Language
言語ユニット
Why geographers study language
• Provides the single most common variable by
which cultural groups are identified
• Provides the main means by which learned
customs and skills pass from one generation to
the next
• Facilitates cultural diffusion of innovations
• Because languages vary spatially, they reinforce
the sense of region and place
• Study of language called linguistic geography
and geolinguistics by geographers
• Language – set of sounds, combination of
sounds, and symbols used in
communication
• Standard language – published, widely
distributed, and purposely taught,
ex.British Received Pronunciation (BRP)
• Official Language – the language adopted
by the government for official business
• Isogloss – a geographic boundary within
which a particular linguistic feature occurs
• Mutual intelligibility – two people can
understand each other when speaking
Terms used in the study of
language
• Dialects — variant forms of a
language that have not lost mutual
comprehension
– A speaker of English can understand the
various dialects of the language
– A dialect is distinctive enough in
vocabulary and pronunciation to label its
speaker
–
–
My Fair Lady, Cosby
Soda vs. Pop chart, map
• Some 6,000 languages and many
more dialects are spoken today
How do you say?
• Group of 2 or more; plural version of you?
How do you say?
• Sale of unwanted household items, maybe
on a Sat. morning?
How do you say?
• Flying insect w/a rear section that glows?
How do you say?
• Big clumps of dust under furniture?
How do you say?
• Small lobster-like crustacean found in
streams?
How do you say?
• Raining while the sun is shining?
How do you say?
• Gooey or dry matter in eyes b/c of sleep?
How do you say?
• General term for big road you can drive
fast on?
How do you say?
• Group of 2 or more? http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_50.html
• Sale of unwanted household items?
http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_58.html
• Flying insect w/a rear section that glows?
http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_65.html
• Small lobster-like crustacean found in streams?
http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_66.html
• Big clumps of dust under furniture?
http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_72.html
• Raining while the sun is shining?
http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_80.html
• Gooey or dry matter in eyes b/c of sleep?
http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_82.html
• General term for big road you can drive fast on?
http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_79.html
http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/maps.html
Aunt
Ah
Pecan
PEE-can pee-Can PEEkahn
Sock
Shock
Grocery
Caramel Car-ml
Ant
Car-ramel
Caught
Both
ways
Ain’t
Pick Ahn
English dialects in the United
States
• Dialects reveal a vivid geography
• American English is hardly uniform from region
to region
• At least three major dialects, corresponding to
major culture regions, developed in the eastern
United States by the time of the American
Revolution
– Northern
– Midland
– Southern
U.S. Folk House Forms
•
Fred Kniffen-3 major hearths of
folk house forms in the US:
1. NE1.saltbox, two-chimney, cape cod, front
gable and wing
2. Mid-Atlantic:
1.“I” house
3. Lower Chesapeake (or Tidewater)
1.one story w/steep roof and two
chimneys
Diffusion of folk housing forms
Diffusion of folk housing forms
English dialects in the United
States
• The three subcultures expanded westward
and their dialects spread and fragmented
– Retained much of their basic character even
beyond the Mississippi River
– Have distinctive vocabularies and
pronunciations
– Drawing dialect boundaries is often tricky
English dialects in the United
States
• Today, many regional words are becoming oldfashioned, but new words display regional
variations
• The following words are all used to describe a
controlled-access divided highway
– Freeway — a California word
– Turnpike and parkway — mainly northeastern and
Midwestern words
– Thruway, expressway, and interstate
Historical
Linkages
among
Languages
• IndoEuropean
language
family
• Proto-IndoEuropean
language
• Nostratic
Language
Renfrew
•
http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00maplinks/overview/indoeuropean/indoeuropean.html
Gimbutas - Kurgan
Language Formation
• the origins of Sanskrit
– Language of ancient Indian religious &
literary texts
– Resembles Greek and Latin
• What accounts for similarities between
different languages?
– Milk in 4 different languages: lacte, latta,
leche, & lait
– Latin, Italian, Spanish, and French
Which languages share a common ancestor?
