Speech Communication
for Global Literacy
(Advanced students)
Koji Nakamura
 Professor of English and Global
Education
Konan University
Kobe, Japan
[email protected]
VTR: Students of Konan Univ. Kobe
Japan are making persuasive speech
and logical debate in EIL.
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What is communicative competence in
writing and speaking?
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Grammatical and lexical competence
(sentence structures, styles and vocabularies)
Coherent and Cohesive competence
(Flow of the writing and speech)
Discourse and contextual competence
(ex. “You are my Desdemona.” Dramatic irony
“May these be the worst day.”
Victorian moral, WASP and etc.)
Socio-linguistic competence
( It’s very hot in this room, isn’t it?)
Strategic Competence
(Ex. Non-verbal communication)
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Organization and coherent flow
in writing and speech
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Attention-getting Introduction はじめ
Topic Sentence (主題文)
Thesis Statement (命題文)
Body
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(Support) (支持文)
Cause/Effect(因果関係)
(coherence)
Comparison/Contrast (比較/例証)
Pro-Con Structure(賛成・反対)
Discusson (議論)
Conclusion (結論) おわり
Clincher (最後の決め手)
一貫性
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Introduction
Topic
Sentence
Controlling Ideas
Thesis
Statement
Controlling Ideas
Body
BODY
Support
Support
Discussion
Cause
Effect
Discussion
Comparison
Contrast
Conclusion
Clincher
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What is Process Writing?
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Process writing is a productive
and interactive writing strategy
between students and teachers,
or among students. White
(1991) states that writing is far
from being a simple matter of
transcribing language into
written symbols. Therefore
writing can be an interactive and
creative means of ommunication.
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Process Writing is a process of Academic and
Problem-solving Approach
 White (1991) defines process writing
as a form of problem-solving which
involves such processes as
generating ideas, discovering a voice
with which to write, planning, goalsetting, monitoring and evaluating
what is going to be written as well as
what has been written, and
searching for language with which to
express exact meanings.
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The Process of Academic Approach
to (Global Literacy)
1 Gathering information
2 Sharing relevant information, facts
and evidence. (Sharing)
3 Processing the necessary
information for outlining and drafting
one’s own speech.
4 Organizing and constructing one’s
own opinion in written and oral
forms.
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The Process of Problem-solving
Approach
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Narrowing down the theme into your topic
Defining the problem in the relevant issues
Analyzing the causes and effects of the problem
Exploring possible workable solutions as a
brainstorming (Sharing)
Suggesting possible workable solutions with
each other (Sharing)
Selecting the best solution or integrated
solutions
Implementing ways of carrying out the best
solution.
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Writer-Reader-Speaker Connection
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A good writer is a good reader and speaker.
Recent research has demonstrated the
cognitive links between writing and reading
(Blanton, 1992; Carrell, 1987).
Reading provides students with stimuli for
topics, activates the schema (that is, the
background knowledge) of the students about a
topic, and shows them the value of the
audience in writing and speaking.
The writing-reading-speaking connection
is essential to a successful writing and speech
communication.
The more writers read, the more
successful their writing and speaking will
be.
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1 What is communication?
2 What is Speech Communication?
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Communication comes
from “communicatio” in Latin,
which means sharing meaning
and information with others
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Speech Communication?
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Speech Communicationの領域
Public Speaking
パブリック・スピーキング
Problem-Solving
Democratic
Discussion
問題解決のための
民主的なデイスカッション
Logical Debate
with valid Evidence
証拠で説得する論理的な
デイベート
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1 Public Speaking
Informative Speech
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情報を提供するスピーチ
 Persuasive Speech
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説得するスピーチ
 Inspirational Speech
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啓蒙するスピーチ
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How can we make a good speech?
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1 Delivery (話し方)
Eye-Contact (目線)
Smile (微笑み)
Voice (はっきりとした声)
Emotional Appeal (心引かれる熱意)
Logical Reasoning (Flow and support)
2 Content (内容)
3 English as an International
Language
VTR 1 Impressive Speech 1
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What are strategies of a Persuasive Speech?
