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Listening and Answering the Questions
History of English
Winston Churchill
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Julius Caesar
Viking
Norman
William Caxton
Otto Jespersen
Renaissance
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History of English
The root of English
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The development of Modern English
20th Century English
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Winston Churchill
A Brief introduction
to Winston Churchill
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Chronology of Winston Churchill
A Video Clip about Winston Churchill
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Listen and Answer the Questions
Directions: Listen to the recording two or three times
and then think over the following questions.
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1. What is the passage about?
English is a great language, but it is also a crazy language.
2. Can you give one or two examples to illustrate the
messiness of the English language?
Yes. For example, the meaning of “your house burns up”
is the same as that of “your house burns down”, or “you
fill in a form” is the same as “you fill out a form”.
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3. Are you sure of all the idiomatic usages mentioned
in the recorded passage?
Some of the more confusing usages are explained here:
Reading
1) ship by truck / sendDetailed
cargo
by ship:
ship can be either a verb or a noun.
The first “ship” means “send”, the second one “a large
boat”.
2) noses that run / feet that smells:
This refers to what people usually say “have a running
nose” (流鼻涕), “have smelly feet” (臭脚).
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3) a slim/fat chance:
a remote possibility
4) a wise guy:
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a person who pretends
to be much wiser than he/she
really is; a derogatory term
a wise man:
a really wise person; a commendatory term
5) overlook:
fail to see or notice, pay no attention to
oversee:
control (work, workmen)
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6) hot /cold as hell:
extremely hot/cold
7) burn up:
catch fire and flareDetailed
up Reading
burn down:
be destroyed by fire
8) fill in a form/fill out a form:
synonymous
9) go off:
start an action, usually accompanied by a great noise
go on:
continue doing something
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10) when stars are out:
when stars appear in the sky
when lights are out:
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when lights are turned off
11) wind up a watch:
tighten the spring of a watch
wind up a speech:
end a speech
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The root of English
English began as a west Germanic language which was
brought to England by the Saxons around 400 A.D. Old
Detailed Reading
English was the spoken
and written language of England
between 400 and 1100 A.D. Many words used today come
from Old English, including man, woman, king, mother, etc.
But Old English was very different from modern English and
only a few words can be easily recognized. In the 9th and
10th centuries, when Vikings invaded England, Old Norse
words, e.g. sky, take and get and many place names,
entered the language.
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From the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 12th.
century English was replaced as the official language by
Norman French, though English was still used by the
lower classes. English
from about 1300 to 1500 is known
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as Middle English. It was influenced by French and also
Latin in vocabulary and pronunciation. French brought
many words connected with government, e.g. sovereign,
royal, court, legal and government itself. Latin was the
language of religion and learning and gave to English
words such as minister, angel, master, school and
grammar. Literature began again to be written in English
during this period. One of the most famous Middle English
works is Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales
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The development of Modern English
Modern English developed from the Middle English
dialect of the East Midlands and was influenced by the
English used in London, where a printing press was set up
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by William Caxton in 1476. English changed a great deal
from this time until the end of the 18th century. During the
Renaissance, many words were introduced from Greek and
Latin to express new ideas, especially in science, medicine
and philosophy. They included physics, species, architecture,
encyclopedia and hypothesis. In the 16th century several
versions of the Bible helped bring written English to ordinary
people. The Elizabethan period is also famous for its drama,
and Shakespeare’s plays were seen by many people.
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The development of printing helped establish
standards of spelling and grammar, but there remained a
lot of variation. Samuel Johnson’s A Dictionary of the
English Language (1755)
was the first authoritative
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treatment of English. It defined about 40,000 words and
gave examples of their use.
By the 18th century American English was established
and developing independently from British English. After
colonists arrived in the US new words began to be added
from Native American languages, and from French and
Spanish. In 1783, soon after Johnson’s dictionary was
published, Noah Webster’s The Elementary Spelling Book
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was published in the US. At first it used Johnson’s
spellings, but later editions contained many of what
have come to be known as American spellings, e.g.
harbor and favorite.
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20th Century English
During the 19th and early 20th centuries many
dictionaries and books about language were published. New
words are still being added
to English from other languages,
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including Chinese (feng shui) and Japanese (karaoke).
Existing words gain new senses, and new expressions spread
quickly through television and the Internet.
English is now an international language and is used as
a means of communication between people from many
countries. As a result the influences on the English language
are wider than ever and it is possible that World English will
move away from using a British or American standard and
establish its own international identity.
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A Brief introduction to Winston Churchill
As a politician, Winston Churchill is remembered as one
of Britain’s greatest statesmen. He was the son of the
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Conservative politician Lord Randolph Churchill and his
American wife Jennie. As a young man he served as a soldier
in India and Egypt, and as a journalist in South Africa, before
entering politics. Churchill became Prime Minister and
Minister of Defence in 1940. His radio speeches during World
War II gave the British people a strong determination to win
the war, especially at times of great crisis. Examples of
Churchill’s phrases still often quoted today are “I have
nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat”, and “This
was their finest hour”.
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The Conservative Party led by Churchill lost the
election of 1945, but he became Prime Minister again
from 1951 to 1955 when he retired, aged 80. When he
died in Jan 1965 he
wasReading
given a state funeral.
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Chronology of Winston Churchill
November
30, 1874
Born Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill at
Blenheim
Palace,
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Reading Woodstock, near Oxford.
October
1, 1911
Appointed First Lord of the Admiralty in
Liberal government.
April 30,
1915
Failure of the Dardanelles Expedition, in
World War I, led to his resignation as First
Lord of the Admiralty.
November
6, 1924
Baldwin named him Chancellor of the
Exchequer.
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May 10,
1940
Appointed to head wartime coalition
government.
July 1945
Lost general election.
April 24,
1953
December
10, 1953
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Knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
Awarded Nobel prize for literature in
recognition of “historical works and
biographies as well as his brilliant speeches.”
January 24, Died in London; given a state funeral;
buried in the churchyard at Bladon, near
1965
Blenheim.
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A Video Clip about Winston Churchill
Directions: Watch this video clip and answer the
following questions.
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1. What do you learn from the clip?
2. What do you think of Winston Churchill?
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Julius Caesar (100-44 BC)
Julius Caesar was the bestknown of all the Detailed
ancient
Roman
Reading
leaders, and the first one to land in
Britain with an army.
He did this twice, in 55 and 54
BC, although Britain did not become
part of the Roman Empire until nearly
a hundred years later.
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Viking
Viking was a member of a people
from Scandinavia who attacked parts of
northern and western Detailed
Europe,
including
Reading
Britain and Ireland, in the 8th to 11th
centuries. In Britain they were also
known as Norsemen. They settled on
the Scottish islands and in areas of
eastern England, and the Danish king Canute ruled England
from 1016. The Vikings were feared as violent and cruel,
but they were also noted for their skill in building ships and
as sailors. They had an important influence on English
culture and the English language.
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Norman
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Norman refers to any of the people from Normandy in
northern France who settled in England after their leader
William defeated the English king at the Battle of Hastings in
1066. The Normans took control of the country, a process
known as the Norman Conquest. They used many of the
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existing Anglo-Saxon methods of government
of the state and the church, but added
important aspects of their own and made
government much Detailed
moreReading
effective. The
language of government became first Latin,
and then Norman French, and this caused many new words
to be added to the existing English language.
