LEADERSHIP IN TRANSFORMATION
OF THE PEACE PROFESSION:
THE INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT
RESOLUTION AND PEACE
EDUCATION EXAMPLE
BACKGROUND
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May I have your permission and indulgence if I refer to Peace
Education too frequently – please transport these examples to
Conflict Resolution if that is your preference or area of practice.
What we learn in one area we may transport to others.
Whether we talk about Conflict Resolution or Peace, there is a
sense of urgency in our discussions and actions. Literally, there
is a human cost if conflicts are not transformed successfully and
peacefully.
In the post 9/11 world, we find ourselves in what some have
called “a crisis” – facing terrorism, weapons of mass destruction,
and potential environmental disaster. The Chinese symbol for
crisis is a combination of danger and opportunity. We need to
make the best of it, and I see this and every “crisis” as part of
the learning experience of Peace Education.
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Everyone connected with building a better world must recognize
that we have a difficult task to turn things around, it will take
very hard work, it will test our skills as Peace Professionals. We
will have to be patient, cautious, and optimistic. This will test
each of our characters. At this point, time is of the essence
which means we will not always have the liberty to spend the
hours required to build the consensus on every detail that we
wish. A bias for action will be required.
I offer some Gandhian words of wisdom from Dr. Shall Sinha
following our previous CCOPP meetings, "one of the essential
characteristics of a Culture of Peace is 'patience'. Impatience
almost always leads to a culture of violence, whereas a
continued practice of patience is guaranteed to develop a
culture of peace. So may God grant you extraordinary patience
and thereby peace within you."
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Because this will test our character and friendships,
we need some underlying guidelines. In the
development of the Canadian Culture of Peace
Program, we have drafted a “Protocol To Guide Our
Conversations and Relationships” at
http://www.peace.ca/CCOPPprotocol.htm .
I believe that everyone who chooses to continue our
journey together to build a better world should read
and will be assumed to agree with this Protocol
unless we choose to refine it in light of the IPRA
2006 experience. Suggestions are welcomed.
Protocol Key Principles
include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Safety
Consequences
Acceptance
Mutual purpose
Patience
Difference
Empowerment
Action
Responsibility
The Protocol also incorporates
the principles of Manifesto 2000:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Respect all life
Reject violence
Share with others
Listen to understand
Preserve the planet
Rediscover solidarity
The “Peace Pie” diagram
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to put what I refer to as Conflict Resolution in context with
Peace Education. When I refer to Conflict Resolution, I think
more of current and near term program. When I refer to
Conflict Transformation, Conflict and Violence Prevention, I am
thinking more proactive and longer term. When I refer to Peace
Education, I think of a holistic model, that includes education
with respect to all things that impinge upon violence and peace,
I am thinking proactive and long term (but undoubtedly it also
has near term implications as well). But at this session, we are
not focusing on definitions such as that, but rather leadership
implications.
If a key party (or parties) to a conflict will not come to the
table, it is difficult if not impossible to reconcile differences and
conflict. This is one of the reasons that a party who feels they
have a grievance resorts to violence: to get the other party to
the table. (i.e. why the peace side is important)
The First Annual Leadership and Peace
Workshop at McMaster University,
November 2004 – highlights.
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http://www.peace.ca/CCOPPleadership2004.htm
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 - HYPOTHESES:
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this is Service Learning; a work-in-progress
long term perspective & sense of urgency: time is of the
essence
macro-level & micro-level approaches (or ‘top down’ & ‘bottom
up’)
to many peace professionals, leadership has a negative
connotation for a number of reasons:
1.
2.
3.
most violence is the result of unscrupulous leaders, out of greed
for power and resources, who exploit their people into violence,
provoking them with religion, racism, fear, poverty, etc. (reference
http://www.peace.ca/leadershipandacultureofviolence.htm )
the typical leadership model is a hierarchical (authoritarian) one,
dependant upon coercion, and hence models a culture of violence
people with power and resources (and often in a leadership role)
have a vested interest in the status quo
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 - HYPOTHESES
(cont.):
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unfortunately, many peace professionals have not had leadership training, and
there is no University in Canada that has a course educating, researching or
developing ‘Leadership and Peace’ (effectively, this is that course)
we have identified why the peace profession has floundered (or at least not
excelled) in the past: lack of direction (leadership), capacity (resources),
agreement, clarity, business-like (results oriented) and accountability. Foremost
in the issues that we have identified is leadership (this is the 'crux' of the
matter): we have a crisis of leadership on a number of fronts (eg. within the
peace profession, in National governance, in world governance, in business,
education, religion, civil society, etc.), and we must help resolve this key issue
with a workable model if we are to avert disastrous consequences.
This was identified by Robert Greenleaf in his book "Servant Leadership" in the
1970s, along with an effective model in my professional opinion that is very
consistent with the Culture of Peace Program (I urge you to read Greenleaf's
book; ref. http://www.peace.ca/servantleadership.htm ). This leadership crisis
still exists today, however more 'leadership gurus' are now promoting servant
leadership and stewardship (although it has not yet 'caught on' in a significant
way in the world of realpolitick).
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 - HYPOTHESES
(cont.):
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implementation of the U.N. Culture of Peace and Non-violence Program
requires transformation of all institutions (eg. Government, education,
business, etc.; the State can and must be changed); this requires
leadership and change management
“Servant Leadership” is more of a model of/for a Culture of Peace
(reference http://www.peace.ca/servantleadership.htm )
“Realpolitick” is the predominant model of a Culture of Violence
our “Customer” is the public (i.e. citizens of Canada … and the world)
motivation vs. manipulation – the ‘Art’ of Influence
the/an essence of peace education is empowerment
Canada should develop a model of a Culture of Peace, and Leadership
& Peace
Paradox: ‘we’ have no power and resources vs. ‘we’ have all the power
and resources (i.e. the other superpower)
Professionalize peacebuilding
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 - AREAS OF
INTEREST
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governance of Canada (should be doing, but are not; peace falls
through the cracks)
governance/leadership of building a Culture of Peace in Canada
(Canadian Peace Initiative/Institute)
governance/leadership of advancing peace education in Canada
(Ministries of Education; Boards of Education; Teachers
Colleges; eg. http://www.transcend.org ; future-oriented vs.
history; not teachers but facilitators – Freire; lecture style does
not work for peace studies = different model, reference
www.peace.ca/PARADIGM%20SHIFT%20IN%20EDUCATION.doc )
leadership in our respective peace organizations (and other
NGOs)
leadership in corporations/business (including Media)
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 - VALUES
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cohere to and advance the values as set
out by the U.N./UNESCO Culture of
Peace and Non-violence Program
(Manifesto 2000 as an organizing
frame; reference
http://cpnn-usa.org/learn/values.html )
VALUES, ATTITUDES AND
BEHAVIORS COMPARISON:
CULTURE OF WAR AND VIOLENCE
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Belief in power that is based
on force
Having an enemy
Authoritarian governance
Secrecy and propaganda
Armament
Exploitation of people
Exploitation of nature
Male domination
CULTURE OF PEACE AND NON-VIOLENCE
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Education for a culture of
peace
Tolerance, solidarity and
international understanding
Democratic participation
Free flow of information
Disarmament
Human rights
Sustainable development
Equality of women and men
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 SUMMARY/ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN
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we live in a ‘continuum’:
C
a
n
a
!
d
!
I
a
!
I
I--------i------i-------i------------!----------------------------------I
Culture of
m
Culture of
War & Violence
i
Peace & Non-violence
(high incidence of
d
(low incidence of
direct & indirect violence)
direct & indirect violence)
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 SUMMARY/ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN
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(cont.)
the U.N. Culture of Peace and Non-violence Program makes
eminent sense
we need to transform Canada from a Culture of Violence to a
Culture of Peace and Non-violence (it is a continuum or
spectrum, as diagramed above; Canada places relatively well in
comparison to many countries, which we should appreciate, but
