Part One
T h e A n c i e n t Wo r l d
 The first humans – believed to have appeared over 2M years ago
 Hunters and Gatherers
 Simple tools and weapons from stone, bone, and wood
 Development of Farming
 The Neolithic Revolution
 Gave up their nomadic way of life
 Early civilizations developed in river valleys
 Developed systems of government, social structures, and belief systems
 Migration, trade, and warfare helped ideas mover from one culture to
 Cultural Diffusion
Hunters and Gatherers
 The Old Stone Age also known as the Paleolithic Age
 Known as Nomads
 Moved from place to place to hunt and gather their food
 Simple social structures – people who traveled together
Adapting to the Environment
 Made simple tools and weapons from wood, bone, and stone
 Developed languages to communicate
 Animal skin for clothing
Spiritual Beliefs
 Towards the end of the Old Stone Age, began to bury their dead
with care
 Believed in the afterlife
 Buried tools and weapons with dead
 Lived in East Africa
 Spread to all parts of the world
 Land Bridge
 Migration led to Cultural Diffusion
 Old
Stone Age Ends
 Climate Change brings new patterns of life
 Plants supplant ice
 Learned to farm – domesticated
 Permanent villages – art and architecture emerges
 Neolithic Revolution OR Agricultural Revolution
 More food equals more people
 New social classes created
 Scarce resources results in war
 Chiefs or headsman emerge
 New Technology
 Calendars, plows, the wheel, metal weapons, and metal tools
 River
 Rich, fertile lands
 Cities and Governments emerge
 New Rulers emerge – ordered public works projects such as roads,
bridges, canals, and defensive walls
 Skilled craftsman emerge – pottery, cloth, and other
 Religion – polytheistic (many gods)
 System of writing – cuneiform, pictures
 One
of the earliest civilizations (5000 years ago)
 Nile River
 Yearly floods soaked the land and left rich deposits of silt which
kept the land fertile
 Religion – polytheistic
 sun-god Amon-Re was the chief god
 Belief in life after death
 Government – Pharaoh, who was both god and king
 Pyramids
 Ruling families
 Social Classes – Pharaoh, priests, nobles (fought the wars),
craftspeople and merchants, peasant farmers, and slaves
 Women help a higher status than in other ancient civilizations; could
divorce, own land, and enter business deals
 Contributions – mummification, which helped them understand the
human body, calendar, hieroglyphics, the pyramids
 The
Fertile Crescent
 Tigris and Euphrates
 Persian Gulf
 Mediterranean
 Location allowed for frequent migration and invasions
 Diversity made it difficult to unite all people into a single nation
 Known as the “Cradle of Civilization”
 Sumer – 5000 years ago
 Tigris and Euphrates
 New City-States – would frequently fought against each other for
water and land
 Religion – polytheistic
 most gods were closely tied to the forces of nature
 Ziggurat – shrine that housed a particular city-state’s chief god
 Government – chief servant to the gods
 Enforce laws and collect taxes
 Maintained the city walls and irrigation system
 Social Classes
 Economy – trade w Egypt
 Cuneiform, dikes, canals, wheeled vehicles, irrigation systems
 First
 Strong rulers and Empires
 The Assyrians – Upper Tigris
 By 600 BCE, conquered the entire fertile crescent
 Empire by the Persians under Darius takes down the Assyrians
 Hammurabi – the “great lawgiver” ,“The Code of Hammurabi”
 Conquered much of Mesopotamia
 The Babylon Empire
 Collection of laws
 Standards of justice
 Punishment was harsh
 Learning and Technology – iron ore, which meant stronger plows and weapons
 Cultural Diffusion – not just beliefs…technology too
 Also in Mesopotamia
 The Indian subcontinent - extends into the Indian Ocean
 Mountains in the north limits contact with other cultures
 Monsoons – depended for crops, deadly floods
 2500 years ago
 Archaeologists have uncovered impressive cities, but little else is known
 Developed in the river valley of the Yellow River and Yangzi
 Mountains, deserts, and an ocean isolate China
 Believed that their civilizations was the center of the earth – The Middle
 Government 1600 BCE – The Shang people or groups of families
controlled China
 The Shang set up the first dynasty
 Social Structures – During the Shang Dynasty, noble warriors owned the
 Merchants and craftspeople earned a living
 Peasants lived in farming villages
 Religion
– the Shang prayed to many gods and nature spirits
 Looked to their dead ancestors to intercede with the gods to help the
living (Mulan)
 Believed that the universe was held in a delicate balance between
two forces, the yin and the yang – when force were in balance, peace
and prosperity would result
 Contributions – 4000 years ago – Chinese writing, included
pictographs and ideographs (drawings of thoughts and ideas)
 Consisted of 10K characters; reserved for the upper classes
Demographic Patterns and Migration
 Demography – the study of human populations
 Demographics patterns, or changes in populations over time, are often influenced
by geographic features such as rivers.
 Rivers also served as highways for the transport of people and goods
Bantu Migrations
 The Bantus – originally lived in W. Africa
 Skilled farmers and herders
 Migrated to the south and east in search of fertile land after the Sahara dried up
 500BCE and 1500 CE, they spread their knowledge of farming and ironworking,
as well as their language, across the continent.
 Today, about 1/3 of all Africans speak a language that includes a dialect of the
Demographic Patterns and Migration
Summarizing Early Peoples
 Who were they
 When
 Where
 Contributions
 Government
 Religion and Beliefs
 The Spreading of Ideas is known as what?
Key IDs
Mandate of
Han Dynasty
Pax Romana
Laws of the
Twelve Tables
Silk Road
 1027
BCE – 220 CE
 Isolated
 Gobi Desert lays to the north
 Mountain to the west and southwest
 Pacific Ocean to the east
 Shang united the area around the Yangzi River
 Overthrew Shang
 Started own dynasty – lasted for almost 800 years
 Told the people that the gods had become angry at the Shang and
chosen the Zhou to rule
 Mandate of Heaven – divine right to rule
 Dynastic
Cycle – the rise and fall of dynasties
 Feudal Government – The Zhou granted control of large areas of
land to their supporters
 Feudalism – local lords controlled their own regions but owned
military service to the ruler
 Feudal lords eventually came to hold real power in China
 Economy - Grew under the Zhou
 Began using tools; irrigation projects increased crop yields; new
roads and canals
 Made first books
 Shi
Huangdi – The First Emperor
 Centralized Government
 Abolished feudal system
 Divided China into military districts
 Standardized measurements
 Created national coins
 promoted uniformity in Chinese writing
 repaired canals and roads
 Built the Great Wall – built to keep out invaders
 Terracotta
 First
Emperor Dies
 Led by peasant leader – took the title of Gao Zu
 reduced taxes
 eased harsh policies of the Qin
 Civil Service Exams
 Based on the teachings of Confucius – spelled proper behavior, men were
 Made paper out of pulp
 Wheelbarrow
 Acupuncture
 Jade and Ivory carvings
 The Han moved into Manchuria, Korea to the north, Vietnam to the south, and
Tibet to the west
 Expansion helps to strengthen an empire, but it can also weaken it
 Decline of the Han
 Expansion
 Political – unable to contain or control the warlords
 Economic – Failure to maintain canals and roads
 High Taxes
 Oppressed peasants
 Military – Warlords overthrew the Han
 Empire split into several kingdoms
 Invaders overran the Great Wall and set up their own Kingdom
 Geography
– the subcontinent of India juts out from the Asian continent
 3 regions – Northern Plains (fertile and well watered) , Deccan Plateau
(Dry and sparsely populated), and Costal Plains (farming, fishing, and
 Major rives – Indus and Ganges
 Indo-Europeans warriors who moved into India from Europe and Asia
 Built no cities and left few artifacts
 The Vedas – collection of sacred writings
 Chandragupta Maurya – first ruler
First gained power in the Ganges Valley
 Conquered much of Northern India
Moved south, dominating the Deccan Plateau
 Well-organized government – set u a bureaucracy, which is a system of managing
government through departments that are run by appointed officials
 Asoka and Reform – Chandragupta’s grandson
 Rejected further conquests
 Turned to Buddhism; tolerant of other beliefs
 Adapted
ideas from earlier cultures such as Mesopotamia and Egypt
 Developed their own idea about the role of the individual and
 located in S.E. Europe; many mountains, isolated valleys, and small
 hundreds of scattered islands
 Created many small city-states – not a large empire
 Aegean and Mediterranean Seas
 Skilled sea traders
 A city-state was also known as a polis; made up of two parts – the hilltop
acropolis, which included marble temples. Main city of the flat ground,
within a wall
 Between 750BCE – 500 BCE, had several different types of government.
First, kings rules, and then next, landowning nobles (aristocracy)
 Two most powerful city-states were Sparta and Athens
 Shared a culture, but a different way of life
 A warrior society – very rigid, children trained at a very young age
 Power would decline due to the inability to adapt to change
Limited Democracy in Athens
 Pericles
(460BCE-429 BCE)
 Direct Democracy – large number of male citizens took part in the day-today running of government
 Women were inferior
 Slaves did not participate
 Athens became the cultural center of Greece
 Great Thinkers, writers, and artists
Alexander the Great
– mountain kingdom north of Greece
 300BCE, Philip of Macedonia conquered Greece
 Alexander succeeds his father
 Built empire, which included the Nile Valley, Persia, and parts of India
 Spread Greek culture
 Hellenistic culture – blended aspects of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and
Indian life
 More rights and opportunities to women, who gained some political power
 Macedonia
Limited Democracy
Laws made by
Males Only
Trade with others
Education for boys
Women inferior
Shared heroes
Same gods and
religious beliefs
Military society
Trade and travel not
Military training for boys
Women obey men
Women own property
Developed Socratic method;
learning about beliefs and
ideas by asking questions
Believed government should
control lives
Believed one strong and good
leader should rule
Government put him to death
Divided society into three
classes: workers,
philosophers, and soldiers
Believed people learned
through reason
Greek and Hellenistic Contributions
 An
enduring legacy
 Philosophy – Greek thinkers tried to use observations and reason to
understand why things happened
 Arts and Architecture – beauty, balance, and order. Greek paintings and
statues were lifelike; building (Parthenon). Architects today still continue to
use ancient Greek ideas.
 Science and Math – earth rotates on its axis and moves around the sun;
Hippocrates studied the causes of illness and looked for cures; Pythagoras
developed a formula to measure the sides of a right triangle.
 Geography – Rome located in the center of Italy, which is a peninsula located in
the Mediterranean; part of Europe
 Romans drove out the Etruscans
 New form of government called a republic, officials were chose by the people; most
powerful body was the Senate
 Senators were members of the landholding upper class, called patricians
 Two Consuls, who supervised the business of gov’t and commanded the army
 Plebeians – farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders, made up most of the
population – had little power
 Male was head of household and had authority over wife and family
 Women gained some power – public roles and business owners
 270BCE, Rome conquered all of Italy
 Conquered Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor
 Widens the gap b/t rich and poor
 Reform attempt lead to Civil War
 Julius Caesar came to power in 48BCE.