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William Caxton (c. 1422~1491)
William Caxton was the man
who set up the first printing firm
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in Britain. He printed his first
book in 1474. By printing books
in English, Caxton had a strong
influence on the spelling and
development of the language.
were French stories which he
translated himself.
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Otto Jespersen (1860~1943)
Otto Jespersen was a Danish philologist, grammarian,
and educationist. He promoted the use of the “direct
Reading
method” in language Detailed
teaching
with the publication of his
theoretical work How to Teach a Foreign Language (1904).
Other books include his seven-volume Modern English
Grammar (1909~1949).
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Renaissance
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The Renaissance emerged in northern Italy in the
1300s when, not content with the abstract and highly
subjective thinking of the Middle Ages, scholars turned
for inspiration to the
ancient
Detailed
Reading Greeks and Romans with
their love of earthly life. Italian architects rediscovered
ancient construction techniques and incorporated Greek
and Roman columns, arches, and domes into their
public buildings. Instead of the flat, stiff figures of the
Middle Ages, Renaissance artists portrayed rounded,
flesh-and-blood people, people filled with emotions. To
depict the world they lived in realistically, Renaissance
artists developed linear perspective, which creates on a
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flat surface the illusion of depth. Renaissance scholars
explored their world through mathematics, science, and
engineering. Probably the most famous people of the
Reading
Renaissance times areDetailed
Leonardo
da Vinci and Michelangelo.
By the 1500s the Renaissance had spread to Spain and the
countries of northern Europe, where people sought to
blend the intense interest in human affairs with spiritual
ideals.
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Part Division of the Text
Further Understanding
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Further Understanding
Pair Discussion
English – the Sea of Language
Questions and Answers
Supplementary Reading
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Part Division of the Text
Parts
Para(s).
Main Ideas
1
1~3
Massive borrowing from other
languages is a major feature of
the English language.
2
4~16
Tells about the history of the
English language from the IndoEuropean parent language to
modern English.
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Parts
Para(s).
3
17~19
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Main Ideas
Tolerance, love of freedom, and
respect for the rights of others —
these qualities in the Englishspeaking people explain the
richness of their language.
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Pair Discussion
Directions: Look at the picture below. Answer these
questions with a partner.
1. What are differences between English
and French in borrowing foreign words?
English has a vocabulary of about one
million words while French has only
about 75,000 words.
English has borrowed a lot of words from other
languages while French hasn’t. And the French
government even tries to ban words from English.
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2. What can we infer from the invention of a French
word “balladeer”?
In borrowing foreign words, English people are
open-minded while French people are conservative.
We know the reason why English has become the
first truly global language.
3. How did the word “Walkman” come into being?
The Japanese put two simple English words
together to name their product.
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English – the Sea of Language
Old English
Greek
Christianity
Vikings
eye
angel
Latin
sky
royal
kingly
capsule
Chinese
thermometer
habitual
mahjong
water
French
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Questions and Answers
1. Who is Otto Jespersen?
He is a Danish scholar.
2. According to Otto Jespersen, what is the
cause for English to become what it is?
It’s the result of the great respecters of the liberties
of each individual.
3. What is English language in the author’s opinion?
English is the tongue of common man.
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THE GLORIOUS MESSINESS OF ENGLISH
The story of our English language is typically one of
massive stealing from other languages. That is why English
today has an estimated vocabulary of over one million
words, while other major languages have far fewer.
French, for example, has only about 75,000 words, and
that includes English expressions like snack bar and hit
parade. The French, however, do not like borrowing foreign
words because they think it corrupts their language.
The government tries to ban words from English and
declares that Walkman is not desirable; so they invent a
word, balladeur,
which French kids are supposed to say
instead — but they don’t.
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Walkman is fascinating because it
isn’t even English. Strictly speaking, it
was invented by the Japanese
manufacturers who put two simple
English words together to name their
product. That doesn’t bother us, but
it does bother the French. Such is the glorious messiness
of English.
That happy tolerance, that willingness to accept
words from anywhere, explains the richness of English and
why it has become, to a very real extent, the first truly
global language.
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How did the language of a small island off the coast of
Europe become the language of the planet — more widely
spoken and written than any other has ever been?
The
history of English is present in the first words a child learns
about identity (I, me, you); possession (mine, yours); the
body (eye, nose, mouth); size (tall, short); and necessities
(food, water). These words all come from Old English or
Anglo-Saxon English, the core of our language.
Usually short and direct, these are
words we still use today for the things
that really matter to us.
Great speakers often use Old
English to arouse our emotions.
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For example, during World War II, Winston Churchill made
this speech, stirring the courage of his people against
Hitler’s armies positioned to cross the English Channel:
“We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the
landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the
streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never
surrender.”
Virtually every one of those words came from Old
English, except the last — surrender, which came from
Norman French. Churchill could have said, “We shall
never give in,” but it is one of the lovely — and
powerful — opportunities of English that a writer can mix,
for effect, different words from different backgrounds.
Yet there is something direct to the heart that speaks to
us from the earliest words in our language.
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When Julius Caesar invaded
Britain in 55 B.C., English did not
exist. The Celts, who inhabited the
land, spoke languages that survive
today mainly as Welsh. Where those
languages came from is still a mystery, but there is a theory.
Two centuries ago an English judge in India noticed
that several words in Sanskrit closely resembled some
words in Greek and Latin. A systematic study revealed that
many modern languages descended from a common parent
language, lost to us because nothing was written down.
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Identifying similar words, linguists have come up with
what they call an Indo-European parent language, spoken
until 3500 to 2000 B.C. These people had common words
for snow, bee and wolf but no word for sea. So some
scholars assume they lived somewhere in north-central
Europe, where it was cold. Traveling east, some
established the languages of India and Pakistan, and
others drifted west toward the gentler climates of Europe.
Some who made the earliest move westward became
known as the Celts, whom Caesar’s armies found in Britain.
New words came with the Germanic tribes — the
Angles, the Saxons, etc. — that slipped across the North
Sea to settle in Britain in the 5th century. Together they
formed what we call Anglo-Saxon society.
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The Anglo-Saxons passed on to us
their farming vocabulary, including
sheep, ox, earth, wood, field and work.
They must have also enjoyed themselves
because they gave us the word laughter.
The next big influence on English
was Christianity. It enriched the AngloSaxon vocabulary with some 400 to 500
words from Greek and Latin, including
angel, disciple and martyr.
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Then into this relatively peaceful land came the
Vikings from Scandinavia. They also brought to English
many words that begin with sk, like sky and skirt. But Old
Norse and English both survived, and so you can rear a
child (English) or raise a child (Norse). Other such pairs
survive: wish and want, craft and skill, hide and skin. Each
such addition gave English more richness, more variety.
Another flood of new vocabulary
occurred in 1066, when the Normans
conquered England. The country now
had three languages:
French for
the nobles, Latin for the churches
and English for the common people.
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With three languages competing, there were sometimes
different terms for the same thing. For example, AngloSaxons had the word kingly, but after the Normans, royal
and sovereign entered the language as alternatives. The
extraordinary thing was that French did not replace
English. Over three centuries English gradually swallowed
French, and by the end of the 15th century what had
developed was a modified, greatly enriched language —
Middle English — with about 10,000 “borrowed” French
words.