still falls within a Culture of Violence; where Canada places in
the Culture of Violence compared to others is debatable – the
point is that we can and should improve)
we are lacking in direction (including leadership and
organization) and capacity (resources, including information,
people, money, skills)
how do we bring direction and capacity?
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 –
WHO IS OUR AUDIENCE?
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we are all leaders and followers/learners; also, we are all peace
educators and co-learners; hence we need to understand
leadership expectations and skills from all perspectives/roles
our audience includes government (political and bureaucrats, all
jurisdictions); Canadian Culture of Peace Program participants;
peace and non-violence organizations (and other NGOs);
Education System “governors” (including Ministries and Boards
of Education, Universities, Teachers’ Unions, Teachers);
commerce (business, including media, and unions); reference
Diagram 1
the process is circular, for we are all co-leaders, co-developers,
and co-learners (reference Diagram 2)
AHA MOMENT:
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LEADERSHIP = EMPOWERMENT;
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EDUCATION = EMPOWERMENT;
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LEADERSHIP = EDUCATION
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 –
ISSUES AND PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
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refer to Hypotheses above
how to make Culture of Peace mainstream?
How to ‘sell’ a Culture of Peace?
We need to understand the status quo (diagnose the current environment) and
utopia (our dreams), and how to go from the status quo toward utopia, via
practical goal setting and achievement
How to change? Change management
Who is going to do it? Champion; develop tool box/program
There will be tons of opposition (“enemies”); natural resistance to change;
comfort zones
Need funding; how to get (eg. Grant writing)
Overwhelming; peace is complex (a “problem of convergence” of many major
issues, each one a dilemma in its own right);
Need of a solid program to educate the private schools, public schools, colleges
and universities: What is peace? How do we define a culture of war and
violence vs. a culture of peace and non-violence? Why is it important? Who is
responsible? What should we do? Where should it go? How we fit in as an
individual and on a global front? What does an ideal ‘ Peace Village ’ look like?
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 –
ISSUES AND PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION (cont.)
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Peace activism preaches to the choir; need to connect with others
We should be able to rely on our government for this, but they are not doing (in fact,
government starves peacebuilding of resources; has a vested interest in the status quo)
Dispel the myths (eg. Canada the peacekeeper)
Fear of sacrifice of a way of life
Motivation lacking to (a) change ourselves, and (b) change our leaders
Power: position power (uses fear, resources, is short term) vs. persuasive/personal power
(uses love and understanding, is long term)
Culture of Peace “development level” in Canada : low competency and low commitment
Violent communications; ineffective communications (eg. Sharing, respecting and
attempting to understand one another’s ideas; may have cultural differences and thus
barriers)
Who are our customers, that we are preparing for? Our “Customer” is the public (i.e.
citizens of Canada … and the world), including children, youth, adults, elderly, communities,
organizations, corporations
Research required (state of the art – who is doing what and how can we work
collaboratively?; future trends and visioning – how do we create the world we want?)
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 –
RECOMMENDATIONS
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We must reappropriate the word ‘leadership’ (it is a necessity to build
peace)
give solid steps “What to do to build a Culture of Peace”; provide a
‘toolbox’; clear goals
train the trainer (teacher) workshops; give some ‘answers’ and how to
find your own
need Champions (to provide leadership in key areas)
we need to engage the ‘enemies’ (i.e. constructive engagement); listen
to understand; dialogue
how to unify the movement; prepare summary of what is going on
develop a Marketing Campaign, to ‘Sell’ Peace (reappropriate the word
‘Peace’, which has been given a bad reputation in some circles)
need a base of social services, including ‘wealth’
infiltration and subversive tactics (eg. Hidden and informal curricula)
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 –
RECOMMENDATIONS (cont.)
develop:
1.
Culture of Peace ‘Program’ (teaching of Manifesto 2000, etc.;
reference University of Alberta new peace education program)
2.
Leadership and Peace ‘Program’ (develop leadership model,
starting with Servant Leadership, Stewardship; flatten hierarchy,
etc.)
3.
Peace Education ‘Program’ (develop model of a Culture of Peace
in the classroom and school/university, starting with reference
www.peace.ca/PARADIGM%20SHIFT%20IN%20EDUCATION.doc )
4.
Peace Psychology ‘Program’ (UNESCO motto, “Since wars are
created in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the
defences of peace must be constructed.”)
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 –
RECOMMENDATIONS (cont.)
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proclaim the positives (eg. We are closer to a Culture of Peace); use an asset building
approach predominantly (needs based approach to a lesser extent)
communication: non-violent and compassionate; cross-cultural communication learning to
reduce the barriers to peaceful communication
conflict transformation education and resources (every community)
need people working (“actionists”)
peace studies students need to drive change in Universities, and research & development
consider building a ‘Peace Learning Centre(s)’, based on the model in Indianapolis
adopting schools in your community and working within to see if awareness can change the
thinking
Can we describe an ideal community that lives a Culture of Peace? What are the benefits
the people are enjoying? How can we build such a community?
Peace resource centre (library of books, videos, etc., and people to talk to)
video lectures of peace ‘experts’ (eg. Laureates, Galtung, etc.)
convene a Governance/Leadership and Canadian Culture Of Peace Program Workshop soon;
to develop a workable (and continuously improving) leadership model for the CCOPP;
consider the Canadian Peace Initiative Charter of Principles (ref.
http://www.peace.ca/CPImission.htm at bottom)
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 – MOTIVATORS,
MOTIVATION AND INFLUENCE
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“Leaders only change because they either see the light or feel the heat.”
Values (at the root of change); reflection; it is your decision; give information;
social accountability (business and government); positive perspective (emphasis;
asset building vs. needs based); legacy for future generations (our children and
grandchildren); attitudes and feelings
Support structures
Peer groups (‘pressure’)
Sense of urgency (“A great change in our stewardship of the earth and the life
on it, is required, if vast human misery is to be avoided and our global home on
this planet is not to be irretrievably mutilated.” World Scientists Warning to
Humanity http://www.pgs.ca/pages/mem/warning.htm )
Hopeful vision: how we express the story (picture; goals; inspiration; the village;
dramatic presentations)
Positive reinforcement (never a reprimand/coercion; redirection instead;
nonviolent action)
Direction
Give value (meet the “What’s in it for me?” test; self interest vs. service above
self)
LEADERSHIP AND PEACE
WORKSHOP Nov 2004 – LEADERSHIP
AND PEACE MISSION AND VISION
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As peace leaders, our mission is to lead the way to a Culture of Peace
and Non-violence
“Foresight is the ‘lead’ that the leader has. Required is that one live a sort of
schizoid life. One is always at two levels of consciousness. One is in the real
world -- concerned, responsible, effective, value oriented. One is also detached,
riding above it, seeing today's events, and seeing oneself deeply involved in
today's events, in the perspective of a long sweep of history and projected into
the indefinite future. … Leadership by persuasion has the virtue of change by
convincement rather than coercion. Its advantages are obvious.” Robert
Greenleaf
read “Servant Leadership” (reference summary
http://www.peace.ca/servantleadership.htm
the Output of this Workshop fed into the development of a Canadian Culture of
Peace Program Workshop
for further background reading, I recommend the references at
http://www.peace.ca/peaceleader.htm
THIS IS A WORK-IN-PROGRESS, TO BE BUILT UPON BY FUTURE WORKSHOPS
Servant Leadership: A Journey into
the Nature of Legitimate Power and
Greatness by Robert K. Greenleaf.
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We (locally, nationally and globally) have a leadership crisis,
which profoundly affects peace (in fact, it is the single most
important factor - see
http://www.peace.ca/leadersandviolence.htm ). This book puts
Leadership into perspective, as to what we should expect and do. It
epitomizes the quote: "He profits most who serves best." Robert
Greenleaf (1904 - 1990) spent most of his life in the field of
management, research, development and education. He distilled his
observations in a series of essays, books and videotapes on the theme
of The Servant as Leader -- the objective of which is to stimulate
thought and action for building a better, more caring society. The
Robert K. Greenleaf Center for Servant-Leadership continues Robert's
good work. Robert makes a compelling argument that the
leaders we choose, and that we choose to be, should be
servant leaders. Click on the link to