Caesar made new acquisitions and reforms
 Octavian
or Augustus – grandnephew of Caesar
 Ruled with absolute power
 The Republic ends
 Roman Empire begins
 200-year peace that began with Augustus is called Pax Romana, or
Roman Peace
 Roman empire spread stability over a large area of the world,
including parts of Europe, N. Africa, and S.W. Asia
 Law – a system of laws was Rome’s greatest achievement; applied to
all people and created a stable Roman empire
 Included – equality under the law, the right of the accused to face
one’s accusers and mount a defense, and the idea of being considered
innocent until prove guilty
 Plebeians demand written laws – Laws of the Twelve Tables:
inscribed on 12 tablets; displayed in the marketplace.
 Borrowed
much from the Greeks
 Latin Language, which united the empire
 Built a complex road system, bridges, harbors, and aqueducts
 Improved the arch and the dome
 Classical
civilizations engaged in trade with one another – exchanged
goods, technologies, and culture. Cultural Diffusion!!!
 Phoenician Trade – one of the earliest trading empires of the Middle
 Made up of small city-state in what is today Lebanon and Syria.
 Manufactured glass from sand, dye, and created scrolls from
Egyptian papyrus (paper)
 Ships sailed across the Med
 Most important contributions – the alphabet and system to record
business transactions…the alphabet is the basis for OUR alphabet
 Rome extended its initial location in central Italy
 Roman army too much for its neighbors…very organized, disciplined, and rigid
 By 44BCE Roman power extended throughout the Med…From Spain to parts
of Asia Minor…into what is now France and Britain…In other words, it was BIG!
 Decline – result of internal and external pressures
 Overexpansion
 high taxes
 Foreign Invasions
 Empire split into two
 476 CE, Germanic People conquer Rome and the West is done.
 East lives on and became known as the Byzantine Empire
 Trade b/t India and Mesopotamia
 Alexander the Great opens up the doors into the Med
 Indian textiles, gems, and spices were in big demand
 Han Dynasty opens up the Silk Road
 Linked China with lands as far west as Mesopotamia
 4K miles long
 During Pax Romana – trade flowed freely throughout the empire
 Trade included China
Questions to consider during this section
What are the specific characteristics of the major religions and beliefs systems?
 How are they the same?
 How are they different?
 How do they affect culture?
 How did they spread from one region to another?
 Development – religious beliefs developed during very early cultures/civilizations
 Every living and nonliving thing in nature has a spirit
 The primary belief of early people
 Early religious systems would combine animism with reverence to
their ancestors
 Shang China believed that the spirits of deceased ancestors could
affect life in either a positive or negative manner
 One
of the oldest religions and one of the most complex
 No single founder
 Developed over 3500 years ago
 Developed in India
 The Sacred Text –Upanishads & Vedas
Unifying Spirit
 Believed in one unifying spirit
 Brahman, the unifying spirit is too complex for humans to understand;
Hindus worship gods that give a more concrete form to Brahman
 The three gods – Brahma the Creator, The Preserver, and Shiva the
 Believers – goal is to achieve union with Brahman
 Achieving union with Brahman occurs when people free themselves from the
selfish desires that separate them from the universal spirit
 Most people cannot achieve this union in one lifetime
 Rebirth – rebirth of the soul in a new body allows people to continue their journey
 People get closer to this union by being born higher and higher level of existence
Karma and Dharma
 obeying karma gets you closer to Brahman
 All deeds affect his or her existence in the next life
 Dharma – follow good deeds; the moral and religious duties that is expected
 Gender, class, age, and occupation all affect dharma
 Social Groups
 Good Karma = Higher Caste; Bad Karma = Lower Caste
Caste System
The caste system is an important part of Hinduism. Caste are social groups into
which people are born and out of which they cannot move during a lifetime.
In This Life
A Person
Is born into
a caste
In Next Life
 500
 Also in India
 Founder Siddhartha Gautama or Buddha
 Buddha – the Enlightened One
Sacred Text – “Three Baskets of Wisdom”
The Four Noble Truths
 All life is suffering
 Suffering is caused by desire for things that are illusions
 The way to eliminate suffering is to eliminate desire
 Following the Eightfold Path will help people overcome desire
Eightfold Path
 right
views, right intentions, right speech, right conduct, right
livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right meditation
 Buddhism accepts karma, dharma, and reincarnation.
 Rejects the many Hindu gods
 Rejects caste system
 Confucius – enlightened thinker
 Born 551 BCE
 Developed during the Zhou Dynasty – troubled times; wars, economic hardship, social issues
 Sacred Text – The Analects
 Taught people to accept their given place in society
 Place in society is determined through five key relationships
Elder Brother
Youngest Brother
 Confucius believed all people are naturally good
 Education should be the road to advancement in society
 The individual must find and accept his or her proper place in society
 Another Chinese philosophy
 Taoism or Daoism
 Help people live in harmony with nature
 Founder – Laozi
 Tao = “The Way” of the universe
 Yielding and acceptance
 Rejected the world and human government and withdrew to become hermits, mystics, or
 Balance between yin and yang
 Yin – Earth, darkness, and female forces
 Yang – Heaven, light, and male forces
 Peace and well-being of universe depends on harmony between yin and yang
 Emerged during the same time period as Confucianism and Taoism
 Legalists assume human nature was evil and that people must be restricted by laws
 Promoted a strong central government
 Strong central government was necessary to maintain peace and order
 Believed in harsh punishment; people would obey if harsh punishment was the
rule of law
 Believed that the ruler should have unquestioned authority
 Believed that there should only be tow occupations: farmers and soldiers
 Examples: slap my face, I cut off your hand; kick my butt, lose your foot
 God
made a covenant, or binding agreement , to be the God of the
 Believed that God gave them the 10 Commandments through Moses;
laws that describe how people should behave toward God and each other
 The Old Testament of the Bible includes the Torah
 The Torah also sets out many other laws that establish the moral basis
for Judaism
 The Prophets – writing from spiritual leaders (scriptures) urged people
to act accordingly
 Strong influence on Christianity and Islam
 Hebrews
– nomadic group that came from the Fertile Crescent
 Hebrews were enslaved in Egypt, and God helped them escape
 1000 BCE – Hebrews establish the Kingdom of Israel
 Believed God had promised them the land
 Belief in one God – monotheistic
 Sacred Text – The Torah
 Began
in Palestine
 Teachings of a Jew named Jesus
 30 CE
 Became official religion of the Roman Empire by 392 CE
 Mary – told that Jesus would be the Messiah (savior sent by God)
 Jesus worshiped God and followed Jewish Law
 Traveled preaching and teaching new beliefs
 Romans considered him dangerous
 Arrested, tried, and crucified
 After death, followers said he had risen from the grave
 Followers continued to spread his teachings
 Romans persecuted Christians
 Constantine ended the persecutions
 Sacred Text – the Bible
 622
Believe in one God
 Muhammad
 Born in Mecca
 Troubled by the idol worship of the Arabs
 Angel Gabriel commanded Muhammad to spread the message of
 Meccan merchants threatened to kill him; journeyed to Medina
 Hijra
– the journey
 Followers are called Muslims
 Five Pillars
Sacred Text
 Quran
 Sharia – body of laws developed by Muslim scholars; a system
designed to unite Muslims of different backgrounds
Pillar One
•All Muslims must confess their faith
•It affirms oneness to an all powerful God
•(only believe in Allah)
•Respect Christians and Jews
Second Pillar
•Muslims must pray five time’s a day
•Must be facing Mecca, using the same set of words
and motions
Third Pillar
•giving to charity
•It reflects Islamic view that wealthy people should
assist the poor and week
Fourth Pillar
•Fasting or giving up food occurs in the ninth month of
the Muslim calendar during Ramadan
•No eating or drinking sun up till sun down during this
Fifth Pillar
•Pilgrimage to Mecca, once in a lifetime
Expansion of World Religions
Buddhism – Mauryan Ruler Asoka sent messengers to spread Buddhist beliefs
 Traders and Missionaries spread Buddhism far beyond India
 Romans expelled the Jews from Palestine in 135 CE
 Diaspora – scattering of people
 Wherever Jews settled, they lived in close-knit societies
 Christian Missionaries
 Through the Roman Empire
 Islam spread after the death of Muhammad through military conquests
Cultural Diffusion
Part Two
T h e Wo r l d E x p a n d s
The Gupta Empire
 India
 320 CE – 520 CE
 Gave power to local leaders
 United most of the India subcontinent
 Promoted peace and prosperity
 Hinduism played a big role
 Remember the Maurya Dynasty?
 Geography helped in many ways. Mountains protected from foreign invasion; Indus and
Ganges Rivers provided water and fertile soil
Influence of Hinduism
 The Gupta Dynasty adopted and promoted Hinduism
 Affected social life of the Gupta villages through the caste system
Role of Government
 Gupta emperors ruled
 Gave great power to local leaders; elected by merchants and artisans
 Each village, a local council made decisions
 Most respected people served on the council
The Gupta Empire
 Role of Women – Early time women served on councils; Hindu law would change this role
– greater restrictions on women
Role of Hinduism
 Hindu concepts dominate
 Caste System
 People could not change their caste in one lifetime, but…..
Life During the Gupta Empire
 Village was the center
 Villages ran their own affairs and faced little resistance from the central gov’t…as long as
they paid their taxes
 Village governed by caste rules
 Higher the caste the stricter the rules; designed to keep them from being contaminated by
people within the lower castes
 The Untouchables – outcasts who lived harsh lives; given jobs that were considered impure
such as cleaning the streets or digging graves; had to live apart from the other members of
Gupta society; people who violated social norms were punished by being made Untouchable;
outside the caste system;
Scientific and Artistic Contributions…what makes the Gupta important
 Education at all religious institutions
 Students learned math, medicine, physics, and languages
 Math = Developed the concept of zero and the decimal system; developed the system of
writing numerals that we use today
 Medicine – use of herbs to treat illnesses; plastic surgery; vaccination (small pox)….1000
years before the practice began in Europe
 Architecture – stone temples for Hindu worship; stupas – large dome-shaped shrines that
contained the remains of holy people
 Literature – Poets and Playwrights
End of Gupta
 After 200 years, the Gupta empire declined because of weak rulers and foreign invaders.