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Around 1476 William Caxton set
up a printing press in England and
started a communications revolution.
Printing brought into English the
wealth of new thinking that sprang
from the European Renaissance.
Translations of Greek and Roman classics were poured
onto the printed page, and with them thousands of
Latin words like capsule and habitual, and Greek words
like catastrophe and thermometer.
Today we still
borrow from Latin and Greek to name new inventions,
like video, television and cyberspace.
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As settlers landed in North America and established
the United States, English found itself with two sources —
American and British. Scholars in Britain worried that the
language was out of control, and some wanted to set up
an academy to decide which words were proper and
which were not.
Fortunately their idea has never been
put into practice.
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That tolerance for change also represents deeply
rooted ideas of freedom. Danish scholar Otto Jespersen
wrote in 1905,
“The English language would not have been what it is
if the English had not been for centuries great respecters
of the liberties of each individual and if everybody had not
been free to strike out new paths for himself.”
I like that idea.
Consider that the same cultural soil
producing the English language also nourished the great
principles of freedom and rights of man in the modern
world. The first shoots sprang up in England, and they grew
stronger in America. The English-speaking peoples have
defeated all efforts to build fences around their language.
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Indeed, the English language is not the special
preserve of grammarians, language police, teachers,
writers or the intellectual elite. English is, and always has
been, the tongue of the common man.
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THE GLORIOUS MESSINESS OF ENGLISH
Translate the title into Chinese.
英语中绚丽多彩的杂乱无章现象。
Supplementary Reading
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What kind of rhetorical device is used in the title?
The rhetorical device used here is called oxymoron (矛
盾修饰法). An oxymoron puts two contradictory terms
together to puzzle the reader, luring him/her to pause
and explore why. Here “Glorious” is a commendatory
(褒义的) term, while “Messiness” is derogatory (贬义
的). As the reader reads on, he/she will know that
English is messy, but the messiness reflects some
commendable qualities of English, such as tolerance,
the love of freedom, and the respect for others’ rights.
At this point the reader cannot but admire the author’s
ingenuity.
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… which French kids are supposed to say instead – but they
don’t.
Paraphrase the sentence.
French children are expected to say the word
“balladeer” instead of “Walkman” but they don’t
say it.
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Such is the glorious messiness of English.
What can we know about the author’s attitude towards
English from this sentence?
He thinks much of it.
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The history of English is present in the first words a
child learns about …
Paraphrase this part.
The history of English is revealed in the first words
a child learns about …
Translate this part into Chinese.
英语的历史体现在孩子最先学会用来表示…的词汇当中。
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… “We shall fight … surrender.”
What kind of rhetorical device is used here? And what’s
the function of it?
The rhetorical device used here is called parallelism
(排 比 法 ). With this device the sentences become
more powerful and will leave a deeper impression on
listeners or readers.
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… French for the nobles, Latin for the churches and
English for the common people.
What kind of rhetorical device is used here?
The rhetorical device used here is called metonymy
(转喻). Here the word “churches” stands for religious
institutions and those who are involved in religious
practices. Another example, in the sentence “The
kettle boils.”, the word “kettle” stands to “the water
in the kettle”.
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Translations of Greek and Roman classics were poured onto
the printed page,
What is the Chinese version of this part?
希腊罗马经典著作的译文纷纷印成书册。
What kind of rhetorical device is used here?
The author used personification (拟人法) in this part.
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Today we still borrow from Latin … cyberspace.
Where are the two words “television” and “cyberspace”
from?
The word “television” is formed by “tele” (Greek,
meaning “far off”) and “vision” (Latin, meaning
“to see”.
The word “cyberspace” is formed by “cyber”
(Greek, meaning “to steer”) and “space” (Old
French, Latin) .
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Fortunately their idea has never been put into practice.
What can we infer from this sentence about the author’s
attitude towards English?
The author prefers what English is today to what some
British scholars wanted to do.
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I like that idea.
What does “that idea” refer to?
It refers to the fact that the English language
today results from the great respecters of the
liberties of each individual and his freedom to
strike out new path for himself.
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Consider that … around their language.
What kind of rhetorical device is used in these sentences?
The rhetorical device used in these sentences is called
metaphor. Here the author uses sustained metaphor:
the cultural soil, the first shoots sprang up, … grew
stronger, build fences around their language. In this
case the English language is compared to plants, and
the various cultures influencing it are compared to the
soil, while users of English are compared to gardeners.
Besides this, the author employs many other metaphors
in this text, such as core of English (Para. 4), another
flood of new vocabulary (Para. 14), and the special
preserve of grammarians (Para. 19).
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corrupt: vt. cause errors to appear in
The Academy ruled that such foreign expressions
were not permitted, as they corrupted the language.
Has Japanese been corrupted by the introduction of
foreign words?
cause to act dishonestly in return for personal gains
To our great surprise, the former mayor turned out
to have been corrupted by the desire for money and
power.
To gain more profits, the businessman tried every
means to corrupt the officials in the local government.
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ban: vt.
1. forbid (sth.) officially (used in the pattern: ban sth.;
ban sb. from sth./doing sth.
The local government will ban smoking in all offices
later this year.
Tom was banned from driving for six months after
being caught speeding again.
Lady Chatterley’s Lover was banned when it was first
published.
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CF: ban, forbid & prohibit
这三个是及物动词,均含“禁止”之意。
ban 语气最重,指权威机关“正式禁止”。一般含有“严厉
谴责”的意思,只能用于严重危害公众利益的事物。例如:
The treaty bans all nuclear tests.
该条约禁止一切核试验。
forbid 是普通用词,可用于较细小的事物。例如:
He forbade his children sweets because he didn’t want
their teeth to be ruined.
他不许孩子们吃糖果,因为他不希望他们的牙齿蛀坏。
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prohibit 指“(通过法律、法令或严正警告)禁止某
些事物”,应用范围较ban广。例如:
In some countries the sale of alcoholic beverages is
prohibited.
在一些国家禁止出售含酒精的饮料。
2. ban: n.
(followed by on)
The government is considering a total ban on
cigarette advertising.
The ban on human cloning is welcomed by most
countries in the world.
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invent: vt.
1. make or design (sth. that has not existed before);
create (sth.)
James Watt invented the steam engine.
Walter Hunt and Elias Hone invented
the sewing machine
2. give (a name, reason, etc. that doesn’t
exist or is not true)
All the characters in the novel are invented.
Standing still in the teacher’s office, the boy tried
to invent a plausible excuse for his absence from
class.
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CF: invent & discover
这两个词都是及物动词,在意义上比较容易混淆。
invent“发明”,发明的对象是以前没有的新东西;如:工
具、手段或方法,是实践问题,不仅仅是认识问题。
例如:
Alexander Graham Bell invented the
telephone.
亚历山大•格雷厄姆•贝尔发明了电话。
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discover“发现”,发现的对象是本来就存在,但主语不知
道的东西,如新的科学真理,新领域等。有时也
可泛指“发现”、“认识到”某 种情况。例如:
The planet Pluto was discovered in 1930.
冥王星是在1930年被发现的。
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fascinating: adj. of great interest or attraction
The story of his adventures in the Arctic was
fascinating to listen to.
我觉得有关克隆的讨论很有吸引力。
I found the discussion about cloning absolutely
fascinating.