http://www.peace.ca/servantleadership.htm to read an excellent,
detailed summary and ordering information
Open Space “Liberation” (reference
http://www.peace.ca/ost.htm )
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The Practice of Peace, by Harrison Owen. I wish to tell you about this because I see
another convergence between the comments that the peacebuilding happens during the
process of working on projects (for example), and using the Open Space conferencing in
the process. Owen is the leader behind Open Space Technology.
Open Space Technology or methodology of conferencing is very complimentary to what we
have come around to thinking in terms of Servant Leadership style, non-hierarchical
organizing, and the principles contained in the draft Charter (borrowed from the World
Social Forum).
I have come to believe (an "aha" moment) that essentially the Canadian Peace Initiative
may be as simple as providing venues or "Open Spaces to Open Minds to
Peace". (Another "reality check" -- It has been my personal view that I saw my
contribution as simply providing venues where peace educators and peace builders could
come together to dialogue, network, disseminate information, plan, etc. - in a sense, I/we
have been doing Open Space for the past 3 years + without realizing it, through our
conferences, my web site, our email listservers, etc.)
What Harrison Owen is saying is, "do not worry about spending a lot of time organizing an
agenda. Just provide an Open Space, have a general theme(s), invite people with a
passion to come, the conference will organize itself based on what these passionate people
really want to discuss". He confirms what I think many of our participants have said at the
last National Peace Education Conference -- that our best time was in the personal chats
outside the presentations.
Open Space (cont.):
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Suggestion: do all your group educational work as a
series of Open Space conferencing. In Owen's
words, it will be self-organizing (which coincidentally
takes a lot of stress off you). You may well think that
I have gone a bit crazy with this Open Space
stuff. However, I feel it is right for us, for what we
have been working on, for the peace constituents,
and for these times. Open Space has all the features
of a Culture of Peace (eg. democratic participation,
respect, listening to understand, etc.)
http://www.peace.ca/openspace.htm
Open Space Technology may also be understood as a
bridge between a general understanding of selforganization, and its application to the concrete, and
critical, issues such as C/R and Peacebuilding:
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the first part of Open Space ... Gather in a circle.
the second part of Open Space ... Create a bulletin board.
the final piece of OST ... open a market place.
the vast majority of those involved were infinitely more concerned with
"doing" as opposed to keeping exact records and writing papers.
Open Space works, and works well, in any situation characterized by
the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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A genuine issue of mutual concern which elicits a high degree of passion.
High levels of complexity in terms of the elements of the issue.
High levels of diversity in terms of the people involved.
The presence of actual or potential conflict.
A decision time of yesterday; in short the issue was a not a sometime thing,
but demanded immediate attention.
self-organization at work
Open Space -The critical
elements:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Invitation.
The Circle.
Passion and Responsibility.
The Four Principles:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Whoever comes are the right people. This reinforces that the wisdom to
achieve solutions is present in the room and the group is not to worry about
who is not present or to panic about who is.
Whatever happens is the only thing that could have. This keeps the attention
on the best possible effort in the present, not worrying about “what we should
have done”.
Whenever it starts is the right time. This reminds people that creativity cannot
be controlled.
When it’s over, its over. This encourages people to continue their discussion so
long as there is energy for it. Some sessions will finish well within the
anticipated time. Others will run longer than the time allotted.
The Law of Two Feet (or Mobility): This indicates that people can
enter or leave an open space session as they choose. If the session
you are in is not meeting your needs for either contributing or
learning, go to another one.
United Nations Culture of
Peace Program:
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we aspire to “fundamentally alter the
way we think and do things”; “work to
change behaviors, forge values and
incite institutional transformations from
the current culture of war and violence
to a Culture of Peace and Non-violence.”
LESSONS FROM FUTURISTS:
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“We need to adopt the mindset of most
professional futurists and become systemic
optimists - those who believe that life can get
better, but only if we fundamentally alter the
way we think and do things. We need to
embrace whole-system change.“
A better future is a future with peace
The Information Revolution:
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Massive forces are transforming the 21st
century, driven by technology and innovation.
Our task is to understand and redirect these
forces toward a Culture of Peace and Nonviolence (much like a judo expert redirects
the force of his/her opponent).
CULTURE CHANGE:
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Our new media (computers, internet, real
time television, cell phones, etc)
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drive
drive
drive
drive
drive
drive
drive
new
new
new
new
new
new
new
perceptions
worldviews,
understandings,
psychology,
relationships,
institutions,
culture.
HIGHLIGHTS:
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The new leader will be the collaborative
catalyst
Society will change
We can’t change the past or the
present, but we can change the future
Infiltrating works better than
revolutionizing
Implications for peace/peaceful
resolutions of conflicts:
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The future of power and force
Look at nature – stress creates evolution
Dissatisfaction with the status quo is healthy and
necessary
Civil society – the real and future superpower vs. no
government wants to recognize people power
because it threatens them
The larger the network, the greater the value
Transformational model
Organic learning environments
Internet/distance learning – the most effective
education is self-learning
Implications for peace/peaceful
resolutions of conflicts (cont.):
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Help find solutions to the other guys’ problems
Importance of addressing systemic problems
It is relatively easy to deal with technological change – the
challenge is the social and behavioral side
The importance of Social Intelligence
There is a lack of public discourse about these vital things
Total solutions and service (holistic)
Transformation management vs. institutions that do not know
how to grapple with ‘cultural’ change (starting with the Peace
Industry and Peace Professionals)
A new Social Contract: ethics, accountability, citizen
involvement, collaboration, flexibility, patience with its citizens
and civil society organizations, educational institutions,
business, media, religions, etc.
WORLD FUTURE SOCIETY
ANNUAL CONFERENCE:
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Met and listened to incredibly interesting
people; learned lots
2006 Conference July 28 – 31, Sheraton
Centre, Toronto
2006 Theme “Creating Global Strategies for
Humanity’s Future”
Web site: www.wfs.org
Canadian Centres for Futures Studies
http://www.futurescanada.ca
What does this mean for an International
Conflict Resolution and Peace Education
Institution?
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will have to change with the times =
transformation management to achieve full
potential
will have to “live on purpose” = members of
the future will force us to “walk the talk”
(particularly re Peace)
Address systemic problems
As a truly international organization, INCREPE
will have to build its Social Intelligence
TRANSFORMATION
MANAGEMENT/LEADERSHIP:
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A major role of any leader is to help
provide a “Vision”.
Transformation of the Education System:
from a culture of violence to a Culture of
Peace
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started in Prussia in 1819 with a clear vision of what centralized schools could deliver:
Obedient soldiers to the army; (reference
http://www.tysknews.com/Depts/Educate/public_school_nightmare.htm )
expanded for the Industrial Revolution to produce: Obedient workers for the assembly line
and to the mines; Well subordinated civil servants to government; Well subordinated clerks
to industry; Citizens who thought alike about major issues.
William Torrey, the US Commissioner of Education, about the purpose of the education
system: “Ninety-nine out of a hundred are automata, careful to walk in prescribed paths,
careful to follow the prescribed custom. This is not an accident but the result of substantial
education, which, scientifically defined, is the subsumption of the individual.”
John Dewey, considered one of the fathers of the modern education system wrote, “Every
teacher should realize he is a social servant set apart for the maintenance of the proper
social order and the securing of the right social growth.”
President Woodrow Wilson on education: “We want one class to have a liberal education.
We want another class, a very much larger class of necessity, to forego the privilege of a
liberal education and fit themselves to perform specific difficult manual tasks.” (reference
http://revtread.gnn.tv/?page=2 )
Compare that to:




Carl Rogers: “The only learning which
significantly influences behavior is selfdirected, self-appropriated learning.”
Montessori; Rudolph Steinor’s Waldorf
Schools; Paulo Friere; Ivan Illich
Goals: raise social intelligence; empower; self
esteem; self actualization
Modeling a Culture of Peace in the
Classroom/School - reference
www.peace.ca/modellingpeaceeducation.htm
A PARADIGM SHIFT IN
EDUCATION:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Current Characteristics
in world terms, a good education
system
developed for the industrial
revolution
no popular involvement in the
formation of education policy
(designed by and for the interests
of the dominant segment of
society; those with wealth and
power)
institution for indoctrination/doctrinal
system: imposing obedience,
blocking/ impeding independent
thought, institutional role in a
system of control & coercion
propaganda (pretense of objectivity)
“Utopia” Characteristics
1. an excellent education system
2. prepared for the information, cultural
and spiritual revolutions
3. popular involvement
4. institution for true freedom &
democracy: positive choices; find
truth for themselves; independent
thought & critical thinking; no or
minimal control & coercion
5. factual (true objectivity; critical tools
to unveil the ‘lie’)
A PARADIGM SHIFT IN
EDUCATION (cont.):
Current Characteristics
6. illiterate in terms of world comprehension
(ignorance is bliss)
7. teachers as “commissars”
8. embody dominant ideology
9. do not teach about: engineering social
progress; relationship building;
independence of thought, finance, selfsufficiency; conflict transformation;
___)
10. in the social sciences, constraints imposed
by the outside world are weaker, hence
distortions & misinformation
11. holders of education power fight/resist
change
“Utopia” Characteristics
6. coherent comprehension of the world
(adapt a more critical attitude to the
world)
7. teachers as mentors helping students
discover truth & democracy for
themselves
8. no or minimal ideology
9. teach about: engineering social progress;
relationship building; independence of
thought, finance, self-sufficiency; conflict
transformation; transforming the
world;___)
10. information verification (social
accountability)
11. distributed education power
A PARADIGM SHIFT IN
EDUCATION (cont.):
Current Characteristics
12. involuntary
13. certain information not allowed in
schools
14. hawks
15. indoctrinates the ideology of
Realpolitik (getting, keeping,
increasing, demonstrating power;
military strength & deterrence;
fear)
16. produces corrupt leaders
17. produces poor people: intellectually,
economically, socially, politically)
18. students as peon/worker
“Utopia” Characteristics
12. voluntary (eg. Peace ed., all of
above)
13. virtually all info allowed in schools
14. owls (not doves or hawks)
15. human well-being ideology; rule of
law; prevention of war
16. produces ethical leaders
17. produces self sufficient people;
equity
18. students as agents for constructive
transformation of larger society
Social Intelligence
Peace Education
Canadian Culture
of Peace Program
United Nations
Culture of Peace
Program
PERSONAL
MANAGEMENT/LEADERSHIP:











The people who need the most peace education is peace educators (then rippledown effect)
What we learn at the personal level can be ‘transported’ to:
The family level,
The community level,
The national level,
The world level
Develop a love of change, transformation and diversity (vs. resistance to
change: “what you resist, persists”)
Live on purpose, walk the talk, set example, be the guide – Servant Leadership
Address systemic problems/issues (otherwise it wont go away)
If you want quick fixes for immediate results, that is a different school of
thought/approach – the tip of the iceburg; i.e. it is OK to go for the quick win
and show some positive progress, but the base of the iceburg is systemic
change: we need both, similar to top-down and bottom-up approaches for
success
Build Social Intelligence …. And Spiritual Intelligence
The Prescription for Change:











work smarter not harder
expose current paradigms (their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities,
and threats)
cross pollinate new ideas and collaborations
develop new tools and language
craft a new narrative
infiltrate all institutions, everywhere
find opportunities for change
support communities of fans
recapture the spirit of the citizens and amateurs who are good citizens
rooted in amoré: love and passion.
Lever our power of information and social capital for the common good
– be entrepreneurial; developing sustainable action
Champion peace and all its elements
Change Model - Effective
change takes 2 to 5 years:
1.
2.
3.
4.



Knowledge (increase knowledge)
Attitude (change attitudes - motivation)
Individual Behaviour (change individual
behaviour)
Group (Organizational) Behaviour (change group
behaviour)
Managing the Journey video
Marketing Strategy: How to sell peace/ideas
(the science of influence)
One Minute Sales Person video
We good people need to work
on leader motivation:





Our own personal leadership – we can do
better
Leaders close to us (in our organizations)
Political and “establishment” leaders
Alternative leaders (eg. Good citizenship
civil society organizations)
Future leaders – our youth
“The Noble Eightfold Path”
(from Buddhist learning):
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Right
Right
Right
Right
Right
Right
Right
Right
Understanding (or Right View)
Thought (or Right Intention)
Speech
Action
Livelihood
Effort
Mindfulness (or Right Attention)
Concentration




Haste sets up violent environment vs. patience: "one of the
essential characteristics of a Culture of Peace is 'patience'.
Impatience almost always leads to a culture of violence,
whereas a continued practice of patience is guaranteed to
develop a culture of peace. So may God grant you extraordinary
patience and thereby peace within you."
Galtung’s Conflict Transformation Model: win/win/win
http://www.transcend.org/manuals.htm
A leader takes carefully calculated risks, and tries things. Look
at what other leaders are doing to find good examples and
inspiration.
Stewart’s Law: “It is easier to get forgiveness than permission.”
Bob Stewart peace bio:









www.peace.ca – over 50,000 visitors per month – peace tools
through mass communication
www.cultureofpeace.ca – Canadian Culture of Peace Program
Communication tools for peace
National and Provincial Peace Education Conferences
University Chairs in Peace Studies
Canadian Peace Education Foundation
Leadership and Peace Workshops – to help transform the Peace
Profession
Help Rotary International achieve its peace goals
Mentor
PEACE PSYCHOLOGY:


Peace Psychology - American Psychological Association (APA)
Division 48 has sponsored development of the first college textbook on
peace psychology (all proceeds are donated to the division). The book
is a 426 page paperback, very attractively packaged. If you teach at
the college level, this may be the perfect text for your peace
psychology or conflict and violence course. Knowing that an excellent
text is available, some of you may now want to develop the first peace
psychology course for your college. 5 Star Must Reading
www.peace.ca/peacepsychology.htm
Psychology for Peace
Activists by David Adams:

Introduction by David Adams: I believe that history is made by
people like you and me. That means that "peace is in our
hands", which was the slogan of the International Year for the
Culture of Peace (2000). To learn how this could be possible, I
undertook the study presented here in Psychology for Peace
Activists which examines the lives of great peace activists,
based primarily on their own autobiographies. Being American, I
chose to study activists from American history. This was later
expanded to include the important example of Nelson Mandela
from South Africa. From this, I draw the conclusion that while
the task is difficult, it is also possible, and we have much to
learn from those who have gone before us. For this reason, I
have sometimes given this little book the sub-title of "A New
Psychology for the Generation Who Can Abolish War." Available
online at http://www.culture-of-peace.info/ppa/title-page.html
"Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in
the minds of men that the defences of peace
must be constructed". UNESCO’s motto





The social and behavioral side of living together is about psychology
and sociology. That is why it is complicated – people’s minds are
complicated. It includes my psychology, and the psychology of those I
am trying to influence. But of those two, my psychology is the most
important. Hence the phrase, “Peace starts with me”. As a leader,
builder and educator, I have to get my act together. Hence another
phrase, “The people who require the most peace education is Peace
Educators.”
Open space to open minds to peace.
The danger of frustration, burn-out and depression. (eg. M: a ‘canary
in the mine’; a gentle man hurt by toxins, both internal and external)
You are of lesser use if you are frustrated, burned-out, depressed or
dead.
Take good care of yourself (Joy of Stress, The One Minute Manager
Gets Fit videos): acknowledge (ala A.A.), rid yourself of the toxins, deal
with them, resolve/transform the internal conflict
Self leadership:


my Attitude, I am in control and responsible for me, my actions,
feelings, mind and body; I can do anything I put my mind to. I can
only help and serve others, voluntarily.
“The longer I live, the more I realize the impact of attitude on life.
Attitude, to me, is more important than facts. It is more important than
the past, the education, the money, than circumstances, than failure,
than successes, than what other people think or say or do. It is more
important than appearance, giftedness or skill. It will make or break a
company... a church... a home. The remarkable thing is we have a
choice everyday regarding the attitude we will embrace for that day.
We cannot change our past... we cannot change the fact that people
will act in a certain way. We cannot change the inevitable. The only
thing we can do is play on the one string we have, and that is our
attitude. I am convinced that life is 10% what happens to me and 90%
of how I react to it. And so it is with you... we are in charge of our
Attitudes." Charles Swindoll
Self leadership (cont.):






I am not in control or responsible for others. They are. They can do
anything they put their minds to. They can only help and serve others,
voluntarily.
Everybody is an educator and leader, hence education and leadership is
shared: it is not all up to me
You can provide the right environment to ‘open space to open minds to
peace’ (see OST rules) = liberating
Patient gardener: cultivate ground, plant seeds, encourage growth,
change environment
Humility: the humble servant – accept that I am not perfect, I do not
know everything, I must be the first to learn, many heads are better
than one (collaboration)
"God, give us grace to accept with serenity the things that cannot be
changed, courage to change the things that can be changed, and the
wisdom to distinguish one from the other" Reinhold Niebuhr
Self leadership (cont.):