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Logical Reasoning with valid
Evidence
Emotional Appeal
Rhetorical Device (simile,
metaphor, and analogy) ex.
Credibility and Good Will 信頼関係
方略1 Deductive Approach 演繹法
方略2 Inductive Approach 帰納法
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The Voice from Edward Said
Lecture at Cairo Univ. in 2003
before the Islamic audience
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You cannot deal with others without
profound knowledge of his or her culture,
society and history. (VTR) 2
Force never works, because you can
never destroys the will of people and the
power of people.
Idea is equality, coexistence and
sustainable life.
The present is our battle ground and
knowledge is our main weapons.
(Said:2003)
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方略1 演繹法
Deductive Approach
Proposition 提案・命題
We have to end child labor with fair trade.
理由
Reason 1
125 million children
are forced to work
full time.
Reason 2
理由
110 million working
children are out of
school .
Reason3
理由
Hazardous, exploitative
and life-threatening
child labor goes against
The Rights of the Child.
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方略2 帰納法
Inductive Approach
Reason1
理由
Reason 5
理由
Reason3
理由
提案・命題
Proposition
Reason 2
理由
Reason4
理由
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Mother Teresa のスピーチは感
動を与え、行動を促すか。VTR 3
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マザーテレサのハーバード大学でのスピーチ
There is a hunger, maybe not a
hunger for a piece of bread, but there
is a terrible hunger for love.
Find them, love them and put your
love for them in your living actions.
For loving them, you are loving God
himself. God bless you.
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I Have a Dream
(VTR 4)
by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
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I have a dream that one day
on the red hills of Georgia the
sons of former slaves and the
sons of former slave owners
will be able to sit down
together at the table of
brotherhood;
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I Have a Dream
by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
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I have a dream that one day
even the state of Mississippi,
a state sweltering with the
heat of injustice, sweltering
with the heat of oppression,
will be transformed into an
oasis of freedom and justice;
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I Have a Dream
by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
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I have a dream that my four
little children will one day live
in a nation where they will
not be judged by the color of
their skin but by the content
of their character; I have a
dream today
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I Have a Dream
by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
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With this faith we will be
able to transform the
jangling discords of our
nation into a beautiful
symphony of brotherhood.
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Why do people regard this speech as one of
the best speeches in the 20th century?
Repeating American Dreams positively
 Hating discrimination but loving people
Universality (beyond race, religion, culture)
Excellent Rhetoric
Analogy 類似 oasis of freedom and justice
Metaphor 隠喩 a beautiful symphony of
brotherhood
Simile 直喩 justice rolls down like waters
Parallel 並列 I have a dream that …I have a dream …
Persuasive Speeches impress people and
enlighten people and bring compassion, and
people translate their feelings into their action.
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How to start your speech
(Attention-getting Introduction)
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How do Japanese people start their
speeches?
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How do Westerners start their speeches?
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Toastmasters International Speech Contest in
1995 by Mark Brown(VTR 5 )
The real monster is within your heart.
Intolerance 不寛容
Ignorance
無知
Indifference 無関心
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How to end your speech
(The Power of Clincher)
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“Government of the people, by the people,
and for the people shall not perish from
the earth.” (Lincoln)
“ Intolerance, indifference and ignorance.
Yes, let’s kill the beast. Because everyone
deserves a second chance.”
“Free at last! free at last!Thank God
almighty, we are free at last!” (Dr. King)
“And so my fellow Americans, ask not
what your country can do for you, ask
what you can do for your country.”
(John F. Kennedy)
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How do famous speakers prepare
for their Speeches?
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1 You should be an expert on your
subject. 話すテーマに関する専門家
2 Gathering information. 情報収集
* All the facts on both sides of your
subjects must be collected, arranged,
studied, digested.