Tang and Song Dynasties
Tang Dynasty
Tributary State
Song Dynasty
 The fall of the Han Dynasty, 200 CE
 China was divided for 400 years
 600s, Tang Taizong, a young general established the Tang Dynasty
 Ruled from 618-907
 Vast Empire
 Forced Vietnam and Korea to become Tributary States
 Remained independent, but had to acknowledge China’s greatness and send tribute (payment)
Government and Society
 Confucianist beliefs guided the government and society
 Stressed social order; based on duty, rank, and proper behavior
 Strict social order: Gentry, peasantry, and the merchants
 Gentry – wealthy landowners, study Confucian ideas, some become civil servants
 Peasants – majority of population; farmers
 Merchants – Lowest status; can become wealthy; lived off the skills of others
Tang and Song Dynasties
Land Reform
 Tang, land reform redistributed land to the peasants
 Large landowners had less power
 Peasants could contribute to government through taxes
Expanded Trade
 Foreign Trade
 Trade with India, Persia, and the Middle East
 Became expert ship builders and became a naval power
 Issued paper currency – the world’s first
 Canals; The Grand Canal, links the Huang He and Yangzi
 Calligraphy – fine handwriting
 Pagoda – a temple with a roof that curved up at the corners
 Porcelain – type of pottery
Influence on Japan
 600-700, Japanese used China as a model
 Cultural Diffusion
 Adopted language, food, dress, music, dance, and gardens….with their own flare
 800s stopped traveling to China
Tang and Song Dynasties
Tang and Song Dynasties
Tang and Song Dynasties
The Byzantine Empire and Russia
Justinian’s Code
 Late 200s, Roman Empire divided
 330, Emperor Constantine built a new capital in Constantinople…the Byzantine Empire
 Constantinople = the New Rome…bearer of Roman heritage
 Byzantine Empire stretched from Rome to Asia Minor, included S.E. Europe, Egypt, parts
of Spain, and N. Africa
Spreading Culture
 Situated within the Mediterranean, the Byzantine Empire was able to spread a blend of
Greek, Roman, Christian influence throughout the region
 Russia – thriving economic relationship with Constantinople, allowing Kiev to become the
center of Russia
Byzantine Empire
 Reached its peak under the emperor Justinian
 Reigned from 527-565 CE
 Autocratic Ruler – a single rule with complete authority
 Hoped to reclaim the western Roman empire that invading tribes has seized
 Able to recover parts of the west, but at an expense…very expensive
 A political and cultural force for nearly 1000 years after the fall of Rome
Justinian’s Code of Law
 Civil Law
 Included Roman laws, legal writings, and a student handbook
 Would become the basis of law for both the Roman Catholic Church and medieval rulers
 Today, international law is influenced by the code
 Icons – holy images of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, or saints of the Orthodox Christian Church
The Orthodox Christian Church
 Divisions had grown between he Church in Rome and the Byzantine Church
 Imperial authority over the Church
 controlled the business of the Church and appointed the patriarch – the highest church official
in Constantinople
 The emperor was considered Jesus’ co-ruler on earth
 Byzantine Christians did NOT believe that the pope in Rome had supreme authority over them
Difference with the West
 Other divisions widen the gap between the Church in the East and the
Roman Church; priests could marry, Greek, not Latin was the language,
Use of icons – many believed that the emphasis placed on Icons by the
Byzantines bordered on idolatry
 Christian Schism – 1054, the final split; (schism = split) between the
Orthodox Christian Church in the East and the Roman Catholic Church
Decline and Fall of the Byzantine Empire
 Reached its height under Justinian
 After his reign, the empire lost land to invading armies
 Weakened by internal court struggles and constant warfare
Decline and Fall of the Byzantine Empire
 Weakened by internal court struggles and constant warfare
 4th Crusade (early 1200s), Western Christians took Constantinople and ruled it for 50
 The Final Blow – The Ottoman empire , in 1453 took Constantinople (Instanbul)
Russian and Eastern Europe
 Russian state established in the 800s
 Kiev, major city (Ukraine)
 Located on the Dneiper River
 States, such as Poland, Hungary, and Serbia were establish in Eastern Europe
 Settlers from the West
 Trade with the Byzantines helped bring Eastern Europe into the sphere of influence
 Bible translated into Slavic languages
 The alphabet, called the Cyrillic alphabet (after a monk named Cyril)
Orthodox Christianity
 Byzantine missionaries brought Orthodox Christianity to Russia
 Faith remains a powerful force today
 Close relationship between church and empire
 Church became an important arm of state power
Autocratic Government
 Autocracy became the norm in Russia
 Rulers were known as Czars (Czar = Caesar)
Islam Civilizations
Key IDs
Abbassid Dynasty
Umayyad Dynasty
Cultural Diffusion
The Spread of Islam
 Early 600s
 Arabian peninsula
 Founder – Muhammad
 Abu Bakr – the first Caliph; the first successor to Muhammad
 Caliphate – period of time when Muslims were ruled by calpihs (unit the 900s)
The Spread of Islam
 Islam spread rapidly
 Abu Bakr was successful in uniting Arabs in the Islam faith
 Military campaign to conquer lands
 Conquered the Byzantine Empire, the Persian Empire, Egypt, and Spain
 Battle of Tours in 732 – when the push by Muslims into Europe was stopped
Middle East
 Arab armies took control of the Middle East in the early 600s
 Syria and Palestine defeated by the Arabs
 Egypt and Persia followed
North Africa
 mid-to late 600s
 Initially fought against each other
 Would join forces to conquer Spain
 Muslim conquers parts of southern and western Europe, especially Spain and Sicily
 700s, attacked Spain
 Middle Ages – Europe was weak
The Spread of Islam
 Early 700s, conquered the Indus Valley
 100s and 1100s, Turks conquered most of Northern India
 By 1200, Turks created a Muslim Empire in Delhi
S.E. Asia
 After the Muslims took control of India in 1200s, Islam spread into Asia
 Cultural Diffusion
 Islam spread through trade
 Thriving trade networks established
Reason for Success
 Skilled Fighters
 Overwhelmed their opponents
 Up against weak empires – Byzantine and Persia weak from fighting each other
 United in the belief in Islam
 Treated conquered people fairly
 Often, people in defeated by Muslims welcomed the change; the change from harsh
 Many converted to Islam
The Spread of Islam
Islamic Law
 System of laws to help people understand the Quran
 Sharia – the Islamic system of law
 Regulated moral behavior, family life, business, government, and other areas
of community life
 Acted as a uniting force for Muslims
 The Quran applied to all aspects of life
Divisions within Islam
 Sunnis and Shiites
 Divisions grew among Muslims about who should be Muhammad’s
 Sunnis believed that the caliph should be chosen by Muslim leaders
 Sunni Muslims did not view the caliph as a religious authority
 Shiites believed that only the descendants of the prophet Muhammad should
be his successors
 Descendants were divinely inspired
 The split continues today
Societal Patterns
 Muslim
society allowed more social mobility than did medieval
European society
 Arabs considered themselves superior to non-Arabs – would decline
over time
 Possible to move up the social ladder; especially through religious,
scholarly, or military achievements
 Special tax on non-Muslims
 Allowed to practice their own faiths
 Slavery continued – slaves from Spain, Greece, Africa, India, and Asia
 Slaves worked as house servants and craftspeople
 Possible to buy freedom
 Convert and children would be free
Muslim Empires
 Umayyad Empire (661)
 Ruled the Muslim world until 750
 Abbassid Dynasty (mid 1200s)
Umayyad Dynasty
 Umayyad
Empire (661)
 Muslim world grew under the Umayyad Dynasty
 Capital Damascus NOT Mecca
 Conquests brought wealth
 Challenges ruling large cities and territories
 Relied on local officials to help their growing empire
 Cultural Diffusion – allowing local officials from Byzantine and
Persia to continue to monitor their local areas, traditions from each
government influenced Islamic leaders
 Conquests slowed in the 700s
 Tensions developed between rich and poor
 Non-Arabs complained they fewer rights than Arab Muslims
 Shiites opposed the Umayyads because the Umayyads had killed a
descendent of Muhammad
Abbassid Dynasty
 Unhappy
Muslims found a leader in Abu al-Abbas
 750, captured Damascus
 Ruled until the mid-1200
 Ended Arab domination of Islam
 Ruled from Baghdad
 Enjoyed great wealth and power
 Experienced a Golden Age
 Baghdad exceeded the wealth and size of Constantinople
Political Divisions
850, experienced a slow decline
 Independent dynasties began to rule separate states
 900s, Seljuk Turks adopted Islam and built their own empire
 Took control of Baghdad
 1200s, the Mongols destroyed Baghdad
 Muslim religion to link people over 3 continents
The Golden Age
 Under the Abbassids, the Muslim world was composed of people from
many cultures
 Arabs, Persians, Egyptians, and Europeans
 Muslims absorbed and blended customs and traditions – Cultural
 Emphasis on learning, achievements in the arts and sciences, and
flourishing economies base on trade
 Translated the works of many of the Greek scholars.
 Advancements in mathematics, astronomy, and medicine
 The prophet Muhammad taught a respect for learning that continued
to flourish
Arts and Architecture
 Mosques and Palaces
 Influenced by the Byzantine domes and arches
 Muslim religious leaders forbade artists to portray God or human
figures in religious art
 Calligraphy
 Literature and Philosophy
Economic Achievements
 Trade
 Manufacturing
 Agriculture
Medieval Europe
Key IDs
Pope Innocent
Cultural Diffusion
 Europe’s geography had a powerful effect on the development of the
 Europe lay at the western end of the Eurasian landmass (present-day
Portugal to China)
 Roman Empire – parts of G.B., Spain, France, Italy, Greece, and other
areas of Eastern Europe
 Roman roads had allowed Roman and Christians customs to spread
 Germanic tribes overran Europe from about 400-700, ending the
Roman Empire
Frankish Empire
 The Germanic people who overran the Roman Empire were warriors,
farmers, and herders
 Culture differed greatly from the Romans
 Governed by unwritten laws and customs and ruled by elected kings
Frankish Empire
 400-700, warrior tribes divided Europe
 The Franks emerged as the most powerful and successful of the tribes
in Gaul (France)
 Clovis, king of the Franks
 Converted to Christianity, which gained him a powerful ally in the
Battle of Tours
 Muslims moved into Spain
 Attempt to move into France
 732, Battle of Tours, the Franks defeated the Muslim army
 Muslim advanced no further than Spain
 800s, Charlemagne, Frankish king, built and empire that stretched across modern-day
France, Germany, and Italy
 Answers the call from the Pope; 800, Pope Leo III called for help against the
rebellious nobles in Rome
 Charlemagne defeated the Romans
 Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Emperor of the Romans
 The crowning helped revive the ideal of a united Christian church and empire
 Charlemagne strengthened his rule and attempted to create a united Christian Europe
 Spread of Christianity throughout the empire
 Government – appointed nobles to rule local areas; gave them land, and in return,
expected them to help with the defense of the Empire
 Learning – set up schools to ensure the education of government officials;
established libraries
 814, Charlemagne dies – quickly the empire falls apart
 heirs battled for control
 845, Charlemagne's grandson signs the Treaty of Verdun, which divided the empire
into three separate kingdoms, one for each grandson
 Lasting Legacy – strong government was a model for future medieval rulers; helped
spread Christianity
Feudalism and Manorialism
 During
the early part of the Middle Ages, kings were too weak to keep
invaders out
 People would leave town and cities, banding together in the countryside for
protection and survival
Medieval Society
 everyone had
a well-defined place
 Born into their social positions, and there was little change of moving up
 Nobility consisted of the kings, queens, lords, and knights
 Nobles controlled the land and power
 Lower class, the peasants, worked the land and served the nobles
 Clergy was highly respected – Christian Church dominated
 political
system in which powerful lords (nobles) owned large sections
of land
 Divided their land into estates called fiefs
 Fiefs given to lesser lords called vassals
 Vassals pledged their loyalty and military support to their lords in
return for the land
 Knighthood – War was commonplace during the Middle Ages thus
many nobles trained to become knights
 Knights were bound by a code of conduct known as Chivalry, code
charged them to be brave, loyal, and true to their word. The code also
required them to protect women
 Role of Noblewomen – assumed an active role in feudal society
 A “lad” was in charge of her husband’s estate while he was away
serving his lord in battle
 Responsible for all household affairs, including raising the children
 Girls received training in household arts such as spinning, weaving,
and the management of servants.