Some Indo-European Shared Words
English
Sanskrit
Greek
Latin
Armenian
Old Irish Lithuanian
me
father
mother
brother
mam
pitar
matar
bhratar
eme
pater
mater
-
me
pater
mater
frater
is
hayr
mayr
elbayr
athair
mathair
brathair
mane
motina
brolis
daughter
cow
eoh (OE )
hound
foot
new
bears
two
three
duhitar
gavasvas
svan
pad
navas
bharati
duva
trayas
thugaterbous
hippos
kuon
podne(w)os
pherei
duo
treis
bos
equus
canis
pednovus
fert
duo
tres
dustr
kov
sun
otn
nor
bere
erku
erek
bo
ech
con
nue
berid
do
tri
dukter
guovs(Latv)
asva, mare
sun
naujas
du
trys
Many Indo-European languages have common words for snow,
winter, spring; for dog, horse, cow, sheep bear but not camel,
lion, elephant, or tiger; for beech, oak, pine, willow, but not
palm or banyan tree.
How do Languages Diffuse?
•
•
•
•
•
•
human interaction
print distribution/internet
migration
trade
rise of nation-states
colonialism
Austronesian diffusion
• Presumed hearth in the interior of
Southeast Asia 5,000 years ago
• Initially spread southward into the Malay
Peninsula
• Sailing and navigation was the key to
Austronesian spread, not agriculture
Austronesian language family
• Speakers live mainly on tropical islands
• Ranges from Madagascar, through
Indonesia and the Pacific Islands, to Hawaii
and Easter Island
• Largest single language in this family is
Indonesian —5O million speakers
• Most widespread language is Polynesian
Austronesian diffusion
• Geographers John Webb and Gerard Ward
studied the prehistoric Polynesian diffusion
– Their method involved the development of a computer
model building in data on:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Winds
Ocean currents
Vessel traits and capabilities
Island visibility
Duration of voyage, etc.
Both drift and navigated voyages were considered
Language Divisions
• Language Families
• Language Branches
• Language Groups
• Languages
• Dialects
• Accents
Language Divisions for
English
• Language Families
-- Indo-European
• Language Branches
-- Germanic
• Language Groups
-- West Germanic
• Languages
-- English
• Dialects
-- Northeastern
• Accents
-- Boston (Pak da ka
o-fa dere, pleese!)
How are Languages Formed?
• Language divergence –
when a lack of spatial interaction among
speakers of a language breaks the
language into dialects and then new
languages.
– Examples
• American English vs. British English
– Soccer/football, biscuit (cookie/scone), to table
(wait/open to discussion)
• Icelandic vs. Norwegian
How are Languages Formed?
Language convergence –
when peoples with different languages
have consistent spatial interaction and
their languages collapse into one.
– Examples
• Situation in Balkans – mix between Slavic,
Albanian, and Greek (common when languages
are geographically close and have a common
structure)
• Borrowing from other languages
• Creoles
Language
Group
Branch
Family
Language families
• The Indo-European language family
– Largest most wide-spread family
– Spoken on all continents
– Subfamilies—Romance, Slavic, Germanic,
Indic, Celtic, and Iranic
– Seven Indo-European tongues are among the
top 10 languages spoken in the world
Indo-European Language
Family (50% of World)
Main Branches:
• Germanic
- Dutch, German
• Romance
- Spanish, French
• Baltic-Slavic
- Russian
• Indo-Iranian
- Hindu, Bengali
Germanic Branch - Icelandic
Iceland colonized by
Norwegians in AD
874.
Largely unchanged
because of isolation.
.
Indo-European Language
Family - Germanic Branch
West Germanic
•English (514 million)
•German (128)
•Dutch (21)
East Germanic
•Danish (5)
•Norwegian (5)
•Swedish (9)
Germanic Branch - English
Diffused throughout the world by hundreds of years of British
colonialism. Brought to New World by British colonies in
1600s. Has become an important global lingua franca.
Development of English
Germanic Tribes
(Germany/Denmark)
• Jutes
• Angles
• Saxons
Vikings (Norway)
• 9th - 11th Centuries
Normans (French)
• Battle of Hastings, 1066
• French was official
language for 150 years.
Development of English Adopted Words
Germanic Tribes (Germany/Denmark)
• kindergarten, angst, noodle, pretzel
Vikings (Norway)
• take, they, reindeer, window
Normans (French)
• renaissance, mansion, village, guardian
•How the English Language Developed
Indo-European Language Family Romance Branch
Like English these languages have been spread by Colonialism.