It is fascinating to imagine what might have
happened if the US had not declared war against
Japan in World War II.
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strictly speaking: if one uses words, applies rules, etc.
in their exact sense
He’s not strictly speaking an artist; he is more of a
performer.
Strictly speaking she was not qualified for the job.
But we employed her because of her honesty.
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tolerance: n.
1. the quality of allowing other people to say and do as
they like, even if you don’t agree or approve of it
(followed by for)
School teachers have to have a great deal of
tolerance in order to deal with difficult children.
He has no tolerance for people who disagree with him.
2. the ability to bear sth. painful or unpleasant (followed by
of / for / to)
Human beings have limited tolerance of/to noise.
The patient had no tolerance for/to pain.
Whenever he was injected he would cry.
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Collocation:
display/show tolerance
表示宽容
have tolerance
有容忍力;有雅量
tolerance for/of/towards
对…容忍
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to a (very real, certain, etc.) extent: to the degree specified
I agree with him to some extent but there are still
some areas of sharp disagreement between us.
To some extent the water pollution has affected
local residents.
从某种程度上说,餐馆的失败是由于经营不善造成的。
To a certain extent the failure of the restaurant was
due to bad management.
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necessity: n.
1. sth. you must have in order to live properly or do sth.
Water is a basic necessity of life.
A lot of people would consider a TV as more of a
necessity than a luxury item.
The workers’ wages were so low that they hardly
had enough money to buy the bare necessities of
life.
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2. circumstances that force one to do sth.; the state of
being necessary; the need for sth. (followed by of / for)
再搞一次选举有必要吗?
Is there any necessity for another election?
There is absolutely no necessity for you to be
involved in the project.
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Collocation:
feel the necessity of
感到有…的必要
the bare necessities
最低限度的必需品
the necessities of life
生活必需品
of necessity
必然地
You will of necessity remain silent.
你必然会保持沉默。
by necessity
由于必要;不得已
I walked home by necessity, because the car broke down.
汽车坏了,我不得已只好走回家。
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arouse: vt. provoke (a particular feeling or attitude)
These educational toys give children a feeling of selfworth by arousing their interest in challenging tasks.
The man’s strange behavior aroused the policeman’s
suspicions.
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surrender: v. give in (followed by to)
After several weeks of severe attacks,
Afghanistan’s Taliban forces surrendered
to the Northern Alliance.
After the bombs fell on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki, the Japanese surrendered.
We’ll never surrender to terrorism despite
the terrorist attacks.
你们必须向警方缴枪。
You must surrender your guns to the police.
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virtually: adv. for the most part, almost
It’s virtually impossible to tell the imitation from
the real thing.
It has been raining virtually non-stop for the past
several days.
晚饭差不多准备好了;我只差做蔬菜了。
The dinner’s virtually ready; I only have to finish the
vegetables.
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invade: vt. enter with armed forces
In July 1937 the Japanese army invaded China.
The Germans invaded Poland in 1939, leading to the
start of World War II.
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mystery: n. sth. that people can’t, or have not been able
to understand or explain
The politician’s sudden death remains
a mystery to us all.
埃及的金字塔(pyramid)是如何建成的依
然是个谜。
How Egyptian pyramids were built still
remains a mystery.
No one has ever been able to explain the mystery of the
Bermuda Triangle.
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Collocation:
pose a mystery
形成疑团
remain a mystery
依然是个谜
clear up a mystery
使神秘的事真相大白
solve/unravel a mystery
阐释奥秘
shrouded/cloaked/wrapped in mystery 处于神秘之中
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resemble: vt. be like or similar to
约翰在各方面都非常像他父亲。
John resembles his father very much in all ways.
I’d say he resembles his mother more than his father.
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descend: v. come down (from a source), go down
These ideas descend from those of the ancient
philosophers.
The old lady descended the stairs.
太阳落山了。
The sun descended behind the hills.
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CF: descend, fall & drop
这三个词都是动词,均含“下落”之意。
descend 是相当正式的用法,表示从某一高处落到某一低
处。
fall 为不及物动词,表示由于地球吸引力或失去支撑而导致
的下落。广义上讲,指任何形式的下落。
drop 表示一点一滴地落下,但通常表示下落或使下落时的
速度、方向出乎意料或不经意。
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Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words above.
Change the form where necessary.
dropping from the trees.
1. The rain was still __________
descended
2. On turning the corner, we saw that the road __________
steeply.
falling into the
3. Large masses of rock are constantly ______
sea.
descends in a vertical stoop on its
4. The hawk (鹰) __________
quarry (猎物).
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establish: vt.
1. cause to be, set up
这学校是由一位意大利教授于1905年建立的。
The school was established in 1905 by an Italian
professor.
The bank helps people wanting to establish their
business.
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2. place or settle sb./oneself in a position, an office, etc.
Ingrid Bergman established
her fame as a film star at
the age of 20.
Yao Ming established himself in the team soon after he
arrived in U.S.
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drift:
1. vi. move or go somewhere in a slow casual way
Jimmy spent the year drifting around Europe.
The football match was over, and the crowds
drifted away from the stadium.
她经常调换工作。
She just drifts from job to job.
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2. n.
1) the movement or course of sth. drifting
Nowadays there is a drift of young people from the
country to the city.
2) the general meaning
I’m sorry: I can’t catch/get the drift of what you’re
saying.
论点的要旨你明白了吗?
Did you get/see the drift of the argument?
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Collocation:
drift along
漫无目的地游荡
drift apart
分开;疏远
drift into/toward
渐渐进入;陷入
At last, he drifted into a life of crime.
最后,他陷入了犯罪生涯。
drift from … to …
从…漂流到 …
The conversation drifted from one subject to another.
谈话从一个主题转到另一个主题。
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Collocation:
a general drift
总的倾向
get/catch the drift of …
理解大意
follow sb’s drift
听懂某人的意思
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pass (sth.) on to (sb.): hand or give (sth.) to (sb.)
When you have finished reading the novel, please pass
it on to Laura.
The King passed on much of his fortune to the princess.
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addition: n.
1. a person or thing added (followed by to)
The baby is a welcome addition to the Smith family.
他将是我们篮球队里可贵的新增力量。
He will be a valuable addition to our basketball team.
2. the act of adding, esp. adding numbers together
Before I entered the primary school, my mother taught
me to do addition and subtraction.
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Collocation:
do addition
做加法
make an addition
增加一些
in addition to
除…之外
In addition to his salary, he earns a lot from giving
lectures.
in addition
另外;加之
You need money and time. In addition, you need
diligence.
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conquer: vt. take possession and control of (a country,
city, etc.) by force; defeat
Afghanistan’s Northern Alliance conquered Kabul a
month ago.
She has conquered the hearts of many men.
全世界已作出巨大努力来征服癌症。
There has been a tremendous international effort to
conquer cancer.
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CF: conquer, beat & defeat
这三个词都是动词,均含“打败”、“胜过”之意。
conquer 指通过武力、斗争或坚强的意志把某事或某物、
某人置于自己的控制之下。例如:
The Romans conquered parts of Britain in the first
century B. C.
公元前一世纪罗马人曾占领了英国的部分领土。
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beat 强调对手被彻底打败,该词常用在正式场合,可
用于描写任何比赛。例如:
She beat her brother at tennis.