 Had limited inheritance rights – most possessions went to the eldest
economic force – Manorialism
 structured around a lord’s manor, or estate
 included one or more villages and the land surrounding them
 each group in society had a place; each also had certain rights and
 Peasants and Lords – most of the peasants who lived on the estate
were serfs
 Serfs were not slaves, but they were bound to the land
 They could not leave without the lord’s approval
 Farmed the lord’s land
 The lord provided the serfs with several acres of land to farm
 Lord protected the serfs
 Peasants worked long hours and died young (few lived past 35)
 Common thread kept them together – Christianity
 Loved their holidays – center of the Christian Church
 The
The Role of the Church
 Two Churches emerge
 Orthodox Christian Church (East) and Roman Catholic (West)
 Permanent split in 1054
 Roman Catholic Church was a stabilizing force in Western Europe
 Provided religious leadership
 Secular Church (see below)
 Pope – head of church; spiritual leader; representative of Jesus
 Archbishops, Bishops, and local priests
 Everyday life for peasants was tied to local priests
 Responsibility of Church – spiritual needs; instruction; taught that all men and
women were sinners
 Could achieve salvation or eternal life through faith in Jesus, good works, and
participation in sacraments
The Role of the Church
Secular role of Church
 Secular or worldly
Economic Power – vast landholder; significant power; wealth, which was gained through
the tithe (a tax Christians were required to pay that equaled a % of their income)
Political Power – Own Laws or Cannon Laws; own courts and justice
 Claimed authority over monarchs – not all agreed and there were frequent struggles for power
 Popes believed they had power over kings
 Excommunication – challenge or threaten the Church and you may be excluded from the
Monastic Orders
 monks and nuns
Centers for Learning
 monks and nuns preserved ancient writings by copying ancient texts; taught Latin and Greek
Missionary Work
 spread the message of Christianity
Jews in Medieval Europe
 Jews in Muslim Spain and northern areas of Europe were tolerated
 Overall, most Christians persecuted Jews
 Church bars Jews from owning land and practicing their occupation
 Anti-Semitism – prejudice against Jews
 Christians blamed the Jews for all types of misfortunes (famines to disease)
 The Role of Usury and the expulsion of Jews from Europe
 Jews migrated to Eastern Europe to escape persecution
Medieval Contributions
 Literature began to appear in everyday languages (not just Latin)
 Authors – Dante and Chaucer
 Architecture and Art – Roman influence – around 1000, stone building
 Gothic Traditions – 1100s – New building that soared upward. Characterized by
pointed arches
The Crusades
 1050, Turks, who were Muslim invaded the Byzantine Empire and conquered
 Christian Church called for a movement to drive the Muslims out of Palestine
 200 years, Christians fought a series of religious wars – The Crusades
 The wars failed
 left a legacy of ill will and distrust between Christians and Muslims
 The positive side of war – trade increased and European economy expanded
 Feudal monarchs gained more power
 Europeans learned of the existence of lands beyond their borders
 Cultural Diffusion – learned from Islam
The Start of the Crusades
 1050, Turks invaded the Byzantine Empire
 4 decades, the Turks overran most of the Empire, Asia Minor, and Palestine
 Byzantine asks the Pope (Pope Urban) for help
 Council of Clermont – Pope asks for all Christians to help take back the Holy
 People who answered the call from the Pope were called Crusaders
Why The Crusades Happened
 Religion and Secularism
 The pope believed that the Crusades would increase his power
 Christians believed that their sins would be forgiven for participating
 Nobles hoped to gain wealth and land
 Adventurers saw it as a chance to travel and excitement
 Serf’s hoped to escape feudal oppression
The Four Crusades
 As mentioned, the Crusades last for 200 years
 The First Crusade was the ONLY Crusade that came close to achieving its goals
 1099, the Christians captured the city of Jerusalem; followed up with massacres of
both Muslim and Jewish inhabitants
Saladin and Muslim Victory
 During the 1100s, Saladin united the Muslims
 Respected by both Muslims and Christians
 March to Jerusalem – Christians prepare to fight back
 Saladin wins back Jerusalem; forbade his soldiers from killing or harming the
defeated Crusaders
Richard the Lion-Hearted
 1189, King of England
 Determined to take back Jerusalem from Saladin
 Third Crusade
 Unable to take back Jerusalem
End of the Crusades
 Fourth Crusade
 Again, attempt to retake Jerusalem
 Defeated Byzantine trade rivals
 Looted Constantinople
 War had changed from a war that started as a war of Christian vs. Muslim
 Ended in a battle between rival Christian factions
Impact of the Crusades
 Failed to attain their main goal of retaking the Holy Land
 Left behind a deed divide – a legacy of hatred between Christians and Muslims
 Why? Each group committed terrible acts of violence against each other
 Not all bad! European economies grew; expanded view of the world
 Cultural Diffusion expanded
 Ships built for the purpose of carrying Crusaders now moved product
 Europeans exposed to advancement in math, science, literature, art, geographical knowledge
Impact of the Crusades
 Changes
within the Church
 Temporarily increased the power of the pope
 Conflicts with feudal monarchs in Europe would lessen the power
 Eastern and Western churches affected – the gap widens
 Changes in Feudal System
 Crusades increased power of monarchs; gained the right to increase
 Feudal Monarchs were the leaders of the Crusades thus their prestige
 Feudalism weakens
 An economy based on money, not land, took hold
Council of Clermont
DBQ Practice
For your brethren who live in the east are in urgent need of your help, and you must hasten to
give them the aid which has often been promised them. For…the Turks and Arabs have attacked
them…They have occupied more and more of the lands of those Christians…If you permit them to
continue…the faithful of God will be much more widely attacked by them. On this account I, or
rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ's heralds to publish this everywhere and to persuade all
people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those
Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends….Christ commands it.“
Fulcher of Chartres, 1095
Contemporary account of Urban II’s speech at the Council of Clermont
What does the speaker want Christians to do in response to his words?
Part Three
Global Contact
Global Contact
Early Japan and Feudalism
Key IDs
Describe Feudalism
 Major Physical Features
 Japan is comprised of a chain of mountainous islands (archipelago)
 Pacific Ocean
 Off the coast of mainland Asia
 Part of the Ring of Fire – vulnerable to earthquakes and volcanoes
 Underwater earthquakes may cause Tsunami’s
 Impact of Geography
 Land difficult to farm (mountainous)
 Largest % of people live near coast
 Use of Sea as a source for food and transportation
 Unsettled natural environment developed a deep respect for the forces of nature
 Traditional Japanese religion
 Shinto = “the way of the gods”
 Worship of the Kami, or spirits found in all living and nonliving things
 Believed that Kami control the powerful forces of nature
 Shared belief of Shinto helped to unite the country
Cultural Diffusion: Korea and China
 Japanese culture features a blend of its own original traditions and ideas adopted
from Korea and China
 Contact with Korea and China
 result of war and trade
 Interest in Chinese culture peaked around 600
 Japan sends scholars to China to learn
 China influences Japanese writing
 Koreans bring Buddhism to Japan
 Chinese sect of Buddhism develops – Zen Buddhism
 Value peace, simple living, nature, and beauty
 Confucianism – emphasis regarding family loyalty, educations, and educated class
The Imperial Tradition
 Early society was organized into clans with separate rulers and religious customs
 The Yamato Clan – gained control over the largest island of Japan (500 BCE)
 Extended their rule and established themselves as the royal family of Japan
 Claim to be direct descendants of the sun goddess
 Heian Period (700-1100 BCE) – an era of elegance and sophistication
Feudal Japan
 1100s, Authority of the Japanese emperor declined
 Local Warlords fought for control
 Feudal System emerges – all members had a defined place
Feudal Japan
 Landowners and Warriors
 Emperor still ruled – in name only
 Powerful warrior nobles controlled the country
 Shoguns – real power lay in the hands of the shoguns, or top military
 Europe – nobles distributed lands to vassal lords
 Japan – Shoguns distribute lands to daimyo; in exchange for a promise to support
the shogun with their armies
 Samurai – Daimyo granted lands to lesser warriors called Samurai, “those who
 Bushido – strict code of conduct for the Samurai; to be loyal, brave, and
honorable; ritual of suicide (seppuku)
Feudal Japan
 Peasants and Artisans – peasants farmed the land, and artisans made the weapons for
the Samurai in exchange for protection
 Merchants – Usually had more wealth than the upper classes, merchants were the
lowest social class.
 Women – Early Feudal period, women sometimes became warriors or ran estates
 Over time, status declined
 Inheritance was passed to sons only
Tokugawa Shogunate
 1603, Tokugawa shogunate emerges
 brings peace and stability to Japan for 300 years
Tokugawa Shogunate
 Centralized Feudal Government
 eliminated fighting between powerful daimyo by forcing them out of their
country estates and into Edo (Tokyo)
 Economic Prosperity
 new seeds, tools, and techniques for farming
 Population grew
 Towns linked by roads
 Trade increased
 Wealthy merchants emerged
 Culture
 Growth of Zen Buddhism
 Tea Ceremony and Gardening
Tokugawa Shogunate
 Culture
 Growth of Zen Buddhism
 Tea Ceremony and Gardening
 Kabuki – theater; actors wore colorful costumes and acted out stories
 Haiku – Chinese-influenced poetry
Comparison with Europe
 Feudalism was similar
 Both evolved desire for stability; Emperors and Kings were too weak to prevent
invasions or halt internal wars
 Feudalism provided a method for ruling classes to preserve law and order
 Everyone had a well-defined place in society
The Mongols
Key IDs
Genghis Kahn
Golden Horde
Kublai Kahn
Yuan Dynasty
Mughal Dynasty
Akbar the Great
Pax Mongolia
Marco Polo
Ibn Battuta
Rise of the Mongols
 Nomadic Herders who roamed the grasslands with their horses and sheep
 Skillful riders
 Fierce fighters and raiders
The Mongols
Genghis Khan – born Temujin (1100s)
 Earned the title Genghis Kahn (World Emperor)
 Courageous warrior and skilled leader
 Supreme ruler of the Mongol Clans
 Very organized and disciplined armies
 Took most of Asia from Korea to the Caspian Sea
 Advanced into Persia, India, and northern China
 Borrowed new technology for warfare from China and the Turks (cannons)
Expansion to West
 Invaded Eastern Europe…attacked Russia, Hungary, and Poland
 Grandson, Batu, led armies into Russia between 1236-1241
 Golden Horde – the armies of Mongols were known as the Golden Horde because of
the color of their tents.