• Spanish (425 million)
• Portuguese (194)
- most in Brazil
•French (129)
•Italian (62)
•Romanian (26)
major language families
• Altaic language family
– Includes Turkic, Mongolic, and several other
subgroups
– Homeland lies largely in deserts, tundras, and
coniferous forests of northern and central Asia
• Uralic family
– Finnish and Hungarian are the two most
important tongues
– Both have official status in their countries
Language families
• The Afro-Asiatic family
– Has two major divisions—Semitic and Hamitic
– Semitic - Tigris-Euphrates valley westward;
most of the north half of Africa
• Large area but mostly sparsely populated deserts
• Arabic is the most widespread Semitic language
• Hebrew was a “dead” language used only in
religious ceremonies
Language families
• The Afro-Asiatic family
– Smaller number of people speak Hamitic
languages
• Spoken by the Berbers of Morocco and Algeria
• Spoken in East Africa
• Originated in Asia but today only spoken in
Africa
• Expansion of Arabic decreased the area and
number of speakers
Language Families of Africa
The 1,000 or more
languages of Africa are
divided among five main
language families,
including Austronesian
languages in
Madagascar.
The Gods Must be Crazy
Languages of
Subsaharan
Africa
- extreme language
diversity
- effects of
colonialism
Ethnicities
of Africa
major language families
• Africa south of the Sahara Desert is
dominated by the Niger-Congo family
– Spoken by about 200 million people
– Includes Swahili—the lingua franca of East
Africa
Nigeria
100 million
people speak
more than 400
different
languages:
•Hausa – 35 mil
•Yoruba – 25 mil
•Ibo – 20 mil
•Rest spoken by
less than 1 mil
School instruction
in English
Language
Complexity
In Nigeria ethnic conflict between
southern Ibos and western Yoruba led
the government to move the capital to
a more neutral central location
(Abuja). Many other ethnic battles
rage continuously.
Kenya
• Kenya has two official
languages: Swahili
and English.
• These lingua franca
facilitate
communication
among Bantu, Nilotic,
and Cushitic
language speakers.
• Swahili developed
along the coast of
East Africa where
Kenya
• Bantu came in contact with Arabic spoken by
Arab sea traders.
• English became important during the British
colonial period and is still associated with
high status.
• Jambo means “hello” in Swahili.
Sino-Tibetan language family
– One of the major language families of the
world
– most of China and Southeast Asia
– Han Chinese is spoken in a variety of dialects
as a mother tongue by 836 million people
• Han serves as the official form of speech in China
Chinese Spoken …
• Languages or dialects
– Mandarin (about 850 million),
– followed by Wu (90 million),
– Min (70 million) and
– Cantonese (70 million).
• Most of these groups are mutually
unintelligible,
• Chinese is classified as a macrolanguage
with 13 sub-languages in (Wikipedia)
Sino-Tibetan Language Family (20%)
Branches:
• Sinitic
- Mandarin (1075),
Cantonese (71),
• Austro-Thai (77)
- Thai, Hmong
• Tibeto-Burman
- Burmese (32)
Chinese languages based on 420 one syllable
words with meaning infered from context
and tone.
major language families
• Japanese/Korean language family
– Another major Asian family with nearly 200
million speakers
– Seems to have some kinship to both the Altaic
and Austronesian
major language families
• Austro-Asiatic language family
– Southeast Asia, Vietnam, Cambodia,
Thailand, and spoken by some tribal people of
Malaya and parts of India
– Has been encroached upon by Sino-Tibetan,
Indo-European, and Austronesian
Terms used in the study of
language
• Lingua franca — a language that spreads
over a wide area where it is not the mother
tongue
– A language of communication and commerce
– Swahili language has this status in much of
East Africa
Terms used in the study of
language
• Pidgin language — results when different
linguistic groups come into contact
– Serves the purposes of commerce
– Has a small vocabulary derived from the
various contact groups
– Official language of Papua New Guinea is a
largely English-derived pidgin language,
which includes Spanish, German, and
Papuan words
Key Terms
PIDGIN - a form of speech that adopts
simplified grammar and limited vocabulary
from a lingua franca, used for communication
between speakers of two different languages.
Examples include Hawaiian Pidgin and
the creoles of West Africa that
resulted from the slave trade.
