (one which
consists of situations and the relevant
language items)
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
32
Notional-Functional Syllabus (III)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language
Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on
Wilinks 1976
The notional syllabus contains:


The meanings and concepts the learner needs
in order to communicate (e.g. Time, quantity,
duration, location) and the language needed to
expresss them. These concepts and meanings
are called ‘notions’.
The language needed to express different
functions or speech acts (e.g. Requesting,
suggesting, promising, describing)
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
33
Notional-Functional Syllabus (IV)
Beginning with the work of the
Council of Europe Threshold Level
(Van Ek and Alexander, 1975)
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
34
The Communicative Approach (I)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986
An approach to FL or SL teaching which
emphasizes that the goal of language
learning is ‘Communicative Competence’
The CA has been developed particularly
by British applied linguists as a reaction
away from grammar-based approaches
such as the audiolingual method.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
35
The Communicative Approach (II)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986
Teaching materials in the CA often:
1. Teach the language needed to express and
understand different kinds of functions, such as
requesting, describing, expressing likes and
dislikes, etc.
2. Are based on ‘notional syllabus’ or some other
communicatively organized syllabus.
3. Emphasize the processes of communication,
such as using language appropriately in different
kinds of tasks, e.g. To solve puzzles, ot get
information, etc. Using language for social
Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
interaction withTeresa
other
people.
Universitat de Barcelona
36
The Communicative Approach (III):
Communicative Competence (i)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986
The ability not only to apply the
grammatical rules of a language in order
to form grammatical correct sentences but
also to know when and where to sue the
sentences and to whom.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
37
The Communicative Approach (IV):
Communicative Competence (ii)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986
Communicative Competence includes:
1. Knowledge of the grammar and vocabulary of
the language
2. Knowledge of rules of speaking (e.g. Knowing
how to begin and end conversations, knowing
what topics may be talked about in different
types of speech events, knowing which ‘address
forms’ should be used with different persons one
speaks to an in different situations
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
38
The Communicative Approach (V):
Communicative Competence (iii)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986
3. Knowing how to use and respond
to different types of speech acts,
such as requests, apologies,
thanks, and invitations.
4. Knowing how to use language
appropriately.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
39
The Communicative Approach (VI):
Communicative Competence (iv)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986
When someone wishes to communicate
with others, they must recognize the social
setting, their relationship to other persons,
and the types of language that can be
used for a particular occasion. They must
be ale to interpret written or spoken
sentences withing the total context in
which they are used.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
40
The Communicative Approach (VII):
Communicative Competence (v)
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman
Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986
For example, the English
statement ‘It’s rather hot in here’
could be seen as a request,
particularly to someone in a lower
role relationship, to close a
window or door or to turn on the
heating.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
41
The Task-based syllabus:
Source: Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2nd ed.).
Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Prabhu, 1983 Johnson1982
A syllabus which is organized around tasks,
rather than in terms of grammar or vocabulary.
For example, using the telephone to obtain
information, etc.
It has been argued that this is a more effective
way of learning a language since it provides a
purpose for the use and learning of a language
other than simply learning language items for
their own sake.
Teresa Navés tnaves@.ub.edu
Universitat de Barcelona
42
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Uni1 1 (Layout): I. History / Evolution / Changes of ELT