在网球上,她打败了她弟弟。
defeat 是个普通用语。可指打败敌人、对手,也可指
在选举中落选,希望、计划受挫等。例如:
He was defeated by 165 votes against 132.
他以132票对165 票落选了。
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alternative:
1. n. one of two or more possibilities (followed by to)
His father gave John the alternative of staying in high
school or going to work.
恐怕除了向警察告发你之外,我别无选择。
I’m afraid I have no alternative but to report you to the
police.
NB: 该词本意是“另一个,每两者中的第二个”,因此仅
限于在两者之间进行选择,但现在也可指“几种可能
中的一种”,类似 We have several alternatives to
chose from. (有几种可能性可供我们选择。)之类的句
子也相当普遍。
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2. adj. (of two things) that may be used, had, done,
etc. instead of another; other
We returned by an alternative road.
NB: 有时alternate可用来代替alternative: They had an
alternate/alternative plan. (他们另有一个计划。) 但
是,alternative被认为是更地道的英语。
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enrich: vt.
1. make rich or richer
That once poor coastal village has
been enriched by the profits from
tourism.
油田的发现使许多阿拉伯国家富足起来了。
The discovery of oil has enriched many Arabian countries.
2. improve
It is important to enrich the soil prior to planting.
Music can enrich your whole life.
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source: n.
1. a place from which sth. comes or is obtained
Tourism, which is a major source of income
for the city, has been seriously affected by
SARS.
Do you have any other source of income
apart from your job?
2. the place where a stream of water starts
Where is the source of the Amazon River?
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CF: source & origin
这两个词都是名词,均含“根源,起因”之意。
source 原指“水源”,转义指事物的“根源,起因或
处”。例如:
They had to find a new source of income.
他们不得不寻找新的收入来源。
origin 指事物的起源、源头,含有现在的情景已有变化
之意,有时也指“出身,血统”。
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Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words above.
Change the form where necessary.
1. There are a number of words in the English language
origin .
which were French in _______
source of the River Thames?
2. Where is the ________
source of income.
3. They had to find a new ________
origin to the Chinese.
4. This practice owes its _______
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English
Before Reading
Global Reading
Detailed Reading
After Reading
Useful Expressions
Listening Comprehension
Synonyms
Body Language
Sentence Translation
Writing Practice
Talk about the Pictures
Proverbs and Quotations
Supplementary Reading
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Brainstorm
Respond
After Reading
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Writing Practice
A brief introduction
An example
Some useful expressions in graph writing
Homework
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Useful Expressions
1. 排行榜
a hit parade
2. 严格地说
strictly speaking
3. 对我们真正至关重要的事
the things that really
matter to us
4. 发表演说
make a speech
5. 为了加强效果
for effect
6. 系统的研究
a systematic study
7. 起源于
descend from
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8. 提出
come up with
9. 向西漂泊
drift west
10. 留传给我们
pass on to us
11. 日子过得开心
enjoy oneself
12. 抚养孩子
rear/raise a child
13. 诺曼人征服英国
the Normans conquered England
14. 平民百姓
common people
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15. 印刷机
a printing press
16. 大量新思想
a wealth of new thinking
17. 欧洲文艺复兴
the European Renaissance
18. 失控
be out of control
19. 付诸实施
put into practice
20. 个人自由的崇尚者
a respecter of the liberties of each
individual
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21. 开拓新路
strike out new path
22. 培育了…的准则
nourish the principles of …
23. 人权
the rights of man
24. 知识精英
an intellectual elite
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Brainstorm
Directions: Work in groups and brainstorm as many
words as possible that are related to the topic –
Chinese Language.
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Respond
Directions: Listen to the passage and answer the
following questions.
1. What does the Chinese language usually refer to?
It refers to the standard language and its dialect.
2. What percentage of the Han nationality accounts
for the total population?
93.3%.
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3. Why do we say the Chinese language is very important
in the world?
Because it is one of the five working languages in the
United Nations.
4. How many overseas Chinese and persons of Chinese
decent in Southeast Asia speak Chinese language?
It’s more than 10 million.
5. According to this passage, what was the world’s
population when the passage was written?
About 5 billion.
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6. How long has the Chinese language been spoken?
More than 6,000 years.
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Chinese Language — Our Mother Tongue
The Chinese language usually refers to the standard
language and its dialects used by the Han nationality
which makes up 93.3% of the total population. Most of the
minority nationalities in China have their own languages.
Both numerically (从数量上来讲) and in the extent of its
distribution, Chinese is the most important language in
China and also one of the five official working languages
of the United Nations. It is also one of the richest and
highly developed languages in the world.
Chinese is also spoken by many overseas Chinese: it is
the common language of more than 10 million overseas
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Chinese and persons of Chinese descent in Southeast Asia
alone. At present, more than one billion people,
approximately 1/5 of the world’s population, speak
Chinese as their mother tongue.
A written form of the language was developed as
early as 6,000 years ago. From the point of view of its
origin, it belongs to the Sino-Tibetan languages family (汉
藏语系,包括汉语、西藏语、缅甸语等).
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Synonyms
Directions: Choose a suitable word from the given
pairs to complete the following sentences and try to
figure out the difference in meaning.
Some words, like wish and want, raise and rear, royal,
kingly and sovereign, come very close in meaning but
are not interchangeable in some contexts.
1. want/wish
wish you both a very pleasant journey.
a) I ____
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wish I had never said that to you.
b) Ann, I am sorry. I ____
c) My parents want
____ me to give you their best regards.
wish/want to waste our money on such
d) We do not __________
worthless things.
2. skin/hide
skin care.
a) This is the best lotion I’ve ever known for ____
b) “I’m sorry I called you a pig.” “My _________
hide/skin is thick
enough; it didn’t bother me.”
hide . They are
c) This pair of boots is made of buffalo ____
very durable.
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skin off with my
d) I don’t need a knife; I can peel the ____
fingers.
3. raise/rear
rear/raise the young.
a) The male bird helps the female to _________
b) You cannot ____
raise corn here. The climate is not right for
it.
rear/raise the children
c) The couple agreed that to _________
properly they need two incomes.
raise himself from poverty.
d) He worked hard to ____
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4. royal/kingly/sovereign
royal family has been the focus of media
a) The British _____
attention in recent weeks.
b) The young man’s kingly/royal
__________ bearing (仪态) has won
him many admirers.
c) When did India gain its independence and become a
sovereign state?
_________
d) With his health restored, he is now ready to resume
his royal/kingly
__________ duties.
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Body Language
Directions: In this part, you can see four pictures and
each picture shows the different meaning of body
language both in China and U.S. At the same time, you
can also see the different phrases or expressions
showing the meaning of the different pictures. You’re
required to match the picture with the phrases by
drawing the phrases into the proper places.
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A considered impolite; making people embarrassed, selfconscious
B applauding oneself; improper, immodest
C curiosity, sometimes surprise
D calling for silence
E thank you; mutual positive feelings
F giving comfort, consolation or encouragement; also
showing affection
G disapproval, hissing (用嘘声责骂)
H patting the head of children to show affection; patting
the head of a teenager or adult causing displeasure
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No.4
Meaning in China
Meaning in U. S.