“No eat da candy, Bruddah, it's pilau. Da
thing wen fall on da ground.”
Give us da food we need fo today an every day.
Hemmo our shame, an let us go
Fo all da kine bad stuff we do to you,
Jalike us guys let da odda guys go awready,
And we no stay huhu wit dem
Fo all da kine bad stuff dey do to us.
No let us get chance fo do bad kine stuff,
But take us outa dea, so da Bad Guy no can hurt us.
Cuz you our King.
You get da real power,
An you stay awesome foeva.
Dass it!”
Matthew 6:9-13 “The Lord’s Prayer”
- Taken from Da Jesus Book, a twelve year effort
by 6 linguists to translate the New Testament into
Hawaiian Pidgin, published 2001
• Creole language –
a language that has developed a more
complex structure and vocabulary and has
become the native language of a group of
people.
Key Terms
CREOLE - a language that results from the
mixing of a colonizer’s language with an
indigenous language. Often they are pidgins.
Can you guess which colonizing language is the base for
each of the following creole examples?
a. mo pe aste sa banan
b. de bin alde luk dat big tri
c. a waka go a wosu
d. olmaan i kas-im chek
e. li pote sa bay mo
f. ja fruher wir bleiben
g. dis smol swain i bin go fo
maket
New Orleans’
French Quarter
I am buying the banana
they always looked for a big tree
he walked home
the old man is cashing a check
he brought that for me
Yes at first we remained
this little pig went to market
Key Terms
CREOLE - a language that results from the
mixing of a colonizer’s language with an
indigenous language. Often they are pidgins
Can you guess which colonizing language is the base for
each of the following creole examples?
a. mo pe aste sa banan
b. de bin alde luk dat big tri
c. a waka go a wosu
d. olmaan i kas-im chek
e. li pote sa bay mo
f. ja fruher wir bleiben
g. dis smol swain i bin go fo
maket
New Orleans’
French Quarter
French based Seychelles Creole
English based Roper River Creole
English based Saran
English based Cape York Creole
French based Guyanais
German based Papua New Guinea Pidgin
German English based Cameroon Pidgin
Key Terms
DIALECT - a regional variety of a language
distinguished by pronunciation, spelling, and
vocabulary.
Social Dialects - can denote social class and standing.
Vernacular Dialects - the common, slang, speech of a region.
Sounds Familiar - English Dialects Website
Common American Slang
Term
Is he fair dinkum?
Why I declare!
Down by the crick
bludger
mosquito hawk
nappies
Meaning
Is he real or genuine?
That’s remarkable!
Down by the stream (creek)
freeloader; welfare
dragon fly
diapers
Location
Australia
Deep South (U.S.)
Middle Atlantic States
Australia
South (U.S.)
Britain; Brit. Colonies
Monolingual State
a country in which
only one language is
spoken
Multilingual State
a country in which
more than one
language is in use
Official Language
should a multilingual
state adopt an official
language?
Language and Political Conflict
Belgium:
Flanders (Flemish
language)
Wallonia (French
language)
Toponyms
• Classification of toponyms
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Descriptive – Rocky Mtns.
Associative – Mill Valley
Commemorative – San Francisco
Commendatory – Paradise Valley
Incidents – Battle Creek
Possession – Johnson City
Folk Culture – Plains, Georgia
Manufactured – Truth or Consequences
Mistakes – Lasker, NC (named after Alaska)
Shift Names – Lancaster (England relocated to Penn)
Significance of Toponym
• “when people change the toponym of a
place, they have the power to ‘wipe out
the past and call forth the new.’” (de Blij
172)
• Post-Colonial – Gold Coast to Ghana
– Sea of Japan
• Post revolution – Belgian Congo to Zaire
• Memorial – MLK, Jr. Drive
• Commodification – FedEx Field
'ice' sikko
Language and Perception - Eskimo
Words for Snow
'bare ice' tingenek
'snow (in general)' aput
'snow (like salt)’ pukak
'soft deep snow' mauja
'snowdrift' tipvigut
'soft snow' massak
'watery snow' mangokpok
'snow filled with water'
massalerauvok
'soft snow' akkilokipok
Eskimo Words for Snow
West Greenlandic - 49 Words
'sea-ice' siku (in plural = drift ice) 'pack-ice/large expanses of ice in motion' sikursuit, pl. (compacted
drift ice/ice field = sikut iqimaniri) 'new ice' sikuliaq/sikurlaaq (solid ice cover = nutaaq.) 'thin ice'
sikuaq (in plural = thin ice floes) 'rotten (melting) ice floe' sikurluk 'iceberg' iluliaq (ilulisap itsirnga =
part of iceberg below waterline) '(piece of) fresh-water ice' nilak 'lumps of ice stranded on the beach'
issinnirit, pl. 'glacier' (also ice forming on objects) sirmiq (sirmirsuaq = Inland Ice) 'snow blown in (e.g.
