Education and change: the linguistic
and cultural practices of teenagers in
Catalonia
Vanessa Bretxa
CUSC- University Center of Sociolinguistics and Communication
University of Barcelona
RESOL: A longitudinal project (2006-2015)
• RESOL- Resocialization and languages: the linguistic effects from
primary to secondary education in multilingual contexts.
• Funded by Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation.
• Research team: F.Xavier Vila (UB) (PI), Llorenç Comajoan (UVic),
Joan Melià (UIB), Vanessa Bretxa (UB), Natxo Sorolla (UB) and
Cristina Illamola(UB).
• Main goal: To study the transition from primary to secondary
education and its impact in sociolinguistic practices.
Starting point of the project
• The assessment (success or failure) of bilingual education in
Catalonia is a complex matter.
• Knowledge of Catalan among young people and teenagers has
increased significantly compared with previous generations (Torres
et al. 2005, EULP, 2008).
• Knowledge of Catalan by youth has not necessarily had a
consequence in their use of Catalan (Galindo and Vila 2009).
• Some authors have attempted to explain part of this process by
examining the transition from childhood to youth (Vila 2010;
Pujolar et al. 2010).
• Question: Is there a change in the use of Catalan between primary
and secondary education?
The complexity of language practice (Vila 2004, 2010)
• Language competence refers
to the individual’s ability to use
one language
• Language use refers to how
individuals put their linguistic
competence into practice in
interaction with other
individuals
System (Corpus)
Use (Practice)
Representacions
(Ideologies)
Competence
(Acquisition)
• Linguistic representations
(or ideology) are related to
attitudes, values, and ideas that
speakers have about language
• Linguistic system refers to
the purely linguistic items that
make up a language and that are
the object of study of formal
linguistics
Dimensions of study and data instruments
Language use
• Family Language
(L1, parents,
siblings).
• Language of Cultural
Consumption (TV,
music, books,
Internet)
• Language of social
network
• Language of School
Technique: Sociolinguistic
questionnaire
Language
competence
(declared and
observed)
Linguistic
ideologies
Beliefs and
identifications
• Catalan
• Spanish
• Linguistic self
confidence
• Attitudes towards
Catalan and Spanish
• Ethnicity
Technique: Videorecorded linguistic
competence assessment
Technique: Focus groups
and Sociolinguistic
questionnaire
The RESOL project (2006-2015)
• Focus on longitudinal data: Same sample and instrument
▫ 6P (age 12): Last year of primary education (2007)
▫ 1S (age 13): First year of secondary education (2008)
▫ 4S (age 16): Last year of secondary education (2011)
▫ 2B(age 18): Last year of post-secondary (2013)
• Number of participants: 1194 (6th-1st – 4th)
• Catalan-speaking areas under study:
▫ Catalonia (Manlleu, Mataró, Sant Joan Despí, Sant Just
Desvern, Balaguer)
▫ Aragon (La Franja)
▫ Mallorca (Palma, Inca)
Case study: Mataró (6P to 1S)
- City in the Metropolitan Area of
Barcelona.
- 8th largest city in Catalonia
- Population: 119.858 hab. (2008)
- 15,6% immigrants (2008)
- 35 schools
N: 888
Sex: 49,1% boys and 50,9% girls
Origin : 86,6% born in Catalonia and
13,6% born abroad.
First Language (L1)
“What language did you first speak at home when you were a child?”
Catalan
Catalan & Spanish
Spanish
Other Language
9.4
9.2
40.2
41.9
18.5
17.2
31.9
31.8
31.7
Primary (6P)
Secondary (1S)
Catalonia
Source: RESOL 2007- 2008
9.3
55
3.8
Source: EULP 2008
Proficiency in Catalan and Spanish (6P)
Catalan
9.3
9.5
Understanding
Source: RESOL 2007
9.0
9.3
Speaking
Sapanish
9.0
9.3
Reading
8.4
8.8
Writing
Language inside the classroom (6P)
Catalan
2.7
28.7
68.4
Students > Teachers
Catalan & Spanish
Spanish
1.8
22.7
75.6
Teachers >Students
Differences in language inside the classroom 6P to 1S
Catalan
Catalan & Spanish
Spanish
8.9
7.3
1.5
-8.9
Students > Teachers
0.2
-9.2
Teachers >Students
Linguistic cultural consumption (6P)
Catalan
0
2.5
Spanish
6.5
5.2
English
3.2
Non-users
11.3
11.6
40.1
50.1
71.7
59.2
48.2
45.2
25
TV
17.9
Books
1.4
Music
Internet
Differences between cultural consumption 6P to 1S
Catalan
Spanish
English
15
Users
13.9
12.9
7.7
6.2
3.2
0.3
0
-0.1
-2.5
-0.1
-1.9
-6.3
-12.1
-12.7
TV
Books
-14.6
Music
Internet
Language with friends (6P and SP)
Catalan
Catalan &Spanish
Spanish
Other languages
2
2
46.5
50.8
17.9
15.2
33.6
32
Primary (6P)
Secondary (1S)
Differences in language with friends
(from 6P to 1S)
4.3
0
-1.6
-2.7
Catalan
Catalan & Spanish
Spanish
Other languages
Conclusions
• Is there a change in the use of Catalan between primary and
secondary education?