*Prove them; be sure they are facts;
then think out yourself the best solution.
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Strategy and procedure to present a
good speech 方略と手順1
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1 State your facts.---Argue from
them---Appeal for action.
事実を述べ、事実から議論
2 Show something that is wrong
(Analysis of the status-quo)
現状分析を示す
3 Show how to remedy it.---Appeal
for action. 解決策を示し、行動を促す。
4 Appeal to the motives that make
people act. 人が行動を起こす動機をアピール
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Strategy and procedure to present a
good speech 方略と手順2
5 If possible record your speech in
your tape recorder and listen it again
and again to feed back (録音して練習)
 6 Do not read your note. Do not see
your notes. (できる限り原稿を読まない)
 7 Notes destroy about fifty percent
of the interest in your talk.
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(原稿を読むと人は聞かない)(
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Strategy and procedure to present a
good speech 方略と手順3
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8. After you have thought out and
arranged your talk, then practice it
as you walk along the street. 歩きなが
ら練習 ( A dog barked at me when I
walked and reciting my own speech.)
9.Imagine that you are addressing a
real audience. The more of this you do,
the more comfortable you will feel when
the time comes for you to make your talk.
(Dale Carnegie)
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Memory System(記憶システム)
を生かそう
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1. Impression 印象的な記憶
impressive memory
2. Repetition 繰り返し練習
through the power of repetition
3. Association 連想させる
We can associate one fact with
others.
4.Reading aloud (Lincoln Method)
声を出して自分の耳で聞く
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The Magic of Presentation
Spaced Rehearsal.
The magic power of spaced
rehearsal. 間隔をおいて何回も練習を重ねる
After we memorize a thing, we forget
as much during the first eight hours as we
do during the next thirty days. So go over
your notes and practice every day.
暗記した記憶は8時間で消える。
毎朝、昼休み、毎夕少しづつ繰り返し口頭練習
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A speech must grow. A speech can grow and
explore with enough spaced rehearsal and
rewriting.
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A speech must grow. A speech can
grow and explore with enough
spaced rehearsal and rewriting.
スピーチは練習と共に成長する。
We can select our topic early in the
week. We can narrow down the
subject into our own favorite topic.
Think over it during the day, brood
over it and sleep over it and even
dream over it. This is a Lincoln
Method.
(Dale Carnegie)
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Speech is a human art.
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It’s just like an art, creating a
wonderful sculpture.
スピーチは芸術作品・彫刻と同じ
We can’t become an expert of speech,
but we can become an expert of our
own topic.
スピーチの達人ではなく自分の選んだ
テーマの専門家にはなれる。
Actor of Royal Shakespeare Theater
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A Speech is a Voyage
スピーチは航海
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A Speech is a voyage. It must be
charted. スピーチは航海 (海図・誘導)
A Speech is like drawing a picture. ス
ピーチは絵を描くように
Draw a horizon, mountains, hills,
rivers, villages, parks, gardens,
houses, a seashore and a big ocean.
白のカンバスに話を描いていく
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How to Develop Self-confidence
in Public Speaking 自信
*Everybody feels butterflies in
his/her stomach in public speaking.
誰でも緊張する。
 誰でもパブリック・スピーキングの素質を伸ばせる。
 多くの有名な話し手は集団やグループの前に立つ
時、より巧みに話せる。 是非話したくなる。
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観客の存在は刺激になり、誰でも自分の考えを表
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現したいという基本願望がある。
 最も有名なシェイクスピアの役者でも舞台前はいつ
も緊張するが、よく練習しているので、ひとたび幕が
開くと、もうそこにはいつもの俳優である自分がいる。
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Public Speaking のまとめ
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1. Start with a strong and persistent
desire. 表現したい強い願望からはじめる。
2. Arouse your enthusiasm, urge,
passion, zeal, drive and motivation.
3. Prepare everyday. 準備は最善の策
4. Enough preparation. If you prepare well
and practice hard, you will have a strong
desire to express yourself.