doorway)' sullarniq 'rime/hoar-frost' qaqurnak/kanirniq/kaniq 'frost (on inner surface of e.g. window)'
iluq 'icy mist' pujurak/pujuq kanirnartuq 'hail' nataqqurnat 'snow (on ground)' aput (aput sisurtuq =
avalanche) 'slush (on ground)' aput masannartuq 'snow in air/falling' qaniit (qanik = snowflake) 'air thick
with snow' nittaalaq (nittaallat, pl. = snowflakes; nittaalaq nalliuttiqattaartuq = flurries) 'hard grains of
snow' nittaalaaqqat, pl. 'feathery clumps of falling snow' qanipalaat 'new fallen snow' apirlaat 'snow
crust' pukak 'snowy weather' qannirsuq/nittaatsuq 'snowstorm' pirsuq/pirsirsursuaq 'large ice floe' iluitsuq
'snowdrift' apusiniq 'ice floe' puttaaq 'hummocked ice/pressure ridges in pack ice' maniillat/ingunirit, pl.
'drifting lump of ice' kassuq (dirty lump of glacier-calved ice = anarluk) 'ice-foot (left adhering to shore)'
qaannuq 'icicle' kusugaq 'opening in sea ice imarnirsaq/ammaniq (open water amidst ice = imaviaq) 'lead
(navigable fissure) in sea ice' quppaq 'rotten snow/slush on sea' qinuq 'wet snow falling' imalik 'rotten ice
with streams forming' aakkarniq 'snow patch (on mountain, etc.)' aputitaq 'wet snow on top of ice'
putsinniq/puvvinniq 'smooth stretch of ice' manirak (stretch of snow-free ice = quasaliaq) 'lump of old
ice frozen into new ice' tuaq 'new ice formed in crack in old ice' nutarniq 'bits of floating' naggutit, pl.
'hard snow' mangiggal/mangikaajaaq 'small ice floe (not large enough to stand on)' masaaraq 'ice
swelling over partially frozen river, etc. from water seeping up to the surface' siirsinniq 'piled-up icefloes frozen together' tiggunnirit 'mountain peak sticking up through inland ice' nunataq 'calved ice (from
end of glacier)' uukkarnit 'edge of the (sea) ice' sinaaq
• Wasted, plastered, smashed, *&^%faced,
f’d up, inebriated, gone, drunk as *&^%,
wearing beer goggles, intoxicated, under
the influence, hammered, slammed, tipsy,
buzzed, schwasted, out, sloshed,
pounded, ossified, spifflicated, white boy
wasted, white girl wasted, sloppy, warped,
jersey wasted, slizzard, schmacked,
trashed, trippin’,
The environment provides refuge
• Inhospitable environments offer protection and
isolation
• Provide outnumbered linguistic groups refuge
from aggressive neighbors
• Linguistic refuge areas
–
–
–
–
Rugged bill and mountain areas
Excessively cold or dry climates
Impenetrable forests and remote islands
Extensive marshes and swamps
• Unpleasant environments rarely attract
conquerors
• Mountains tend to isolate inhabitants of one
valley from another
Examples of linguistic refuge areas
• Alps, Himalayas, and highlands of Mexico are
linguistic shatter belts — areas where diverse
languages are spoken
• American Indian tongue Quechua clings to a
refuge in the Andes Mountains of South America
• In the Rocky Mountains of northern New Mexico,
an archaic form of Spanish survives due to
isolation that ended in the early 1900s
Caucasus Mountains and
nearby ranges in central
Eurasia are populated by a
large variety of peoples
Examples of linguistic refuge areas
• The Dhofar, a mountain tribe in Oman,
preserve Hamitic speech that otherwise
has vanished from Asia
• Tundra climates of the far north have
sheltered certain Uralic, Altaic, and Inukitut
(Eskimo) speakers
• On Sea Islands, off the coast of South
Carolina and Georgia, some remnant of an
African language, Gullah, still are spoken
Switzerland
• Switzerland has four recognized
national languages: French, German,
Italian, and Romansch.
