The PALO Language:
A Cognitive Approach of Educational
Modelling Languages
CEN/ISSS
EML PT Meeting
Miguel Rodríguez Artacho
EML PT Technical Editor
Torino October 2, 2001
Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)
Dept. Languages and Computer Systems http://www.lsi.uned.es
Contents
Definition and Use of an EML
 Components of Instructional
Systems in the PALO Language

Description levels
 Examples

Authoring Process with PALO
 Experiences

What is an ELM
An EML is a declarative description of:
Educational content
 Components
 Activities
 Scheduling

Organized in courses or Units of Study
Inmmediate benefits of an
EML

A technological independence from
the final delivery format:
CD-ROM, PDF, E-BOOK,
Interactive WEB SITE...
Higher level of abstraction in the
authoring process.
 Maintainability & Reusability.

How: The description of an
Instructional system





Structure
Domain knowledge
Activities & tools
Model of use
Instructional Model
Generic EML’s
XML file
Technology
independent
description
Why do we need this?
+
+
+
=
Interoperability
Interchangeability
Maintainability
Reusability
STANDARDS
Structure
Defines the organization of the
learning material, resources and
activities.
Ex. “Course”, “Module”, “Part”, “Subpart”, ...
Depending on the delivery format, this can
describe the “table of contents” (printed delivery
format), the navigational model (HTML delivery
format), etc.
Domain Knowledge
The content matter of the learning
scenario, Course or Unit of Study
Different approaches (REUSABILITY and
GRANULARITY)



Local Resources (labelled with metadata)
• Ex. IMS Content Packaging
Distributed resources (id.)
• Ex. ARIADNE KPS
Knowledge representation based on an ontology
• Cognitive approach used in PALO Language
Activities and tools
Describe the work with the learning
material and the interaction of the
communities in the Instructional
System
Classification of activities depend on the pedagogical
approach of the learning scenario
 Collaborative / Individual
 Interactivity
 Management of tools
Individual/Cooperative
paradigm
Description of the of comunities, and
roles of the participants in a given
activity


Explicit description of the communities involved in an
activity
Based in the description of Activity Theory (Nardi, 96)
Instructional Model
Some features of the EML could allow
the creation of learning scenarios
with a given pedagogical or
instructional model


Pedagogical model is implicit in the DTD (Instructional
templates)
Explicit elements of the EML (tags) can define scenarios
based in a given instructional theories (constructivist
elements in PALO)
EML vs. PALO
EML
PALO
Learning
Model
Individual/Co
operative
Individual
Structure
Unit of Study
Courses
Domain
Model
Knowledge
Object
Domain
Ontologies
Explicit
Embedded
Instructional
Templates
Theories of
instruction
Authoring Process
<!DOCTYPE cea system " [] >
<cea nombre=“cea.dtd”
con Linux" dir="ricli9900"
<gestion>
<bdobjetos tipo
<bdobjetos tipo
<bdtareas tipo="
Selection of a DTD
According to the
Pedagogical model
Problema
Design of
the Domain
Model
Es Solución
Solución
bdtareas>
Creation of
the PALO
description
<metainformacion tipo="dc"
cod="rfc2731">
<contenido>
<ambito>UNED</ambito>
...
Ejercita
Concepto
Instance of the
Domain Model
Labels in PALO
DESIGN LEVEL
LABELS
ATTRIBUTES
Management Level
Gestión (management)
Bdobjetos (objectsdb)
Bdtareas (taskdb)
Metainformación
(Metadata)
Tipo (type)
Lugar (host)
Sgbd (dbms)
Scheduling Level
Fecha (date)
Structure Level
directorio (directory)
apartado (part)
modulo (module)
subapartado (subpart)
tema (part) subtema
(subpart)
Sección (secction)
Nombre (name)
Etiqueta (label)
Traza (trace)
Task Level
Tarea (task)
Calificador (calificator)
Nombre (name)
tipo (type)
Puntuable (assesable)
peso (weight) traza
(trace)
Content Level
Talcual (as-is)
Lista (list)
Elemento (element)
Relación (relation)
Glosario (glossary)
tipo (type)
sujeto
(antecedent)
dominio (domain) faq
Nombre (name)
Categoría (category)
Cognitive Design Process
Conceptualisation Phase
Creation of a generic domain to describe content matter =
ONTOLOGY
Instantiation Phase
Creation of one or more instances for a particular domain
matter
An example: Models and
Meta-Models
Problem
Involve
Is Solution
Prob001
Prob002
Prob003
Prob004
Solution
Is Solution
Sol 023
Model
Concept
Involve
Con 031
Instance
PALO production cycle
PALO Template (DTD)
PALO File (SGML)
PARSER
Domain
Knowledge
Base
Editing Process
Student Scenario
PALO
Document
PALO
Compiler
Domain
Model
Tutor Scenario
Information models
Management
Use
Work
(Dymanic)
Domain Knowledge Model
(Static)
History


Started in 1997 in the framework of a
CICYT project (Spanish Ministery of
Education)
Development 1997-2000
1998  PALO v1.0
 1999  PALO v2.0
 Actually  PALO v3.7
New releases include new tags or new instructional
templates (DTD’s)

Actual uses of PALO

Open Courses



4 annual courses (Wap technology, Linux
Administration, Internet Technologies, web
DB-backed sites)
More than 650 students
Regular matters

Support to regular students with
• Didactic Guide
• Programming practise environment
• Evaluation environment
Future developments



Migration from SGML to XML
New parser tools in java
“New” ideas:






Resource and tool (Not implicit in the TASK definition)
Cooperative activities  Definition of communities and
roles that perform an activity
Concept of “active Document”  leaves the door open
for Adaptability
Framework: DiViLAB project
Software freely available with GPL
Content Definition language for Tec-Infor
platform (http://www.uned.es/iued)
Some references...



PALO Web site:
http://sensei.lsi.uned.es/palo
DiViLAB Project: http://www.divilab.org
UNED Dept. Languages and Computer
Systems: http://www.lsi.uned.es
Thanks!
Descargar

Track on Educational ML`s