The Mongols
Expansion to the West
 Ruled Russia from the capital on the Volga River for 240 years
 Fierce warriors
 Relatively tolerant rulers
 Late 1300s, Timur (Tamerlane) led the Mongols into the Middle East
 Conquered areas of Persia, Mesopotamia, Russia, and India
 Descendants of Tamerlane would establish the Mughal Dynasty in India
Mongols in China
 1279, Kulai Kahn, grandson of Genghis, completed the job of conquering China
 Ruled China, Korea, Tibet, and parts of Vietnam
 Created the YUAN Dynasty
 Best gov’t jobs to Mongols and only Mongols could serve in military
The Mongols
Mongols in India
 Babur, descendant of Tamerlane, established the Mughal Dynasty
 1526 – 1857
 Akbar the Great (grandson of Babur) – greatest Mughal ruler
 Muslim, but very tolerant
Mongol Impact
 Mongol power and influence reached its greatest extent by 1300
 Stretched from Central Asia and China, into Russia and Europe, and into S.W Asia and India
The Mongols
Destruction and Conquest
 Fierce Mongol warriors spread terror and destruction
 Devastated China; looted and burned Kiev; killing countless inhabitants
 Despite the brutality that reigned down, Mongols were very tolerant
 Genghis respected academics, artists, and artisans; listened to ideas of scholars of many
 Genghis heirs would continue this tradition and tolerant policies
 Conquered peoples were allowed to live as before as long as they paid a tribute
Lasting Effects on Russia
 Absolutist Gov’t – served as model for later Russian leaders who also expected to
rule w/o interference from the Church
 Isolation – Cut Russia off from Western Europe; deprived Russia of many
advancements in the arts and sciences of the later Middle Ages and Renaissance
The Mongols
Pax Mongolia
 Period of stability. Political stability; allowed for an exchange of goods and ideas
between the East and the West
 The Silk Road
 Trade route that linked China to the Middle East had become dangerous
 Mongols provided safe passage; trade flourished
 For example, gunpowder, porcelain, papermaking, and the use of windmills
spread west
Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta
 Marco Polo, Italian merchant traveled to the court of Kublai Kahn (late 1200s)
 His writings introduced Europeans to the beauty of China
The Mongols
Pax Mongolia
Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta
 Ibn Battuta, scholar from Morocco
 late 1200s
 Traveled to Mecca and through Asia Minor, Persia, India, Indonesia, and China
Decline of Mongol Power
 Mongols lands were too large and diverse
 Had little experience governing ; depended on other people to do this job; many were
incompetent or corrupt
 Death of strong leaders; i.e. death of Kublai marked the decline of the Yuan Dynasty
 Resentment of the Mongols; desire for independence from foreign rule
Expansion of Chinese Trade
Key IDs
Zheng He
Hanseatic League
Bubonic Plague
Trade Fair
Major Trade Routes
 Trade routes enabled people and goods to move across Asia, Africa, and Europe
 Indian Ocean – allowed easy trade between Asia and East Africa
 Trading Centers emerged
Major Trade Routes
 Mogadishu and Great Zimbabwe thrived on trade across the Indian Ocean
 European ships on their way to Asia often stopped at East African coastal cities
 Overland trade routes linked Asia with the Middle East, N. Africa, and Europe
 Trade from China followed the Silk Road and entered Europe through Russia and
 Goods also traveled between Constantinople and India
Mediterranean Sea
 Middle East; Muslim traders brought goods to ports in Egypt, Syria, and Turkey
 Ports included Cairo and Alexandria
European Trade
 Europeans became more and more interested in trade with the East
 Improved methods of agriculture during the Middle Ages
 Population grows
 Impact of the Crusades
 Increase in trade; interest in the East
 Returning Crusaders brought back goods
 Ships once used to carry Crusaders now used for trade
 Italian City-States
 Late 1300s, Italian cites become centers for trading and industry
 Venice, Genoa, Florence grow
 Spread throughout Europe
European Trade
Trade Fairs
 Took place in towns where trade routes met; usually near rivers
 Contributed to the growth of cities throughout Europe
 New craftworks
 Population increases
 Large cities developed
 Wealthiest cites were at end of trade routes
Hanseatic League
 Northern Germany, traders and merchants began to join together in the 1100s
 1300s, German towns were members of the Hanseatic League – monopolized trade
in the Baltic and North Sea
 The League worked to make navigation safer by controlling piracy, building
lighthouses, and training sailors
European Trade
Spice Trade
 Spices, such as pepper and cinnamon were extremely valuable during the Middle
 Used to preserve meat and perfumes, medicines
 Ottoman Empire disrupts trade
 Portugal looks for new routes
 Early 1400s, Portugal explores the coast of Africa
 Discover a new route around the tip of Africa
 1500s, establish ports in Africa, India, Japan, and China
 Brought great wealth to Portugal
European Trade
The Plague
 Bubonic Plague or the Black Death
 Spread by fleas that lived on rates
 Within days of infection, most people died
 No cure
 Global Epidemic
 1100s, trade helped the plague spread
 Mid-1300s, plague reached Spain and France….then the rest of Europe
Effects of the Plague
 Devastation throughout the world
 Population Declines; early 1300s, 35M Chinese die
 At its peak, the plague killed 7K people per day
 1/3 of the world population dies
European Trade
Effects of the Plague
 Economic Decline
 Destroyed economies
 Farm and industry decline
 The people who were left were in a position to demand higher wages and prices
 When landowners and merchants responded, peasant revolts occurred
Social and Political Change
 Feudalism declines as result of peasant revolts
 As a result, growth of new political systems
 Monarchs gained power and began to build more powerful nations
 People began to question their faith and the Church
 Jews were blamed; “poison in the wells”, thousands were murdered
Europe Comes Alive
Ignatius Loyola
Common Law
Magna Carta
Leonardo da Vinci
95 Theses
Martin Luther
Commercial Revolution
 1000 -1300
 Expansion of trade and the growth of cities brought new ways of thinking and doing
 Money grew in importance
 New social class emerged
 Urban Centers based on trade gave new power to a rising new class – middle class
 middle class – merchants, traders, and artisans
 Middle – ranked between the older feudal classes of nobles and peasants
Guilds – trade associations emerge
 Checked of quality of goods
 hospitals and aid to widows and children
 Regulated hours of work and price of goods
 Apprentices – training of new artisans
Commercial Revolution
 Feudalism in decline
 New system emerges – Capitalism
 Based on trade and capital
 When the demand for a product is great, prices rise, and traders profit
 Traders can lose everything if demand falls
 New Business Practices
 Partnerships and Joint Stock Companies
 Merchants joined together in partnership; pooling capital, they could
finance ventures that no single merchant could afford to do alone
 Joint Stock Company – allowed many merchants to pool their funds for
business ventures. Invested in trading ventures around the world. i.e. The
Virginia Company of London
Commercial Revolution
 Banking grew duirng this period
 Merchants borrowed from moneylenders, who developed systems of banking
 Bill of Exchange…no more coins
 Merchants deposited money with a baker in his hometown, banker gave him a
bill of exchange; merchant exchange this bill for cash in the city where he would
be exchanging in trade
Social Changes
 The Commercial Revolution reshaped medieval society
 Use of money undermined serfdom and led to the decline of feudalism
 Peasants began to sell their products and began paying their feudal lord with
money instead of product.
The Renaissance and Humanism
 1300s – 1500s
 A period of great creativity and change in Europe
 Renaissance = Rebirth
 Golden age in the arts, literature, and sciences
 Began in Italy in the mid-1300s and then spread northward
 Why Italy? Thriving centers of trade and manufacturing.