• There are many changes and in different areas
• In general there is a decline of Catalan
• There are no changes in Spanish and Catalan proficiency
• Language inside the classroom:
▫ Catalan is still prevalent in class
▫ Increased use of both languages by teachers and students
• Cultural consumption:
▫ Decrease of reading books and increased Internet use
▫ Decrease in the consumption of TV and books in Catalan
▫ Increased in the consumption of TV, Internet and books in Spanish
▫ Increased in the consumption of music in English
• There are more differences between structural uses (mass media and
school) than in interpersonal private uses.
Diolch
Thank you
Moltes gràcies!
[email protected]
<http://www.ub.edu/cusc/sleducativa/>
<http://www.ub.edu/cusc>
Bibliografia
•
Bretxa i Riera, Vanessa i F. Xavier Vila i Moreno (2012) «Els canvis sociolingüístics en el pas
primària a secundària: el projecte RESOL a Mataró.» Treballs de Sociolingüística Catalana 22.
•
Vila i Moreno, F. Xavier (ed.). (2012). Posar-hi la base. Usos i aprenentatges lingüístics en el
domini català. Barcelona: Institut d’Estudis Catalans.
•
Vila i Moreno, F. Xavier. 2011. «La recerca sociolingüística educativa escolar als països de llengua
catalana: elements per a un balanç.» Treballs de Sociolingüística Catalana 21.
•
Galindo, Mireia i Vila i Moreno, F. Xavier (2009) «Els factors explicatius dels usos lingüístics
informals entre l’alumnat català: llengua inicial, xarxes socials, competència i llengua vehicular
d’ensenyament». Noves SL. Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya, invierno del 2009.
•
Comajoan, Llorenç (2009). «Language revitalization in a globalized world: lessons learned from
Catalan». A: Transferences. The expression of extra-linguistic processes in the world’s
languages. Vic: Eumo Editorial, 269-299.
•
Bretxa, Vanessa, Llorenç Comajoan, i Natxo Sorolla (2009) «De les pràctiques monolingües
familiars a la identificació bilingüe: el cas dels preadolescents de Mataró i la Franja. » Noves SL
hivern. http://www6.gencat.cat/llengcat/noves/hm09hivern/bretxa_comajoan_sorolla1_9.htm
•
Bretxa i Riera, Vanessa (2009) «El salt a secundària: els adolescents, consum cultural i llengua.»
Zeitschrift für Katalanistik / Revista d’Estudis Catalans 22:171-202. http://www.romanistik.unifreiburg.de/pusch/zfk/22/11_Bretxa.pdf
Summary
• Data about Catalonia
▫ Language use
 L1
 habital langauge
 intergeneracional transmision
▫ Linguistic competence
• The project: RESOL
▫ PANEL data
▫ Language use:




home
school
friends
cultural consumption
L1, habitual language and Intergenerational
transmission (Catalonia)
Catalan
9.3
Catalan & Spanish
Spanish
Others languages
6.5
6.8
45.9
42.3
55
12
8.5
3.8
31.7
35.6
First language
Habitual language
Source: EULP 2008
41.7
Intergenerational linguistic
transmission
Language competence (Catalonia)
94.6
99.7
99.9
97.4
95.6
81.7
78.3
61.8
Catalan
Spanish
32
Understand
26.4
Speaking
Source: EULP 2008 (Catalonia)
27.9
Reading
English
24.1
Writing
Language media consumption in Catalonia (2011)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Source: Fundacc, 2011
Catalan
Sapnish
English
Evolution of the position of Catalan in the mass
media in Catalonia (2008-2011)
TV
Radio
Internet
Newspapers
100
90
80
70
60
50
47.6
40
48.3
48.9
28.6
31.1
30
25.3
20
27
26.7
29.4
11.7
12.8
12
2008
2009
2010
10
0
Source: Fundacc, 2011
55.2
33
33.1
15.9
2011
Evolution of the position of Catalan in the cultural
consumption in Catalonia (2008-2011)
100
Cinema
Theater
Music
Books
90
80
70
60
50
52.3
46.7
46.7
47.5
23.1
24.4
25.5
26.7
9.1
11.5
40
30
20
10
0
5.7
4.3
2008
Source: Fundacc, 2011
5.8
3.8
2009
4.5
2010
7.9
2011
Some facts about Catalan in the
mass media
• Catalan language is in a minority position in the Catalan media
landscape
• However, in the last 5 years there is a slow but clear trend
towards an increase of relative position of Catalan as opposed to
Spanish
• Radio broadcasting is the area where Catalan language exhibits
better figures, and has caught up with Spanish in terms of
demand/consumption
• Use of Catalan in cinema displays the lowest figures, despite some
improvement in the last years.
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