Segmentation, Targeting, and
Positioning (STP) Strategies
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參考資料:

Judy Strauss, Adel I. El-Ansary, and Raymond
Frost, E-Marketing, Prentice Hall, 2006.
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Chap 8: Segmentation and Targeting Strategies.
Chapter 9: Differentiation and Positioning
Strategies.
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Link E-Business with
E-Marketing Strategy

E-marketing strategic planning occurs in two
highly interrelated tiers:
Tier 1
tasks
Tier 2
tasks
Targeting
Differentiation
Segmentation
Positioning
E-Marketing Strategy
Offer
Value
Communication
Distribution
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目標行銷:STP三步驟

Marketing Segmentation 市場區隔

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Targeting 目標區隔選擇

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the process of aggregating individuals or businesses
along similar characteristics that pertain (關於) to the
use, consumption, or benefits of a product or service.
the process of selecting the market segments that are
most attractive to the firm
Positioning 產品定位

針對選定的目標市場,尋求、發展、傳達定位概念
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Overview

Market Segmentation Bases and Variables
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Targeting Online Customers

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Geographic Segments
Demographic Segments: The MyKindaPlace Story
Psychographic Segments
Behavior Segments
Four Targeting Strategies
Targeting Communities on the Internet
Differentiation: The J.Peterman Story
Positioning


Bases for Positioning
Repositioning (重新定位) on the Web
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1. Market Segmentation Bases
and Variables

Traditional marketers can base their
segmentation of consumer markets on:
Bases
Geographics
地理統計變數
Identifying /
Profiling
Variable
Examples
City
County
State
Region
Country
Demographics Psychographics Behavior
人口統計變數
Age
Income
Gender
Education
Ethnicity
心理統計變數
Activities
Interests
Opinions
Personality
Values
行為變數
Benefits
sought
Usage level
Brand
loyalty
User status
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1.1 Geographic Segments
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Geographic location of computers:

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is not important to users accessing Web sites.
but it is very important with an Internet
presence.

E.g. 靜宜大學網頁提供中、英文版本
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地方新聞
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Geographic Segments

Most firms target specific cities, regions,
states, or countries with their product
offerings.


reach only customers in countries where it
distributes products.
only sell to geographic areas where they can
provide customer service.
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面交地點
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1.2 Demographic Segments
(1) Occupation (職業)

Fast growing occupational groups in the U.S.:
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Blue-collar workers (藍領工人)
Homemakers (家庭主婦)
Salespeople
(2) Teens and Children


Spread the news through online word of mouth (口耳相傳).
One big problem = payment.
(3) Disabled (殘障者)

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“The Internet’s next niche”: Spend 20 more hours a week online
than other Internet users.
But this segment tends to have low incomes.
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The MyKindaPlace Story

MyKindaPlace
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Target to teenage (11-18 years old) girls.

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The site sports bright pink, blue, and purple colors.
Age-appropriate language: link names on the site are labeled:

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Showbiz (show business之略的變形) (演藝事業)
Chill in (好冷), Cringe (討厭), Agony (苦惱)…
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The MyKindaPlace Story

Target to teenage (11-18 years old) girls. (Cont.)

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Play “Virtual Boyfriend”, Take fun quizzes (惡作劇) ,
chat, and send e-cards to friends.
Site managers monitor chat rooms so parents don’t pull
the plug (拔掉插頭).
Revenues from:

Sponsorship (贊助)


Site’s 10 channels are sponsored by brands targeting teens.
Merchandise sales

Payment: smart cards, and parents’ credit cards.
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BabyBoss
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BabyBoss
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1.3 Psychographic Segments

User psychographics include:
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Personality, values, lifestyle, interests…
Attitudes:
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Internal evaluations about people, products, and objects,
Either positive or negative,
Technographics (Attitudes Toward Technology)

Determine if a person is optimistic (樂觀) or pessimistic (悲觀
恐懼) toward technology
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Google TV:
TV. Web. Or. Both.
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Google TV:
TV meet search engine.
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Google TV:
personal
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Google TV:
Remote Control
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1.4 Behavior Segments

Two behavioral segmentation variables are:

Benefit segmentation (利益區隔) : based on the
benefits consumers desire from the product.

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“70% of online shoppers can be segmented into two
groups: Bargain hunters, and Convenience shoppers.
Product usage (產品使用)


Light, medium and heavy product usage.
Brand loyal, loyal to the competitive product,
switchers (who don’t care which brand they use),
and nonusers of the product.
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省油
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NISSAN TIIDA大玩魔術空間
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Nissan的新產品:
100%的電動車LEAF → 環保
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2. Targeting Online Customers

Marketers must select the best potential
segments for targeting:

Consider findings from the SWOT analysis
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Look for the best fit between the market
environment and the firm’s expertise and resources.
To be attractive, an online segment must be
accessible through the Internet, sizable,
growing, and hold great potential for profit.
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2.1 Four Targeting Strategies
(1) Mass marketing (大量行銷)
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Undifferentiated targeting (無差異化行銷)
Offers one marketing mix for the entire market.
市場
行銷組合
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Four Targeting Strategies
(2) Multi-segment marketing (區隔化行銷)

Selects two or more segments and designs
marketing mix strategies specifically for each.
市場區隔一
行銷組合一
市場區隔二
行銷組合二
市場區隔三
行銷組合三
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中廣
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靜宜資管專業學程
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Four Targeting Strategies
(3) Niche marketing (利基行銷)

Selects one segment and develops one or more
marketing mixs to meet the needs of that segment.
市場區隔一
市場區隔二
行銷組合
市場區隔三
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好家庭連播網
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Four Targeting Strategies
(4) Individualized targeting (個人化行銷)

The Internet’s big promise: giving individual
consumers exactly what they want at the right
time and place.
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2.2 Targeting Communities
on the Internet

People join communities because:

44.8% with people who share their hobbies;
 31.5% with other professionals;
 27.2% with family members;
Targeting can be achieved by building community
through:
 chat rooms, discussion groups, bulletin boards, and
online events.
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Motivation
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value received in both information and social bonding.
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Targeting Communities
on the Internet

Web sites encourage users to return again
and again and see what their cyber friends
are discussing and doing online.