Have no fear – replace it with cautious care, prevention and optimism
Be optimistic. Pessimism, burning the bridge before you cross it, will
certainly not bring systemic/cultural change.
There are others dealing with “acute care” (eg. Amnesty International,
Red Cross, etc.)
You are dealing with minds: (1) generally long term (depend upon
this), (2) may be epiphany (try this; it will happen sometimes)
Be fit mentally and physically
Meditate 2 times per day (20 minutes each), to clear the mind and get
back in touch with your own body and spirit
Vacation/vacate, more frequently (get away; escapism)
Love yourself (self esteem; self actualization) and need yourself: we
love you and need you (solidarity; connection to others; relationships)
Be patient with yourself – a decades approach = living on purpose,
having goals (the greatest stress reliever); a purpose greater than
yourself, by building a better future, for future generations
Self leadership (cont.):




Yin and Yang: taking the good with the bad;
underwrite the costs of doing what you want by
doing some things you have to (eg. A job on the
side; going outside your comfort zones; public
speaking; etc.)
Voluntarily do your best, within your own constraints;
push the boundaries if you are able
Have no regrets; make your best decisions one at a
time, with your best information (in light of all the
facts), with your best intentions: I do not think you
can ask for more
Catalyst and process
WHAT DO PEOPLE (FOLLOWERS, COLEARNERS) NEED?
WALK A MILE “IN THEIR SHOES”


When someone asks me “What does peace
education look like?”, I point to the Montessori
classroom as the best example that I have found.
Input:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Information – age/stage appropriate; research
Direction – based on analysis of Development Level
Support – ditto (‘high performers in a new task’ problem)
Tools/Resources (information, human, financial, time)
Open Space – liberation for self-directed, selfappropriated learning = buy in; co-opt
Contracting for a
Leadership/Management Style:


Mentor/guide/counseling/example
Experiential






Respect




Tell
Show
Let them try
Observe
Praise or Redirect
You work at their level (physically and mentally), communicate in their language (we
have to communicate in different languages to different audiences)
You analyze their development level, with them if possible
Contract with them; mutually agreeable boundaries; no over- or under-supervision
Protocol/guidelines (ref. above)



Co-learners (Paulo Friere; Socratic Method; etc.)
They have been heard
Patience
WHAT DO PEOPLE (FOLLOWERS,
CO-LEARNERS) NEED? (cont.)

What if they wont come to the table? (physically and/or mentally)






Can’t do – begin again process of teaching (tell, show, let them try, etc.)
Wont do – one minute reprimand; consider career change; they have to see the light
or feel the heat
Things work best when both/all parties recognize needs and process
Offer your hand in fellowship and support/service
You have to carry on with your own work, purpose, trying different paths,
finding “co-operatives” (good word)
Motivation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What motivates people? - get “in their shoes”
Coercion and fear are only temporary, and usually not too effective (except in a
fire/war)
If you want systemic/cultural change, coercion and fear will not work – need a
positive, asset-based approach (superior to needs-based approach) = buy in
Allay fear (book – The Gift of Fear, by Gavin de Becker)
Good “bedside manner” – empath(y) – suck the toxins and spit them out
WHAT DO YOU NEED AS
LEADER?
It is in the minds of people that peace must be built – starting with me
Purpose and method:

Homework (Environmental Scan; SWOT analysis – Strengths,
Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threat; research; problem identification;
solution identification)

Vision, foresight = conceptual map (the big picture; the major task of a
leader is to provide a vision)

Strategy for implementation = action plan (SMART goals, objectives Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Tracked)

The Planning Cycle = plan, action, monitor, evaluate results, redirect

Results oriented vs. action oriented (i.e. rather than doing a lot of
activity but achieving little, work smarter not harder = minimize activity
to achieve maximum results; Pareto’s Law 80:20 – 80% of our results
comes from 20% of our activity)
WHAT DO YOU NEED AS
LEADER? (cont.)
Integrity

Social Contract

Protocol Guidelines
Influence of Mind

Lead by example, Servant Leadership

Psychology

Science and Practice of Influence http://www.peace.ca/cialdini_Influence_Sci_Practice.htm

Not manipulation, abuse or unethical
Communication

Nonviolent communication (Dr. Marshall Rosenberg)

Talk in different languages to different audiences (eg. Business)

You will have to go to them; do not expect they will come to you (it is nice when they do,
and it may happen in future when they see the value)
Reflection

Look in the mirror – plan, monitor, evaluate, redirect

“Am I doing the best I can?”
This is personal – its not just a job. How else can a person have such passion and love for what
they do?
SO, LET’S APPLY THIS TO A SPECIFIC EXAMPLE: THE
CREATION OF A NEW INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT
RESOLUTION EDUCATION AND PEACE EDUCATION
INSTITUTION (“INCREPE”)

See Modeling a Culture of Peace in the
Classroom/School as a guide - reference
www.peace.ca/modellingpeaceeducation.htm


Flattest possible organizational structure
Co-operative model/network/web: colearning – collaboration
Facilitated by a “Primus Inter Pares” (first
among equals, per the book ‘Servant
Leadership’)