 Merchants had new-found wealth and were willing to use it to promote the arts and
The Renaissance and Humanism
 New Ways of Thinking - Humanism
 During the Middle Ages, people (philosophers and writers) began to think about
life after death
 Humanists began to focus more on the present
 Emphasis on individual; instead of religious issues, humanists examined subjects
that the ancient Greeks and Romans had studied
 Humanists wanted to increase knowledge about their own times
The Renaissance and Humanism
 Artistic Achievements
 Renaissance produced some of the greatest paintings, sculptures, and architecture
 Good-bye Medieval architecture, hello (hello again) to Greek and Roman styles for
columns, arches, and domes
 Paintings often included contemporary figures – not limited to religion
 3-dimensional imagery
 Study of the human anatomy – often used as live models, with great detail
 Michelangelo and di Vinci
 Literature – Dante, Cervantes, Shakespeare, Machiavelli
 The invention of the printing press
 1456 – the Bible
 Literacy increased and ideas spread rapidly
The Creation of Adam is a section of Michelangelo's fresco Sistine Chapel
di Vinci
Reformation and Counter-Reformation
 By the 1500s, religious life was changing in Europe: The Protestant Reformation
and Counter-Reformation
 Cause for Reformation
 The Renaissance – Humanism led people to question Church authority
 Placed increasing faith in human reason
 Strong Monarchs – strong monarchs were beginning to emerge
 Problems within the Church – people began to believe that Church leaders
were acting more like kings fighting for power and wealth, than like
representatives of God
 Objection to fees for marriages, baptisms, and selling of indulgences (pardons
for sins)
Reformation and Counter-Reformation
 By 1500s, many Christians looking to reform the Church
 Martin Luther
 Disgusted over the sale of indulgences
 1517, 95 Theses, which were 95 arguments against indulgences; sparked the
Protestant Reformation
 Protestant Reformation – period when many Europeans broke away from the
Catholic Church and formed new Christian Churches
 Luther believed:
 people could only reach heaven through faith in God and that the pope could
not grant a pardon for sins
 The Bible was the only source of religious truth
Reformation and Counter-Reformation
 John Calvin – another reformer
 Like Luther, believed that people could only reach heaven through faith
 Predestination – belief that God had determined before the beginning of time
who would gain salvation
 Calvinists lived a strict, disciplined, and frugal lives
Did not believe in the sale of indulgences
Believed Christians reached heaven only
through faith in God
Believed Christians reached heaven only
through faith in God
Believed people are born sinners
Did not believe that priests had special
Preached Predestination
Ideas spread to northern Germany and
Ideas spread to Germany, France, Holland,
England, and Scotland
Followers later called themselves
Led a community in Switzerland
Reformation and Counter-Reformation
 The Counter Reformation
 Response to the Protestant Reformation
 Reform movement within the Catholic Church
 Purpose – to strengthen the Catholic Church as well as to keep Catholics from
converting to Protestantism
 Council of Trent – Pope Paul III; 1545
 Led reform movement
 reaffirmed traditional Catholic beliefs
 worked to end abuses in the Church
 set up schools to assure that the clergy would be well educated
Reformation and Counter-Reformation
 Ignatius Loyola
 Found the Society of Jesus
 Called on the Jesuits – defenders of the Catholic faith
 Jesuit missionaries spread Catholicism to Asia, Africa, and the Americas
 Teresa of Avila – Spanish noblewoman
 Religious order of nuns called the Carmelites
 Disturbed by the lack of severity within the order
 Established a convent
 Catholic Church asked Teresa to reorganize and reform Carmelite
monasteries and convents
 Saint Teresa
Reformation and Counter-Reformation
 The Effects of the Reformation
 Religious and Political Division
 Loss of religious unity in Western Europe
 Rulers would select a religion for their nation
 Religious wars would emerge
Catholics battled Protestants
The Thirty Years’ War (1600s)
 Anti-Semitism
 Witch Hunts
The Protestant Reformation
Long-Term Causes
Roman Catholic Church becomes more
Humanists urge return to simple
Strong kings emerge and resent power
of the Church
Long-Term Effect
Religious wars break out in Europe for
more than 100 years
Catholic Reformation takes place
Inquisition becomes stronger
Many Jews forced into Eastern Europe
Short-Term Causes
Indulgences are sold in Germany
Martin Luther writes 95 Theses
Luther translates Bible into German
Printing press helps spread ideas
Reformers call for change
Short-Term Effects
Peasants revolt
Lutheran, Calvinists, Anglican and
Protestant churches emerge
Holy Roman emperor weakened
Reformation and Counter-Reformation
 Rise of Nation-States
 Middle Ages, kings, nobles, and the Church struggled for power
 Feudalism was on the decline
 Kings slowly began to increase power
First shift in power – England and France (somewhat different)
 Birth of Nationalism
 Growth of power in France
 Hugh Capet (987)
 At first, not a threat
 The Capetians slowly increase power; gained land; played nobles against each
 Royal Power leads to the 100-Years’ War; France defeats England
 Joan of Arc – stirs up nationalism
Reformation and Counter-Reformation
 Nationalism and the Limited Monarchy in England
 Anglo-Saxon king Edward dies (1066)
 Duke William of Normandy claims the thrown; William the Conquerer
 Common Law created
 Magna Carta (1215) - placed limits on the king’s power
 Parliament (1200s)
 As English Church
 Nationalism grows
Kings Increase Their Power
Kings of England
Decide who can build
castles and where
Force vassals to obey
the King
Establish common law
so that all people are
treated the same
Collect records of who
owns land
Kings of France
•Add to their lands
•Set up organized
•Collect Taxes
•Create a royal
•Set up royal courts
and royal law
•Make throne hereditary
•Becomes allies with the
•Organize army
•Take French lands from
English king
African Civilizations
Keys IDs
Mansa Musa
 2nd
largest continent ; 1/5 of land surface
 Variety of climates and terrains
 Savanna – grassy plains
 Large part of Africa is made up of desert
 Sahara world’s largest desert (maybe not – see Antarctic)
 Africa has few good natural harbors
 Small belt of rain forests
 Difficult travel because of barriers
 Despite barriers, early Africans traveled within and beyond continent
 Travel linked to trade; gold, salt, iron, copper, and other raw materials
Traditional Society
 Village Gov’t – power was shared among members of the community rather than
exercised by a single person/leader
 Family was basic unit of society in traditional Africa
 Religious Beliefs – identified the forces of nature with divine spirits and worshiped
many gods and goddesses
 Departed ancestors were present on earth
Rise and Fall of African Kingdoms
 Ghana
(800 BCE) – the rulers of many farming villages united to create the
kingdom of Ghana
 Powerful king
 Gold Trade
 Large army of foot soldiers and Calvary
 Muslim merchants brought religion and ideas
 king had Muslim officials – cultural diffusion
 Most people of Ghana maintained their traditional values
Rise and Fall of African Kingdoms
 Mali
(1200-1450) was also ruled by powerful kings, called mansas
 Mansa Musa, the most powerful ruler
 Mali extended its borders and dominated W Africa
 Large army kept order
 Most people were farmers and herders
Ran and efficient gov’t; appointing governors to rule particular areas
Mansa Musa converted to Islam
Based he system of justice on the Quran
 Made the city of Timbuktu a center for Muslim learning
 Empire declined in the 1400s when the people could not agree on who
should rule
Rise and Fall of African Kingdoms
 Songhai
 Depended on a strong army
Emperor Sonni Ali built Songhai into the largest state that had ever existed in
W Africa
 Established an efficient bureaucracy to govern the kingdom
 Expanded trade to Europe and Asia
 Prospered until the late 1500s
 Civil War broke out
 Invaders from the north defeated the disunited forces of Songhai
Role in Global Trade
 The
Mediterranean and the Red Sea linked Africa to the Middle East and
 Indian Ocean linked E Africa to India and other Asian lands
 Products from the interior were transported overland to the coasts
 Hausa -1300s, the Hausa people built city-states (Nigeria)
 Benin – Rain forests on the Guinea coast; traded ivory, pepper, and
eventually slaves
 Developed trade with Portugal
Role in Global Trade
 East African City-State – around 600, city-states along the coast developed
 Asian and Persian merchants traded
 By 1000, E African ports cites such as Mogadishu, Kilwa, and Sofala
emerged; trade with India
 Trade led to cultural diffusion
 New language emerges – Swahili, in which words were mixed with Bantu,
an African language
Part Four
The First Global Age
Key Ids
 Ice Age – resulted in a land bridge between Siberian and Alaska
 Paleolithic Era
 Nomads (hunters) in Asia followed herds of bison and mammoths into
North America
 Nomads migrated east and south
 8500 – 2000 BCE, Hunters-Gatherers assimilated to their new surroundings
 Learned to cultivate crops, domesticate animals
 Crops – corn, beans, potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, and squash
 This first Agricultural Rev. resulted in an increase in population
 Farmers began to settle areas; major cities would emerge; large religious
centers would develop
 Mesoamerica – the first great American civilization developed
 Region includes Mexico and Central America
 Olmec Empire – 1400 – 500BCE
 First American Civilization
 Mexico – tropical rain forest along the Gulf of Mexico
 Olmecs built ceremonial centers – pyramid-shaped temples and other
 Invented a calendar and developed a system of writing made up of carved
 Religion – honored their priests
The Mayas
 The Mayas – influenced by the Olmecs
 300 – 900 CE
 Developed a complex agricultural
 Established large city-states in southern Mexico and throughout Central
Farming and Trade
 Farmers made up most the population
 Men grew the food and women turned into food
 Farmers paid taxes, in the form of food, to supports cities and temples
 Profitable trade system across Central America
 Priests occupied an exalted place in the social hierarchy
 Priests conducted elaborate rituals that the Mayas believed would ensure
bountiful harvests and victorious battles
Social Structure
 Each city had a ruling chief
 Next, the nobles – who served as city officials and military leaders
 On occasion, women would obtain power
 Majority of the population were farmers
 Agriculture – grew enough food to provide for a growing population
 Cleared dense fields throughout the rain forest
 Built raised fields designed to withstand heavy rains
Learning and Science
 Developed hieroglyphic system of writing
 Mayan Priests developed a complex and accurate 365-day calendar
 Used a number system and understood the concept of zero – before Europe
 900CE – historians speculate that warfare or overpopulation may have
caused agriculture to decline
 Possible revolts by lower classes
 Late 1200s
 Migrated from the north into the Valley of Mexico
 Fierce warriors
 Used conquests and alliances to build a large empire
 Tenochtitlan (capital) – city with temples, palaces, gardens, and zoos
Aztec Expansion
 Early 1400s, formed alliances with neighboring states
 Military conquests over hundreds of smaller states
 Each conquered state was given and Aztec governor
 wealthy from tributes
 By 1500, Aztec empire covered most of Mexico; 30M people
Social Structure
 Ruled by a single ruler/emperor
 Emperor was chosen by a council of nobles and priests
 Nobles- officials, judges, and governors
 Warriors and Traders – warrior might rise to noble
 Traders – carried goods over long distances to exchange products from
peoples who lived beyond the empire; scouted lands to conquer
 Farmers and Slaves – most people were farmers
 Slaves – mainly criminals or enemy soldiers; still had certain rights
guaranteed by Aztec law; some slaves owned land and eventually bought their
 Very important
 Priests gained significance because they led rituals that were believed to
appease the gods, who would prevent disasters
 Built huge pyramids to honor their chief deity, the sun god
 Human sacrifices – to please their gods – usually enemy soldiers
 Accurate calendar
 Schools and recorded historical events
 Medical practices – set bones and dental
 Architecture – Tenochtitlan (Mexico City)
 Built on tow small islands; engineers filled in parts of the lake and built
stone causeways to connect the city to the mainland
 Huge pyramid temples, elaborate emperor’s palace
 200K lived in city – largest and most populated city in Mesoamerica
 Fertilizers
 Chinampas, artifical islands made of earth pile on reed mats that were
anchored to shallow bed of Lake Texcoco – famers raised corn, squash, and
 Produced and abundance of food, which was a major factor in the success of
the empire
 1400s
 Emerged from the Andes Mtns
 Centralized Gov’t – first emperor was a warrior who led his armies through
many successful conquests
 The emperor held absolute power and owned all of the people, land, herds,
and mines
 Emperor was also chief religious leader and claimed divine status of the sun
 Strong Central Gov’t - nobles ran the provinces along with local chieftains
 Collected taxes, enforced laws, and routine gov’t business
 Incan gov’t strictly controlled the lives of the people
 Everyone had to speak the same language and practice the same religion
Empire linked by roads
 Remarkable road system
 Allowed the emperor to keep a close attention of his empire
 If necessary, Incan armies could move quickly over the raods to crush
 Affected all phases of life
 worshiped many gods related to forces of nature as well as guardian spirits
in the home
 Chief Incan deity was the sun god
 Powerful priests conducted rituals and led monthly religious festivals that
featured sports and games
 Roads stand out as a major accomplishment; extended 12,000 miles
 Included bridges and tunnels to pass through mountainous terrain
 The Temple of the Sun – huge stone blocks and inner walls lined with gold;
able to withstand earthquakes
 Agriculture – Cultural Diffusion – borrowed ideas from other societies
 Farmers used stone walls to improve terraces – held strips of land in place
on steep hillsides and prevented rain from washing away the soil
 Quipus – system of knotted, colored strings used to keep records; may have
been used to record dates and events
 Calendar, but not as advanced as the Mayan’s
The Ming Dynasty
 1368, after 90 years of Mongolian rule, Chinese rule restored
 Under the Mongols, trade and transportation had improved
 Chinese resented foreign rule
 Led by a peasant farmer, Zhu Yuanzhang, a successful rebellion overthrew Mongol
Rule – the beginning of the Ming Dynasty
The Middle Kingdom
 Ming leaders sought to restore the country’s greatness and its supremacy in the
 China thought of itself as the Middle Kingdom – the center of the earth and the
source of civilization
The Ming Dynasty
 During the early 1400s, Zheng He, Chinese Admiral established trade links
 1433, after the death of Zheng He, China banned the building of ships
 End of voyages and exploration
 Reasons: Economic and Cultural
 Voyages not profitable and fleets were costly to maintain
 Confucian scholars believed that China had the most advanced civilization, therefore
limiting contact with foreign influences was the best way to preserve ancient traditions
Zheng He Expeditions
The Ming Dynasty
Economic and Cultural Contributions
 Better fertilizations methods
 Different crops introduced (corn and squash)
 New technologies to increase manufacturing production
 Porcelain, tools, and paper thrived
 Repaired the neglected canal system
 New styles of landscape paintings
 Chinese silks were much admired
 Classical poetry
The Ming Dynasty
China and the West
 1500s, Portugal and other European merchants reach East Asia
 Europeans very excited about what China had to offer – silks and porcelain
 Excited about the Chinese production of gun powder
 The Ming restricted foreign trade – believed Europeans to be inferior
 Allowed limited trade at one outpost – Macao (Guangzhou)
 Chinese interested in learning about new technologies, had little interest in the
religious beliefs of Europeans (Christinainty)
The Ming Dynasty
China’s impact with Asia
 Exerted control and cultural influence over its Asian neighbors
 Korea, Japan, SE Asia
 At one point, took political control of Korea; maintained cultural control
 Japan, Korea served as a cultural bridge
 500s strong interest in China; its traditions, culture, technology, etc
 Interest would wane over the yeas
The Ottoman Empire
 1400s, Byzantine empire in decline; faced a growing threat from the Ottomans
 The Ottomans – nomadic Turkish-speaking group that had migrated from central
Asia into Asia Minor
 1453, Ottoman armies surrounded the Byzantine capital of Constantinople
 Two-month siege, pounded the walls, and broke through and captured the city
 Constantinople changed to Instanbul
 Christian city now the capital of the Ottoman Muslim empire
The Ottoman Empire
 Expanded and grew quickly
 Well-armed forces and effective military strategies; used new
technologies – such as the musket.