No.1 ( E ) No.3 ( G )
No.1 ( B ) No.3 ( D )
No.2 ( C ) No.4 ( H )
No.2 ( A ) No.4 ( F )
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Sentence Translation
1. That happy tolerance, that willingness to accept words
from anywhere, explains the richness of English and
why it has become, to a very real extent, the first truly
global language.
这种乐意包容的精神,这种不管源自何方都来者不拒的精
神,恰好解释了英语为什么会这样丰富,解释了英语缘何
在很大程度上成了第一种真正的国际语言。
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2. A systematic study revealed that many modern
languages descended from a common parent language,
lost to us because nothing was written down.
系统的研究显示,许多现代语言起源于一个共同的母语,
但由于没有文字记载,该母语已经失传。
3. The English language would not have been what it is if
the English had not been for centuries great respecters
of each individual and if everybody had not been free
to strike out new paths for himself.
如果不是多少世纪以来英国人一向崇尚个人自由,如果不
是人人都能自由地为自己开拓新的道路,英语就不会成为
今天的英语。
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4. English may become one tool that opens windows to the
world, unlocks doors to opportunities, and expands our
minds to new ideas.
英语可能成为人们了解世界、开启机遇大门、扩展思路、
接纳新思想的一种工具。
5. 而演说中使用我们语言中的古词汇具有直接拨动心弦的效
果。
Yet there is something direct to the heart that speaks
to us from the earliest words in our language.
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6. 希腊罗马经典著作的译文纷纷印成书册。
Translations of Greek and Roman classics were poured
onto the printed page.
7. 到2010年,将英语作为第二语言或外语使用的人数将超过
以英语为母语的人数。
By 2010, the number of people who speak English as a
second or foreign language will exceed the number of
native speakers.
8. 世界正处于变革之中,英语将会出现新的形式。
The world is in transition, and the English language will
take new forms.
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Graph Writing
Cause and effect essays are concerned with why
things happen (causes) and what happens as a result
(effects). Cause and effect is a common method of
organizing and discussing ideas. The following tips can
help you draft this type of essay:
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A brief introduction
1. Graph writing, in fact, is a way to transfer information
into written language from a graph or chart.
2. Here the word “graph” refers to Graphs, Charts, and
Tables. Graphs and charts are pictures which show
numbers or figures, and tables are just rows and
columns of information.
3. Usually, graph writing consists of three parts:
Introduction, Body and Conclusion. Introduction
should describe the purpose of report and say what
overall trends you see. Body should describe the most
important trends, while all information is summarized
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to avoid unnecessary details. Conclusion should sum
up the global trends shown on the figure and compare
them if possible.
4. In order to have a better composition, the writer
should be familiar with some special expressions in
graph writing. (Details can be seen in Some common
connects below)
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An example
Directions: Write a composition entitled “Leading
Causes of Road Accidents in China”. The composition
should be based on the following graph.
Percentage
of Accidents
Motor Bicycles Pedestrians Others
Vehicles
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Your composition should be in three paragraphs:
1. introduce the causes;
2. report the information given in the graph;
3. conclude the composition by giving some suggestions.
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Leading Causes of Road Accidents in China
With the development of the cities, the road accident
is becoming a more and more serious problem in China.
The information represented in the graph, which depicts
the leading causes of road accidents in China, indicates
that most accidents are caused by motor vehicles, bicycles,
and pedestrians.
In the graph we can clearly see that motor vehicles are
responsible for most of the road accidents, namely about
50% of them. Bicycles account for 35% of the accidents and
pedestrians caused nearly 10%. These results indicate that
motor vehicles can thus be regarded as the enemy of the
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whole society, especially when the people’s life is taken
into consideration.
Since we know that motor vehicles are the leading
cause of road accidents in China, we should take some
measures to prevent them from happening. First, we
should make a law to punish any violators of traffic
regulations. Then, cyclists should use hand signals to warn
other road users of their intentions. Last but not least,
the department concerned should educate ordinary
people to walk on a zebra crossing or overpass when they
cross a street. All in all, it’s time for us to attach great
importance to this problem.
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Some useful expressions in graph writing
1. The picture shows….
2. This table shows the differences between….
3. The diagram represents…
4. The chart above indicates…
5. The information represented in the graph
indicates…
6. As can be seen from the chart, …
7. As is shown in the bar graph, there were…
8. From the diagram it can be seen clearly that…
9. From these figures one can easily see that…
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10. According to the graph given above, we can see that…
11. This is an illustration of…/a typical example of…
12. There was a great/slight increase/rise.
13. There has been a sudden/slow/rapid fall/drop…
14. Take the above chart as an example,…
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Homework
Directions: Write a composition entitled “Us Spending
Patterns, 1966-1996” based on the following pie charts.
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The pie charts show changes in American spending
patterns between 1966 and 1996.
Food and cars made up the two biggest items of
expenditure in both years. Together they comprised over
half of household spending. Food accounted for 44% of
spending in 1966, but this dropped by two thirds to 14% in
1996. However, the outlay on cars doubled, rising from
23% in 1966 to 45% in 1996.
Other areas changed significantly. Spending on eating
out doubled, climbing from 7% to 14%. The proportion of
salary spent on computers increased dramatically, up
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from 1% in 1996 to 10% in 1996. However, as computer
expenditure rose, the percentage of outlay on books
plunged from 6% to 1%.
Some areas remained relatively unchanged. Americans
spent approximately the same amount of salary on petrol
and furniture in both years.
In conclusion, increased amounts spent on cars,
computers, and eating out were made up for by drops in
expenditure on food and books.
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Talk about the Pictures
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Proverbs and Quotations
1. Speech is silver, silence is gold.
雄辩是银,沉默是金。
2. Speech is the index/picture of the mind.
言为心声。
3. Speech shows what a man is.
听其言而知其人。
Supplementary Reading
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4. A foreign language is a weapon in the struggle of life.
— Karl Marx, German revolutionary
外国语是人生斗争的武器。
—— 德国哲学家 K.马克思
5. Grammar must be learned through language, and not
language through grammar.
— Johann G. Herdor, German philosopher
必须从语言中学习语法,而不是从语法中学习语言
—— 德国哲学家 J.G. 赫尔德
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6. Speech is a mirror of soul; as a man speaks, so is he.
— Ephraem Syrus, American writer
语言是心灵的镜子;一个人只要说话,他说的话就是
他心灵的镜子。
—— 美国作家 E. 塞拉斯
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Culture Notes
Reading
Comprehension Tasks
After Reading
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Culture Notes
From English to Panglish
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Comprehension Tasks
Task One: Table Completion
Task Two: Questions and Answers
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From English to Panglish
Directions: You are required to read the words while
listening to the following passage and then have a
dialogue about the pros and cons of Internet.
We know that English is the prevailing world
language, and that Chinglish should be avoided.
However, a new global tongue, called “Panglish”, is
expected to overtake traditional English in the coming
decades.
The language of Shakespeare and Dickens is
evolving into a new, simplified form of English that will
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be spoken by billions of people around the world. The
changes are being driven by people who speak English as
a second language, New Scientist magazine reports.
According to the report, Panglish will be similar to
the versions of English used by non-native speakers.
Linguists say Panglish will lose some of the English
sounds which non-native speakers find difficult to
pronounce. For instance, the “th” sounds in “this” and
“thin” might be replaced by “z” or “s”, respectively.
The short “l” sound in “hotel” might be replaced with
the longer “l” of “lady”.