5. Act confidently. 自信のある振る舞い
6. Practice. Practice makes perfect. 練習
This is the most important point of
all in public speaking. Fear is the
result of a lack of confidence.
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Robert Kennedy made an excellent speech in the
midst of anti-US Waseda Students at Waseda Univ.
Tokyo, Japan in 1967.
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“My friends, I appreciate very much the
welcome you have given to me and to my
wife. We are here to discuss in a frank and
candid manner questions which will be of
interest to you. ……………
“There is a gentleman down in the front
who evidently disagree with me. If he will
ask a single question, I will try to give an
answer. That is the democratic way and
the way we should proceed. He is asking a
question and he is entitled to courtesy.”
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2 Discussion・話し合い
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Democratic Discussion
民主的な論議
Problem–solving Discussion
問題題解決の論議
(John Dewey’s Reflective
Thinking)
ジョン・デユーイの反省的思考
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John Dewey’s Reflective
Thinking for Problem Solving.
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ジョン・デユーイの問題解決のための反省思考
1. Defining the problem 問題を定義する
2. Analyzing the problem
現状分析と問題の因果関係を分析する
3. Suggesting every possible solution
あらゆる可能な解決策を提案する
4. Selecting the best solution
最善策の選択
5. Carrying out the plan for the best
solution (Implementing) 実行
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Subject: Sexual Harassment
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(1) Defining the problem:
mental/physical and
sexual bullying/offense/teasing/attack
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(2) Analyzing the problem: gender discrimination in
a
male dominated society /infringement of human
rights
(3) Possible solutions:
organized protest and bringing it to the court
education for human rights and egalitarian society
social and public education, organized protest
through women’s network
(4) Selecting the best solution:
organized protest and public education
(5) Suggesting way of carrying out the solution:
Public Education, education at school, home and
working places
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3 Debate聴衆を説得するために
相手を論破する討論・討議 VTR8
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with valid evidence
信頼できる証拠、事実
Logical Rebuttal
(Refutation)
論理的な反駁・反証
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Research Paper on Asia Pacific War
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1. Academic Approach
Narrow down the subject (Asia Pacific War) into your
own topic.
Collect relevant information and select necessary
information to organize your own opinion in your
research paper.
Be an expert of your topic/issue and discuss the
causes and effects of the facts.
The following three factors are necessary in your
research paper.
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Defining the Issue/Problems
Analyzing causes and effects of the issue
Your own interpretation and Opinion (Critical
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Thinking)
(Ex.) Your topics will be
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Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Tripartite Pact made with Germany and Italy
Japan’s Modernization and Japanese Imperialism
Japanese Emperor and Asia Pacific War
Japanese People and Asia Pacific War
Kamikaze Commando (Special Attack Corps)
1910 Japan Annexed Korea 日韓併合
1931 Japanese Kwantung Army seized Manchuria
1932 Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo 満州国
1933 Japan withdraw from League of Nations
1937- 1945 War with China 日中戦争
1938 Nanking Massacre 南京虐殺
1940 Tripartite Pact made with Germany and Italy
1941 Japan attacked US (Pearl Harbor) Pacific War
1942 Battle of Midway
1945 Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Japan’s unconditional surrender
GHQ, Occupation Troops, Allied Nations,
Douglas MacArthur and Emperor
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2. Format of Research Paper
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1. Quality, originality and critical thinking, not
quantity is the aim.
2. The research paper must be more than 800 wordsexcluding appendices and other diagrams, charts
and diagrams.
3 Research paper must be presented with academic
format/style making effective use of diagrams,
charts and tables with clear sources—either your
own or properly attributed--in communicating key
elements and concepts of the topic.
4 All sources (including web research) must be
clearly referenced in the text.
5 All references must be sourced, otherwise
students will be penalized for plagiarizing others’
work. Plagiarism is fatal which includes failure of
your class.
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甲南大学夏期社会人講座 2002