 Conquered lands south of Mecca as well as along the Nile
 Expanded into the Balkans and into Russia
 Failed to capture Vienna
 By the 1500s, The Ottomans had built the largest, most powerful
empire in the Middle East….reached three continents (Europe, Middle
East, and N. Africa)
The Ottoman Empire
New Trade Routes
 As the Ottoman influence and dominance in the Med interefered
with Western Europe’s trade with East Asia
 Europe forced to look for new routes
The Ottoman Empire
Achievements and Impact
 Cultural Diffusion – absorbed many influences from the conquered
Byzantine empire
 Byzantine (Greco-Roman and Middle East)
 Ottomans blended Byzantine culture with Muslim culture; govt’t,
social life, and architecture
Golden Age
 Suleiman the Magnificent
 Ruled from 1520-66
 Sultan – name Turks gave to their rulers
 Effective leader, modernized the army, added new territories
The Ottoman Empire
Golden Age
 Strengthened the gov’t
 improved the system of justice
 Muslim – based his law of the Sharia (Islamic code of Law)
 Suleiman – the Lawgiver
 He had absolute power, but did consult with advisor and coucil
 Had officials to manage the empire
The Ottoman Empire
Diverse Society
 Because the Ottomans had such a vast empire and help onto for so
long, Islam became the dominant cultural force throughout the region
 Social Classes –
 Men of Pen (the educated, scientists, lawyers, judges, and poets)
 Men of the Sword (high-ranking leaders)
 Men of Negotiation (business people, moneychangers, tax
collectors, artisans)
 Men of Husbandry (farmers and herders)
 Top two classes were made up of almost entirely Muslims – helped
Islam dominate
The Ottoman Empire
Diverse Society
 Millets – non-Muslims; allowed to maintain their own religion and
 Janissaries – Muslim influence rested on the backs of the Janissaries
– strong military and gov’t officers from conquered groups required to
turn their sons over to the gov’t
Converted to Islam
 Members of an elite force in the Ottoman army
Arts and Literature
 Palaces and places of worship, the Mosque
The Ottoman Empire
The Decline
 Survived into the 20th century; decline began much earlier though
 Nations were able to break free of Ottoman rule
 Corruption and poor leadership
 European advances – major reason for the decline
 1571, Spain and Italy defeat the Ottoman fleet at Lepanto
 Even though the empire spread, it was cut out of global trade
 European commercial and military advancements
 European economies had become stronger
Key Ids
Vasco da Gama
Middle Passage
The Eve of…
 Remember the Ottomans, Europeans were looking for new routes to
the riches of Asia
 Portugal and Spain – took the lead
 Both had tech., resources, and political unity to support sea travel
 Both had struggled with Muslim rule
Reconquista and Expulsions
 1469, Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon to Isabella of Castile brought
together two powerful Spanish kingdoms
 1492, they forced the Muslims from Granada, which complete the
Reconquista – a campaign to recapture Spain from the Muslims (began
in 700)
 Isabella launched a brutal crusade against Muslims and Jews (proChristtianity)
 Approx 150K were forced into exile
Reasons to Explore
 Ottoman Empire interference
 1400s, seek new routes to the Asian spices
 Italian and Muslims merchants controlled the routes between Asia
and Europe
 Muslims bring goods to the Med and the Italians brought it the rest
of the way – it became very expensive – time to cut out the middleman
 Time to look for new oceanic routes
Impact of Technology
 The Printing Press – mid 1400s, Gutenberg invents the press
 Enabled people to make books quickly and cheaply; became more
 Access to new ideas and info, including geography
 Gunpowder - Arab traders brought gunpowder to Europe in the 1200s
 Late 1400s, Portugal were equipping ships with cannons
 Help Portugal win control of the Indian Ocean trade network
 Naval Tech – Cartographers (mapmakers) created better maps and charts
 Astrolabe – compass used to determine direction, perfected by the Arabs
 Europeans built bigger and better ships; sails and masts perfected
Early Exploration
 Africa to Asia
 1415, Henry the Navigator (son of Portuguese king), fleet of ships that
explored the coast of W Africa
 1488, Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope (southern Africa)
 da Gama follows Dias route, across the Indian Ocean
 Lost half his ships
 Returned home with Asian spices
 Established a successful trade route and would expand their empire
 1492, Columbus reaches the Americas
 1493, Spain and Portugal claim land in the Americas
 Imperialism – compete for colonies in the Americas
 1400s, Africa, established a string of forts in the west and capturing
several port cities in the east
 Unsuccessful in their attempt to push inland
 mid-1600s, Dutch s.w. tip of Africa, established Cape Town
 The Dutch farmers who settled in Cape Town were called the Boers;
ousted or enslaved many Africans, whom they considered inferiors
 Asia, 1500s, Portugal took control of the trade networks from the
 Malacca on the Malay Peninsula in the Indian Ocean
 The Dutch Spain, England, and France
 The Dutch, the first to challenge Portuguese domination of the Asian spice
 Established trade links with Asia
 Formed the Dutch East India Co. in the early 1600s
 1641, Dutch seized Malacca from Portugal; began trading with China;
dominated the Asian trade routes
Spain, established colonies in SE Asia in the 1500s
 Magellan, complete the first circumnavigation of the world; claimed the
islands of the Philippines (1521) – named for King Philip of Spain
 Used to trade with China and spread Catholic teachings
 The Dutch Spain, England, and France
 By the 1700s, England and France became competing forces in the
Asian trade network, concentrating in India
 Mughal Rulers (India) weak and civil wars lead to British and
French East India Companies making alliances with local rulers.
 Each organized their own army of sepoys, (Indian Troops)
 1750s, British East India Company and sepoys push the French out
 Forced the Mughal emperor to allow it to collect taxes
 Would become the real power in the region
Triangular Trade and Slavery
 1500s, Europeans came to view African slaves as the most valuable
African trade goods
 Purchased slaves to work in order to satisfy the labor shortage in the
 Slavery evolved in a huge and profitable business
 The Triangle Trade – Europe, Africa, and Africa
 The Middle Passage – the voyage from Africa to the Americas
 conditions were terrible
 Hundreds on people crammed onto a shingle ship
 Millions of Africans dies on the way from disease, brutal treatment,
or suicide
The Spanish Empire
 1500s, the empire stretched from California to So. America
 Brought great wealth to the Spanish Gov’t
 Gov’t maintained strict control over its empire
 King an the colonial gov’t through representatives, or viceroys, who ruled
 Religion – Catholic Church – spread Christianity
 Encomienda System – Spanish law allowed the colonies to only trade with
Spain; Under this system, a conquistador, was granted land along with
permission to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans
 Culture – Colonies developed a new culture that combined European,
Native American, and African traditions…everything was affected (art,
literature, life)
The Spanish Empire
 Social Classes – Spanish-born at top, known as peninsulares.
Creoles was the name given to those Europeans who were born in the
colonies. Mestizos, people of mixed Native American and European
descent, Mulattoes, mixed African and European descent
The Columbian Exchange
 Global exchange of people, plants, animals, ideas, and technology
began during this time, leading to profound changes for people in Asia,
the Americas, Africa, and Europe
European Capitalism
 Mercantilism – increased trade with the colonies encouraged European
capitalism (the investment of money to make a profit)
 Emergence of Joint Stock Companies – allowed Europeans to gather
the capital necessary to finance overseas voyages (see Virginia)
 Mercantilism – policy involved building up national wealth by
exporting more goods than the nation imported…Colonies supported the
parent nation with raw materials and served as a market for its exports
 Nobles became less powerful because their wealth was based on the
land they owned
 Merchants made the money and gained the power; emergence of the
middle class
Keys Ids
Akbar the
Philip II
Divine Right
Louis XIV
Jacques Bossuet
the Terrible
the Great
Oliver Cromwell
English Bill
of Rights
Global Absolutism
 1500s -1600s – monarchs in Europe in Asia looked to centralize their power,
which led to Absolutism – autocratic rulers had complete authority over the
government and the lives of the people in their nation.