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Consonants at the end of words may be dropped. So
“friend” may be pronounced as “frien” and “send” as
“sen”. Group nouns like “information” and “furniture” –
which don’t have plural versions – could vanish.
Therefore, it may become acceptable in Panglish to talk
about “informations” and “furnitures”.
Non-English speakers often forget the “s” at the end
of third person singular verbs like “he runs” or “she
walks”. In Panglish, people may say “he talk” or “she
eat”.
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“By 2010, around 2 billion people, or a third of the
world’s population, will speak English as a second
language. In contrast, just 350 million people will
speak it as a first language. By 2020, the number of
native speakers will be down to 300 million,” the Daily
Mail newspaper predicts.
Unlike French, which is protected from corruption
by the Academie Francaise, there is no organization to
guard the English language.
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Wondering whether all the time and effort spent
learning English is worthwhile? Here are some good
reasons why it is.
The Role of English in the 21st Century
Melvyn A. Hasman
The global spread of English over the last 40 years
has been remarkable.
It is unparalleled in several ways:
by the increasing number of users of the language; by its
depth of penetration into societies; by its range of
functions.
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Worldwide over 1.4 billion people live in countries
where English has official status. One out of five of the
world’s population speaks some English. And at present
one in five — over one billion people — are learning
English. Over 70% of the world’s scientists read English.
About 85% of the world’s mail is written in English. And
90% of all information in the world’s electronic retrieval
systems is stored in English. By 2010, the number of
people who speak English as a second or foreign
language will exceed the number of native speakers.
This trend will certainly affect the language.
English is used for more purposes than ever before.
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Vocabularies, grammatical forms, and ways of speaking
and writing have emerged influenced by technological
and scientific developments, economics and management,
literature and entertainment.
What began some 1,500
years ago as a crude language, originally spoken by little
known German tribes who invaded England, now covers
the globe.
When Mexican pilots land their airplanes in France,
they and the ground controllers use English. When
German physicists want to alert the international
scientific community to new discoveries, they first publish
their findings in English. When Japanese executives
conduct business with Scandinavian businessmen,
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they negotiate in English. When pop singers write their
songs, they often use English. When demonstrators want
to alert the world to their problems, they display signs
in English.
Three factors continue to contribute to this spread
of English: English usage in science, technology and
commerce; the ability to integrate vocabulary from
other languages; and the acceptability of various English
dialects.
In science, English replaced German after World War
II.
With this technical and scientific dominance came
the beginning of overall dominance by the language,
first in Europe and then globally.
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Today, the information age has replaced the industrial
age and has compressed time and distance. This is
transforming world economies from industrial production
to information-based goods and services. Ignoring
geography and borders, the information revolution is
redefining our world. In less than 20 years, information
processing, once limited to the printed work, has given
way to computers and the Internet. Computer-aided
communication is closing the gap between spoken and
written
English.
It
encourages
more
informal
conversational language and a tolerance for diversity and
individual style.
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English, like many languages, uses a phonetic
alphabet and fairly basic grammar. But most importantly,
it has a large and extensive vocabulary, of which about
80% is foreign. It has borrowed and continues to borrow
words from Spanish and French, Hebrew and Arabic,
Hindi-Urdu and Bengali, Malay and Chinese, as well as
languages from West Africa and Polynesia. This language
characteristic makes it unique in history.
Finally, no English language central authority guards
the standards of the language, therefore, many dialects
have developed: American, British, Canadian, Indian, and
Australian, to name a few. There is no standard
pronunciation. But within this diversity is a unity of
g r a m m a r a n d o n e s e t o f c o r e v o c a b u l a r y.
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Thus, each country that speaks the language can
introduce aspects of its own culture into the usage and
vocabulary.
However, the future is unpredictable. There has
never been a language so widely spread or spoken by so
many people as English. So, there are no examples to
help us predict what happens to a language when it
achieves genuine world status.
The world is in transition, and the English language
will take new forms. The language and how it is used will
change, reflecting new patterns of contact with other
languages and the changing communication needs of
people.
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English is ridding itself of its political and cultural
associations as more people realize that English is not
the property of only a few countries. Instead, it is a
vehicle that is used globally. It belongs to whoever uses
it for whatever purpose or need.
There is no reason to believe that any one other
language will appear within the next 50 years to replace
English. However, it is possible that English will not
remain unchallenged in the 21st century. Rather, a small
number of languages may share in importance — each
with a special area of influence. For example, Spanish is
rising because of expanding trade and the increase of
the Latino population in the United States. This could
create a bilingual English-Spanish region.
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A language shift, in which individuals change their
language loyalties, is another possibility. These shifts are
slow and difficult to predict. But within the next 50 years
substantial language shifts could occur as economic
development affects more countries.
Because of these shifts in loyalties, more languages
may disappear. Those remaining will rapidly get more
native speakers. This includes English.
Universities using English as the medium of instruction
will expand and rapidly create a generation of middleclass professionals. Economic development will only
increase the middle class, a group that is more likely to
learn and use English in jobs.
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While languages such as English, German, and
French have been international languages because of
their governments’ political power, this is less likely to
be the case in the 21st century where economics and
shifts in population will have more influence on
languages.
English has been an international language for only
50 years. If the pattern follows the previous language
trends, we still have about 100 years before a new
language dominates the world. However, this does not
mean that English is replacing or will replace other
languages as many fear. Instead, it may supplement or
co-exist with languages by allowing strangers
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to communicate across language boundaries. It may
become one tool that opens windows to the world,
unlocks doors to opportunities, and expands our
minds to new ideas.
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range: n. the limits within which sth. exists, operates, or is
effective
An earthquake occurred within the range of 300 km
around the city.
动物有时可以听到超出人类的听觉范围的声音。
Animals can sometimes hear sounds beyond the range
of human hearing.
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exceed: vt. go beyond in quantity, degree, etc.
The shop’s Christmas Season revenue exceeded their
wildest expectations
到2004年10月1日为止,伊拉克平民的死亡人数超过了10
万人。
The civilian death toll in Iraq exceeded 100,000 by 1st
October, 2004.
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management: n. the art or practice of managing, esp. of
a business or money
She plans to study hotel management in Switzerland
next year.
管理既是一门科学也是一门艺术。
Management is both a science and an art.
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crude: adj. not refined
Soybeans in their crude form are inedible.
The term “crude oil” refers to petroleum directly out
of the ground.
“原油”这个术语是指直接来自地下的石油。
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conduct: vt. carry out or direct
Well-conducted dialogues are valuable ways for
exploring ideas within our community.
宇航员在哥伦比亚号宇宙飞船上进行实验。
Astronauts conducted experiments onboard spacecraft
Columbia.
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contribute to: help to cause
The involvement in a romantic triangle may have
contributed to the decline of her mental health.
个人行为,环境因素和遗传特征都会导致疾病的复杂性。
Individual behaviors, environmental factors, and
genetics all contribute to the complexity of diseases.
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integrate: vi. cause to become a member, make into a
whole
Older students form clubs to integrate into campus life.
由于经济全球化,我国也必须融入世界经济中去。
Our country must also integrate into the world economy
because of globalization.
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overall: adj. including everything
Retail sales continued the overall downturn trend.
你对新品苹果电脑的总体印象如何?
