SB500: Information Systems
Instructor: Dr. Boris Jukic
Evolution of Information
Systems (1950’s –
2000’s)
Semiconductor Industry evolution: Moore’s
Law


The observation made
in 1965 by Gordon
Moore, co-founder of
Intel, that the number
of transistors per
square inch on
integrated circuits had
doubled every year
since the integrated
circuit was invented.
In subsequent years,
the pace slowed down
a bit, but data density
has doubled
approximately every 18
months, and this is the
current definition of
Moore's Law
Moore’s Law Continued


Fitting of more computational power in a unit of
space has resulted in comparable growth in
price/performance ratio of computational devices
Some implications:
–
–
“The average person wears more computing power
on their wrist today than all computing power
combined before 1956” (Saffo, 1997)
“The computer technology in today’s cars, minivans,
SUVs and trucks is nearly one thousand times more
powerful than that which guided the Apollo moon
mission.” (www.autoalliance.org)
Moore’s Law Continued

There are some indications that Moore’s Law is
reaching its limits
–
–
Technological reasons: (we may be reaching the limit
of the underlying physics)
Economic reasons; the equipment cost of producing
super advanced chips is getting exceedingly high,
offsetting the savings from packing more
computational power in smaller space
Moore’s Law: Discussion Question

Is this growth price/performance ratio of the heart of
every computational device matched by comparable
performance growth in basic components of IT
applications?
–
–
–
–
Desktop Computing: How much more can your PC do
today, compared with 5 or 10 yrs ago?
Servers: Web servers, e-commerce servers, multi-media
Networking: how much faster, cheaper, more secure are
today’s networks compared to 5, 10 yrs ago?
Software


Standard office productivity software
Business functional area software
Evolution IT: Early Days: 1960’s


Computing and telecommunications separate islands of
technology. Telecommunications primarily refer to voice
communications over telephone networks.
Mainframe – Dumb Terminal is the prevailing
architecture:
–
–
Stand-alone, centralized computing was the norm, where
mainframes and minicomputers (primarily IBM and DEC) were
the major players in the computing arena.
Proprietary communication standards (e.g., IBM's SNA, DEC's
DNA). There is very limited networking.
Evolution IT: Early Days: 1960’s

The use of computers primarily limited to
automation of mundane computational tasks:
–
–

Payroll
Early word processing software exists, but used
primarily for code writing, not as an office
productivity tool
Batch processing is the norm
–
“White Lab Coat” syndrome
Discussion Questions
–
Were early computers able to “talk” to each other?
–
How come we have never faced any networking
problems with a technology like the telephone?
Evolution of IT: Early Days: 1970’s –
1980’s

Desktop computing staring to appear in early 1980’s with
appearance of first PC’s

The focus of computing was on individual productivity,
i.e., how can we use the computing technology to do my
own jobs in more efficient and productive ways?
–
The rudimentary office productivity tools staring to appear on the
desktop as well (word processors, spreadsheets) often
proprietary and cumbersome to use, no GUI yet until Apple in
late 1980’s“SneakerNet” often the only corporate network
Evolution of IT: Early Days: 1970’s –
1980’s

Rudimentary Internet , limited to academic and research elite

Early Database Packages: Server side only
–
Move from file management to database management

Procedural Programming Languages are the norm: COBOL,
FORTRAN

Computing and Telecommunications still separate, first data
networks staring to appear
–
–
Bandwidth prohibitively expensive and ridiculously slow by today’s
standards
Text exchange only
Evolution of IT: Mid 1980’s – Early
1990’s

Move to Client/Server Architecture begins
–
Mainframe Computers still very much a crucial corporate IT
resource

OOP languages emerge : C, later C++, Java

GUI based office productivity tools
–
–

Easier to use, standardize
Client side tools
Focus starting to shift to group and organizational
productivity.
Evolution of IT: Mid 1980’s – Early
1990’s

LAN software and hardware becomes cheaper, more
standardized and easier to use (Ethernet, Token Ring)

Emphasis on connectivity and open standards
(TCP/IP)

First viable browser appear (Mosaic)

The Web goes mainstream (CERN, Tim Berners Lee)
Evolution of IT: 1990’s - Now

3 and N-Tier architectures abound

High Capacity Backbone and emergence of Broadband
residential access

Standardization of the Internet: IETF (Internet Engineering Task
Force) and Web (W3C) fuels E-Commerce and E-Business

Intranets, Extranets, E-Commerce

Advances in database servers, application development tools,
computer operating systems (increasingly merged with Network
software)
Evolution of IT: 1990’s - Now

New architectural paradigms starting to emerge:
distributed computing, web services, peer-to-peer

Total digital convergence of voice, video and data
applications

Mobile and Wireless Revolution
–

Ubiquitous computing: anywhere, anytime on any device
Web Services
Descargar

IS605/606: Information Systems Instructor: Dr. Boris Jukic