• Romansch, a language of Latin
origin, is spoken by only 1.1% of the
population.
• Nevertheless, it has survived in the
alpine linguistic refuge of the upper
Rhine and Inn Rivers and was given
official recognition in 1938.
• four official languages, a history of
peace and tolerance, and a political
system that puts power in the hands
of local leaders ensure peace.
Key Terms
ISOLATED LANGUAGE - a language
that is not related to any other languages
and thus not connected to any language
families. Examples include Basque,
Korean, Japanese
Basque Spain
Language as Element of
Cultural Diversity
• 6000+ Languages spoken today, not including
dialects
• 1500+ Spoken in Sub-Saharan Africa alone
• 400+ in New Guinea alone
• 100+ in Europe
However, this diversity is diminishing:
• 2000+ Threatened or Endangered Languages
Endangered Languages
• As recently as 3,000 years ago, there were
10,000 to 15,000 languages in the world.
• Now: about 6000 left.
• Of those, 1/2 will be gone by the year 2100 and
all but 500 of the rest will be endangered.
• More than 90 percent of the languages in
existence today will be extinct or threatened in
little more than a century if current trends
continue. – Think Wade Davis - Ethnocide &
Disappearing Languages
Extinct or Endangered Languages
- Cameroon (11)
BIKYA BISHUO
BUNG
BUSUU
DULI
GEY
LUO
NAGUMI
NDAI
NGONG
YENI
ZUMAYA
Extinct Languages - USA (93)
ABNAKI-PENOBSCOT ACHUMAWI AHTENA APACHE, KIOWA
APACHE, LIPAN ATAKAPA ATSUGEWI BILOXI CADDO
CAHUILLA CATAWBA CHEHALIS, LOWER CHEROKEE CHETCO
CHINOOK CHINOOK WAWA CHITIMACHA CHUMASH
CLALLAM COEUR D'ALENE COOS COQUILLE COWLITZ
CUPEÑO EYAK FLATHEAD-KALISPEL GALICE GROS VENTRE
HAN HAWAI'I PIDGIN SIGN LANGUAGE HOLIKACHUK HUPA
IOWA-OTO KALAPUYA KANSA KASHAYA KATO KAWAIISU
KITSAI KOYUKON LUMBEE LUSHOOTSEED MAIDU,
NORTHEAST MAIDU, NORTHWEST MAIDU, VALLEY MANDAN
MARTHA'S VINEYARD SIGN MATTOLE MENOMINI MIAMI
MIWOK MOBILIAN MOHEGAN MONO NANTICOKE NATCHEZ
NISENAN NOOKSACK OFO OSAGE POMO POWHATAN
QUAPAW QUILEUTE QUINAULT SALINAN SALISH SERRANO
SHASTA SIUSLAW SNOHOMISH TANAINA TILLAMOOK
TOLOWA TONKAWA TÜBATULABAL TUNICA TUSCARORA
TUTELO TUTUTNI TWANA UNAMI WAILAKI WAMPANOAG
WAPPO WASCO-WISHRAM WINTU WIYOT WYANDOT YANA YOKUTS
YUKI YUROK
Endangered Languages
Why are they disappearing?
Globalization
Migration (Urbanization)
Economic Development
- Lingua Francas
Media
Internet (Requires Arabic
Character Set)
Lingua Franca - a language used for trade
by two people who speak different native tongues.
Arabic
Chinese
Farsi
Japanese
Greek
Korean
Language & Identity
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Quebecois – Power of Place: Montreal
Belgium Israel – Hebrew
Wales
Language
and
National Identity
Standard
Language
a language that is
published, widely
distributed, and
purposefully taught.
Government usually
plays a big role in
standardizing a
language.
The Basque speak
the Euskera
language, which
is in no way
related to any
other language
family in Europe.
How did Euskera
survive?
After WWII, Spain
granted the Basque
area some autonomy.
Euskera
Know – family of the circled
languages
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Language