What is your overall impression of the new Apple
computer?
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transform: vt. change completely in form, appearance or
nature
Her whole posture was totally transformed: head up,
shoulders back and down, and there was a confidence
in her step that I’d never seen before.
水能把一片不毛之地变成一座花园。
Water can transform a desert into a garden.
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give way to: yield to
Though in many people the habit of reading and
writing has given way to the habit of listening and
seeing, it can never be totally discarded.
阳光明媚,温暖舒适的星期六过后可能就是一个暴风骤
雨的星期日。
The sunny, mild Saturday may give way to a stormy
Sunday.
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characteristic: n. a quality or feature that is typical of
sth. or sb.
Decisiveness is a characteristic of high-performing men
and women.
不喝水还能长时间生存的能力是骆驼的一个特点。
A characteristic of the camel is its ability to live for a
long time without water.
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unique: adj. being the only one of its kind
You’ve come to the right place to find unique gifts of
style and quality.
研究人员已经识别出一种人类和其同类猿所特有的基因。
Researchers have identified a gene unique to humans
and their ape kin.
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authority: n. person(s) having the power or right to
give orders and make others obey
The law allows authorities to take DNA samples from
anyone convicted of a felony (重罪).
他是环境保护方面的权威人士。
He is a great authority on environmental protection.
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to name a few: give just a few examples
There are hundreds of preset visual effects available
(smoke, fire, explosions, sparkles, fireworks, just to
name a few) in this animation program.
中国有很多大城市,比如上海、北京、重庆、武汉等。
There are many big cities in China — Shanghai, Beijing,
Chongqing, Wuhan to name a few.
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aspect: n. an element or side of a situation or idea
The poem offers possibilities for gaining fresh insights
into other aspects of late medieval literary culture.
安全是自由的一个方面,因为没有一个具有不安全感的
人会是自由的。
Security is an aspect of freedom because no one who is
unsafe is free.
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predict: declare or tell in advance
Today, there are many active volcanoes worldwide. Is
there anything we can do to predict how and when
they will erupt?
卫星图(Satellite imagery)在预测自然灾害方面正在起
着重要作用。
Satellite imagery is now playing an important role in
predicting natural disasters.
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in transition: in the course of changing into another state
or condition
American higher education is in transition in terms of
the way colleges and universities are organized and
function.
家庭和学校的紧密联系可以为转型期的儿童提供无缝支持。
A strong home and school connection can create a
seamless web of support for children in transition.
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rid oneself of: free oneself from
Artistic expression will help Susanna rid herself of
built-up emotional junk, and then she can move on.
要使自己摆脱一位因逗留过久而使人生厌的客人是一件
很困难的事。
It is a tough job ridding oneself of a guest who has
overstayed his/her welcome.
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substantial: of considerable size, degree, extent, etc.
Delta Air Lines reported a “substantial”loss this year
and warned it may have to seek bankruptcy protection
if its financial situation worsens.
护士的工作环境要有重大的改观,以确保他们能够最好
地照顾病人。
Substantial changes are required in nurses’ working
environment to ensure that they can best take care of
patients.
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dominate: have control of or a very strong influence on
The movie Titanic dominated the weekend box office.
巴勒斯坦新内阁中占主导地位的是一些新当选的官员
The new Palestinian cabinet is dominated by new faces.
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It is unparalleled in several ways: by the increasing
number of users of the language; by its depth of
penetration into societies; by its range of functions.
Translate the sentence into Chinese.
这一过程在几个方面都是前所未有的:英语使用人
数的增加,英语在不同社会渗透的深度,以及英语
功用的广度。
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What began some 1,500 years ago as a crude language,
originally spoken by little known German tribes who
invaded England, now covers the globe.
Translate the sentence into Chinese.
大约1500年前,英语还只是那些入侵英格兰的鲜为
人知的日耳曼部落使用的一种粗俗的语言,如今它
却遍及全球。
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While languages such as English, German, and French
have been international languages because of their
governments’ political power, this is less likely to be
the case in the 21st century where economics and
shifts in population will have more influence on
languages.
Translate the sentence into Chinese.
虽然英语、德语和法语这些语言曾经凭着各自政府的
政治力量而成为国际语言,这种情况在经济和人口变
化对语言的影响更大的21世纪不太可能发生。
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TOEFL or IELTS?
Here is a passage about two famous English tests in
the world — TOEFL and IELTS. After you listen to it,
you are required to finish the following tasks.
Task One: Table Completion
Directions: Listen to the passage three times and
complete the following table with the information
from the passage.
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TOEFL
IELTS
Number of county
having the test
180
121
Number of
examinee per year
1 million
1 million
Form of test
paper test;iBT;
spoken test
paper test
Cost of test
$150; $150~200; $ 125
$160
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Task Two: Questions and Answers
Directions: Now listen to the passage again and
answer the following questions according to the
information from the passage.
1. What do TOEFL and IELTS stand for respectively?
TOEF stands for “the Test of English as a Foreign
Language” while IELTS for “the International English
Language Testing System”.
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2. How many colleges and universities in USA are
recognizing the IELTS now?
2,000.
3. How is the speaking test done with the IELTS?
It is done in the form of a live interview. That’s to
say, a candidate should speak with a certified
examiner.
4. What does TOEFL iBT mean?
It means Internet-based test. It is a computer
version of TOEFL.
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5. Is the TOEFL paper test the same as TOEFL iBT?
No, the paper test only tests reading, listening and
writing while TOEFL iBT tests one more — speaking.
6. Are the reading and writing tests in the IELTS the same?
No, they are designed for academic or general training.
7. Who developed the IELTS?
Institutions in Britain and Australia jointly developed it.
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Most American colleges and universities accept one or
both of the two major tests. One is the Test of English as a
Foreign Language, known as the TOEFL. The other is the
International English Language Testing System, or IELTS.
The TOEFL is given in one hundred eighty countries.
The competing IELTS is given in one hundred twenty-one
countries.
One million people each year take the TOEFL, says Tom
Ewing, a spokesman for the Educational Testing Service.
Same with the IELTS, says Beryl Meiron, the executive
director of IELTS International.
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She says two thousand colleges and universities in
the United States now recognize the IELTS. Schools might
accept it only for undergraduate or graduate admission or
both.
The IELTS is a paper test, while the TOEFL is given on
paper only in places where a computer test is unavailable.
The TOEFL paper test costs one hundred fifty dollars.
It tests reading, listening and writing. A separate Test of
Spoken English costs one hundred twenty-five dollars.
The computer version is called the TOEFL iBT, or
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Internet-based test. The price is different in each country,
but generally falls between one hundred fifty and two
hundred dollars.
The TOEFL iBT and the IELTS both measure all four
language skills — listening, reading, writing and speaking.
But with the IELTS, the speaking test is done separately as
a live interview. You speak with an examiner who is
certified in ESOL — English for speakers of other languages.
Everyone takes the same speaking and listening tests.
But there is a choice of two kinds of reading and writing
tests — either academic or general training.
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IELTS International says the test measures true-tolife ability to communicate in English for education,
immigration and employment. Institutions in Britain and
Australia jointly developed it.
The cost is different in each country. But Beryl
Meiron says the price in local currency is generally
comparable to about one hundred sixty dollars. The
IELTS Web site is ielts.org. The TOEFL Web site is
toefl.org.
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