The ‘Chief Executive Officer’ (“CEO”) will be asked to help, because of their skills,
experience and ability, to fill a requirement in leadership, decision making, operational and
financial management (with suitable assistance). If this were easy, anyone could do it – but
it is not easy. This places the CEO in a difficult position, and she/he will need our empathy,
understanding and support.
We will all want to encourage freedom of discussion, a friendly atmosphere, a proper
exchange of views and respect. The controversial nature of many problems – especially
financial problems – presents difficulties and dangers. But one of our goals as CR/Peace
Professionals must be to replace political passion with a desire for understanding and
service. We cannot escape controversial issues. How we face them is one measure of
INCREPE’s mettle.
In our peace studies we teach that dissent is good – it is how we evolve, learn and
improve. The atmosphere of INCREPE must be friendly, familiar fellowship (collegiality)
which bears up under strong difference of opinion. From time to time, we may have to
“agree to disagree”, particularly when we do not have the luxury of time to go to lengths of
building full consensus. Some decisions, particularly financial ones, will require substantial
agreement of the Organizing Committee without any significant numbers of Members
attempting to block the process. But the fundamental is not that we must agree 100%,
only that we must explore and inform our minds so that our service to community as we go
about organizing INCREPE may be informed, intelligent service. Everyone with a genuine
interest in the peace process must be prepared to come to the table, set aside our egos and
sort out our differences for the greater good.
Consensus:



it should be expected that INCREPE will be able to achieve substantial
agreement on controversial issues, without any significant numbers of
Members attempting to block the process.
However, it is best that we anticipate that one or more controversial
issues may arise in which INCREPE is not able to achieve substantial
agreement. With our permission, someone may be charged with
taking the responsibility to use their best efforts and cast the deciding
vote. Having said that, if the number of blocking Members is so
significant that the necessary commitment for INCREPE is gone then
that person may decide this initiative should be terminated.
The key to success is going to be goodwill on everyone’s part
connected with INCREPE, otherwise the negative consequences
(financially and in human terms) can not be understated. That places
a burden on the Board, Executive Committee, each of the SubCommittees and each Member to achieve consensus.
INCREPE case study (cont.):






1.
Lead by example; walk the talk
Patient: allow Open Space fullness of discussion/dialogue;
everyone satisfied that they have been heard
Voluntary participation: seek broad participation (inclusive of all
parties affected, ala Galtung’s Conflict Transformation
methodology)
Handbook/Guide (see example at end)
In-house Conflict Transformation resource person of wisdom –
to help us through our own conflicts
Effective communication and Protocol:
internal


2.
real time (eg. Email list; discussion board)
conferencing (in-person; electronic)
external (eg. Mass communication; web site; public relations)
INCREPE case study (cont.):

Our own tests:
1.
2.
3.



Truth grounded (fact; balance if it exists
Fair and beneficial to all concerned (culturally
sensitive)
Build goodwill and better relationships
Rich in information and social contacts (i.e.
the new currency)
A counseling resource
Research resources
INCREPE case study (cont.):






An accountability mechanism to the public/others
(measure results, monitor, report, redirect)
Financial resources – fund raising ability (an
International CRE/PE Foundation)
Identify the gaps – fill them
Don’t duplicate; utilize existing
infrastructure/institutions as much as possible and
ask them to fill gaps (if they don’t, then you do; no
turf wars/empire building/hegemony)
Share
Catalyst and process
INCREPE case study (cont.):



Interdependence and success: We have to count on each other to do
the best of our abilities to make INCREPE a success, for the sake of
future generations. This will require commitment to do everything
within our power to make it a success. That includes financial viability
and program credibility. We will have to control costs as if we were
spending our own personal money (i.e. with prudence and
frugality). We will have to do everything we can to raise revenues to
cover our expenditures, and meet all financial commitments.
Commitment: That will take a personal commitment from everyone
associated with INCREPE – and it is never ending: this is a journey, not
a destination. If anyone wishes to opt out, then they should probably
do it sooner rather than later. Otherwise, people will depend on you to
serve, through “thick and thin”.
Every one of us has been asked to serve on the INCREPE Committee
because we have special skills to bring.
INCREPE case study (cont.):




We have to get our act together as soon as possible. There will
be key milestones – evaluation points. At this moment,
INCREPE’s success is uncertain. We need to collaborate like
never before, focus our work, eliminating the
uncertainties. Everyone who can make a contribution must be
called upon.
We simply have to plan the work, and work the plan.
Do not wait until it is perfect – do something.
Since those of us who stay on are all committed volunteers, it
may be expected that we are doing our best, within our
respective personal constraints (i.e. day jobs, family, money,
etc.). We must be optimistic of the outcome. Our eventual
celebration with all our INCREPE friends, will be particularly
sweet.
PROFESSIONAL CRE/PE HANDBOOK
(sample index considerations)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Oath or Pledge (Code of Conduct)
Generally Accepted CRE/PE Principles
(“GAPP”)
Definitions (so we all may talk the
same language)
Accreditation, education, practice
experience
Other …
Conclusion:
The preceding material has been based on the example
of the Canadian Culture of Peace Program:
 A Vision
 A Mission
 Goals and objectives (what does success looks like?)
 Marketing Strategy
 Outreach
 http://www.cultureofpeace.ca

THIS IS A WORK-IN-PROGRESS, TO BE BUILT
UPON BY FUTURE WORKSHOPS
THANK YOU 
ANY QUESTIONS?
Prepared by Robert Stewart, C.A., C.M.C.
Director, Canadian Centres for Teaching Peace
http://www.peace.ca and
Director, Canadian Culture of Peace Program
http://www.cultureofpeace.ca
September 23, 2005

[email protected]
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LEADERSHIP IN TRANSFORMATION OF THE PEACE …