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In discussion groups, users feel part of the site
by posting their own information and
responding to other users.
Amazon.com allows users to write their own
book reviews and read the reviews of others.
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BabyHome:寶寶話題
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3. Differentiation

Differentiation is what a company does to
the product.


The process of adding a set of meaningful and
valued differences to distinguish the company’s
offering from competitors’ offerings.
“A company can differentiate its market
offering along five dimensions: product,
services, personnel, channel, and image.”
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Internet-Specific Differentiation
Strategies
1. Site Environment
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
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Look and feel of site
User friendly
Accurate portrayal (精確描
述) of company and product
2. Tangibilize (可見
化) the Intangible



4. Efficiency and Timeliness
(及時)


Deliver what is promised to
customers
Deliver in a timely manner
3-D images
Trial downloads
Customer reviews
3. Trust


5. Pricing


Be aware of
competitor pricing
Potential customer
savings
Clearly state privacy
policy
Use encryption for
secure transactions
6. CRM

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Customer tracking
Customer-driven
personalization and
convenience
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The J.Peterman Story
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http://www.jpeterman.com
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The J.Peterman Story
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J.Peterman

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A classic example of successfully combining
clever differentiation with powerful positioning.
J.Peterman’s statement of philosophy:
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

People want things that are hard to find.
Things that have romance (羅曼蒂克), but a factual
(有事實根據的) romance, about them.
Clearly, people want things that make their lives the
way they with they were.
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The J.Peterman Story

Every clothing and accessory (配件) item
offered comes:

with a narrative (故事) setting the stage in the
customer’s mind for romantic travel.
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Product Example of J.Peterman
I always wanted to cross the Sahara (撒哈拉沙漠), and the
Gobi (戈壁), by foot. But I didn’t. I did not swim the
Hellespont (海峽名). Didn’t ascend Mont Blanc (白朗峰).
Didn‘t read all the books I had to read. Didn’t spend even
one night at Shepheard‘s Hotel in Cairo (開羅). Not one.
Shepheard‘s burned (燒毀) to the ground before I could
afford to check in. That night, it became my code word for
everything unobtained, undone.
In case there are a few things in your life you wanted but
didn‘t get, I offer as consolation(慰藉). The ImpossiblyPerfect-Night-at-Shepheard's-Hotel-in-Cairo Bath robe(長袍).
Shepheard‘s Hotel Robe (No. 1148), for men and women.
Sizes: XS, S, M, L, XL, XXL.
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4. Positioning

The process of creating a desired image for
a company and its products in the minds of
a chosen user segment.


Concerns brands, the company itself, or
individual products.
The concept is simple: To be successful, a
company must:

Differentiate itself and its products from all
other competitors.
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4.1 Bases for Positioning

Firms can position on the basis of:


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Product or service attributes (“the smallest cell phone”),
High-tech image (“our cell phones handle e-mail”),
Benefits (“fits in your pocket”),
User categories (“best cell phone for college students”),
Comparison with competitors (“our phone is less
expensive than the Nokia”),
Take an integrator position (“a full range of electronic
products and services”).
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網站定位實例
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產品定位:雄師旅遊:真正全國最大出團中心
使用者類別、利益定位:MOOK自遊自在旅遊網:
華文旅遊內容網
科技定位:任逍遙:任逍遙市民網
科技、使用者類別定位:夜市通:找夜市到夜市通
使用者類別定位:旅遊王:網路訂房旗艦
使用者類別定位:民宿王:最多人瀏覽的民宿網站
產品定位:年代售票網:最大的藝文售票系統
競爭者定位:元碁售票網:滿足您訂票的需要
整合定位:東森購物網路商城:關心你的每件事
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中央大學管理學院
ERP學程:SAP顧問公司顧問
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SAP主要模組
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靜宜大學資管系ERP學程:
SAP客戶公司資訊部門工程師
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靜宜大學資管系ERP學程:
畢業表現實例

黃子芸 (CSIM93D)

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

范詩怡 (企管與資管系雙主修)



彩富電子(鼎新轉換為SAP)
林聖期(資管所99級)



目前為友達光電工程師
廣輝電子工程師
賴竹煖 (CSIM97A)


目前為IBM顧問
緯創軟體公司軟體工程師
力晶集團-智旺科技工程師
華新科技資訊系統開發工程師
目前任職台中工業區振鋒企業(BW/CRM)
緯創軟體總管理處(FI/CO)
張芳瑄(CSIM99A)

拓宇科技助理工程師(ABAP)
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4.2 Repositioning on the Web

Is the process of creating a new or modified brand,
company, or product position.



Positioning alone won't make a product successful. A
company must be flexible enough to react.
Is a long-term challenge when attempting to change the
way customers perceive their brands.
Example: Amazon.com


Originally Amazon was positioned as “the world’s
largest bookstore”.
Today it promises the “Earth’s biggest selection” of a
variety of products from music to electronics and more.
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