 1500s, India, Mughal Empire
 Akbar the Great – strengthened the central gov’t and made his
empire stronger and larger than any in Europe at the time
 Modernized his army, encouraged trade, introduced land reform
 Recognized India's diversity and promoted religious tolerance
 Successors were not as strong and less tolerant …allowed France
and England to spread their influence
 Spain
 1500s, Spain became the most powerful nation in Europe
 Wealth from its empire helped the empire grow
 Charles V (1519-1556) – King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor
 Faced military threats from the French and the Ottoman Empire
 Philip II – wanted to control all aspects of gov’t, believing that he
ruled by divine right – according to this thinking, the king is an agent
of God, and his authority to rules come directly from God
 France
 Late 1600sm France replaced Spain as the most powerful
 The Sun King, Louis XIV, from the age of 5 he ruled France for 72
 Took the sun as the symbol of his power and commanding complete
loyalty from his subjects
 Bishop Jacques Bossuet argued that as God’s represented on Earth,
the king was entitled to unquestioning obedience
 Persecuted the Protestant Huguenots
 Russia
 1400s, Moscow became the center of power in Russia
 Ivan the Great - ruled from 1462-1505
 Built the framework for absolute rule in Russia
 Ivan the Terrible – Czar Ivan centralized royal power and extreme absolute power
 Harsh ruling style
 Organized a personal police force; agents of terror slaughtered rebellious nobles
and destroyed towns suspected of disloyalty
 Peter the Great – 1682-1725 – brought all of Russia under his control; reduced the
power of the nobility and gained control of the Russian Orthodox Church
 Westernized Russia
 Strong foreign policy – largest army in Europe in the late 1600s, expanded Russian
territory, fought the Ottoman Turks to gain a warm-water port – he lost
 England
 Stuart Monarchs
 James 1 – used divine right, conflicted with the Puritans
 The Leviathan, Thomas Hobbs wrote that people were nature selfish and greedy
and would fall into chaos unless ruled by a strong gov’t that could suppress
rebellion…believed that an absolute monarchy was needed to maintain order
 1500-1600s, England moved to a parliamentary system
 The English Civil War or the Puritan Revolution
 King Charles and the Cavaliers vs. Parliament forces, the Roundheads
 Roundheads led by Oliver Cromwell
 Roundhead win, capture king, and beheaded him; signified that absolutism would
not last in England
 England
 1660,The Restoration – parliament invited Charles II to become king of England
 The Glorious Revolution - Parliament overthrows James II – became to absolutist
 Feared the return of Catholic dominance
 James’s daughter, Mary and her Dutch husband William take the English throne
 Both Protestant
 Bloodless transfer of power
Nonviolent overthrown is known as the Glorious Revolution
1500-1600s, England moved to a parliamentary system
 English Bill of Rights
 king must work regularly with Parliament
 House of Commons has financial control
 Toleration Act – granted Protestant dissentes (Puritans and Quakers) limited
toleration….not Catholics.
Part Five
The Age of Revolutions
Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment
Key IDs
Natural Laws
Isaac Newton
John Locke
Joseph II
 New Ideas – Middle Ages, scholars believed the earth was the center
of the universe. This idea came from Roman-Greco thinking and the
teachings of the Church.
 New Ideas – European scientist began to think differently in the
 The renaissance – scholars began to question old ideas about the
world - - this period is known as the Scientific Revolution
 Copernicus – challenged the idea that the earth was the center of the
universe; he argued that the universe was heliocentric, or sun-centered;
that the planets revolved around the sun
 Most scholars rejected Copernicus’s theory
 Early 1600s, Galileo would argue in favor of heliocentric theory;
would observe the skies through a telescope, which would contradict the
teachings of the Church; put on trial and forced to recant his ideas
 Newton – built on Copernicus and Galileo; used math to prove the
existence of a force that kept planets in their orbits; called the force
gravity, the same force that made objects fall toward Earth
New Ways of Thinking
 Scientific Method - 1600s, this method relied on experimentation
and observation
 Descartes and Human Reasoning – challenged the idea that new
knowledge should be made to fit existing traditional ideas; emphasized
the power of human reason; believed that reason, rather than tradition,
should be the way to discover truth. Descartes ideas paved the way for
other changes.
Science and the Enlightenment
 Scientist would use reason to explain why things happened in the
physical universe.
 1700s, scholars and writers would reason to discover natural laws, or
laws that govern human behavior; applied the scientific method of
investigation and observation in order to solve the problems of society
 Enlightenment -1700s, people would reject traditional ideas and
supported a belief in human reason; logical thought can lead to truth is
called rationalism; Enlightened Thinkers introduced new ways of
viewing authority, power, government, and law
Enlightened Thinkers
 John Locke, 1600s; believed that all people possess natural rights.
These rights include the rights to life, liberty, and property; if a
government does not protect these rights, people have the right to
overthrow it.
 Montesquieu, 1700s, argued that powers of government should be
separated into three branches (legislative, executive, and judicial); he
argued that the separation of powers would prevent tyranny be creating a
system of checks and balances. In other words, each branch keeps the
other two in-check
 Voltaire, 1700s, believed in free speech; used sharp wit to criticize the
French gov’t and the Catholic Church for their failure to permit religious
toleration and intellectual freedom
 Rousseau, 1700s, penned his ideas in a book titled The Social
Contract; argued that people are naturally good but are corrupted by the
evils of society, such as the unequal distribution of property; believed in
the will of the majority, which he called general will; believed that the
majority should always work for the common good.
Impact of the Enlightenment
 People began to question established beliefs and customs; would
affect leaders and the development of nations; would cause the
establishment to institute censorship
Enlightened Despots
 Some monarchs accepted Enlightenment ideas; they were known as
despots, absolute rulers who used their power to reform society.
 Maria Theresa – 1700s, Austrian ruler, improved tax system by
forcing clergy and nobles to pay taxes thus lessen the burden on
peasants; made primary education available to the children of her
 Joseph II – Maria’s son, continued her reforms; modernized the
gov’t; chose officials for their talent rather than because of their status;
legal reforms; religious toleration, ended censorship, abolished serfdom;
however, many of his reforms would be later overturned.
 Catherine The Great – 1762, became empress of Russia, read
Enlightened work; Asked for advice from nobles and free peasants (a
first in Russia), built schools and hospitals, promoted education for
women, religious toleration; however, after a peasant uprising, many of
her reforms were overturned
Democracy and Nationalism
 Enlightenment ideas would inspire a sense of individualism (personal
freedom), and a sense of basic equality; challenge traditional authority,
cause the growth of democracy. Nationalism grew as people in a country
drew together to fight for a democratic gov’t. Enlightenment ideas
would contribute to an age of revolution.
Political Revolutions
Key IDs
Estates General
Declaration of
Coup d’etat
Simon Bolivar
Jose de San
Revolutionary Influences
 The American Revolution
 Thomas Paine
 Declaration of Independence
 The Constitution
 The Magna Carta and Parliament
The French Revolution
 1789, The French Revolution would begin; it would have a deep and
lasting impact on France, Europe, and the world.
 Cause of the French Revolution
 Absolute Monarchy
 Social Inequality
Economic Injustices
 Enlightenment
 American Rev. and the Glorious Rev
Stages of the French Revolution
 1789, King Louis XVI called the Estates General, a body made up
of representatives of all three estates (1st, 2nd, and 3rd Estates)
 National Assembly – The Third Estate, the only elected group in the
Estates General, declared itself the National Assembly; vowed to write a
new constitution for France
 Storming the Bastille – working class movement; rioting breaks out
over an escalation for the price of bread; stormed the Bastille of July 14,
 Fighting broke out throughout the country – this period is known as
the Great Fear; peasant attacked nobles and destroyed their homes
The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
 The National Assembly abolished the privileges of the 1st and 2nd
Estates and adopted the Declaration of Rights; included many
enlightened ideas
 A Limited Monarchy
1791, National Assembly had written a constitution
 limited monarchy and a representative assembly
 All people had natural rights and that it was the job of the gov’t to
protect those rights
 Church under state control
 News would spread quickly throughout Europe – rulers and nobles
feared that revolutionary ideas would spread. Threatened to intervene
Radicals in Power
 1792, in order to fight tyranny and spread the revolution, France
declared war on Austria, Prussia, Britain, and other states
 War went badly for France
 1792, Radicals take power
 Ended the monarchy, and declared France a republic
 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
 Louis XVI executed
 Reign of Terror – led by Robespierre
 Thousands of people were executed (the guillotine)
 Moderates Return, 1795, the Directory, 5-man Directory held power
in France. Gov’t was weak and inefficient. Economic crisis returns
Rise of Napoleon
 1799, popular general
 Napoleon helped overthrow the Directory in a coup d’etat, or revolt
by military leaders
 He helped organize a new gov’t and put himself in charge
 Three years later, he took the title of Emperor of the French
 Had absolute power
 French people, hoping for stability, supported Napoleon
 Reforms by Napoleon
 Economy – controlled prices new industry, and infrastructure
 Education – public education system
 Napoleonic Code – enlightened ideals and religious toleration
Napoleon’s Empire
 1804 -1814 – ruled an empire, conquered much of Europe, replaced
monarchs of defeated nations with friends and relatives
 Britain and Russia remained Napoleon’s reach
Napoleon’s Fall from Grace and Power
 Conquered people looked on Napoleon’s armies as oppressors, which
inspired nationalism, people began to revolt against his armies
 Invasion of Russia (1812) – The “scorched earth” – Napoleon attacks
from the west and Russia moves further east, leaving behind burned
towns and crops; French troops starve and froze…most of his army was
lost during this long Russian winter
Napoleon’s Fall from Grace and Power
 Alliance between Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia defeated
Napoleon, forcing him to step down in 1814
 Napoleon returns to power in 1815, but the British and Prussians
defeated him at the decisive Battle of Waterloo; this ended Napoleon's
reign forever.
Effects of the French Revolution
 Democratic Ideals – Napoleon’s conquests spread the ideals of
democracy throughout Europe. Groups struggled to achieve the goals of
the French republic (“Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity”; people wanted
liberty from absolute monarchies and unjust governments.
Effects of the French Revolution
 Growth of Nationalism – inspired feelings of national pride and
unity; this lead to the emergence of identity replaced earlier loyalty to
local authority and the person who occupied the monarchy
 Nationalistic feeling across Europe and the world also emerged;
Napoleon’s conquests had a part in the eventual unification of both Italy
and Germany – the weakening of Spain led to the Latin American
independence movement
Latin American Movements
 late 1700s, Enlightenment and Revolutionary ideas spread from
Europe and the United States
 Educated Latin Americans read the works of Enlightened writers such
as Thomas Paine, Jefferson, and the National Assembly
 Their success showed that foreign rule could be thrown off
 Latin Americans were inspired by what the French Rev had
 Toussaint L’Ouverture – French colony Haiti, first Latin American
colony to revolt; led by L’Ouverture, a former slave, self-educated, led a
revolt; effective military leader and gained control of much of island.
1798, Haitian slaves win their freedom
Latin American Movements
 Simon Bolivar – educated Creole, led a resistance movement against
 Also an admirer of Enlightenment and the French Revolution
 Vowed to sight the rule of Spain; called “the Liberator”
 1810 – Bolivar began his struggle for independence
 Led a series of military campaigns that would win independence for
Venezuela, New Granada (Colombia), Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
 Had joined forces with Jose de San Martin, who had defeated Spain
and won independence for Argentina and Chile in 1810s
Simon Bolivar
Reaction Against Revolutionary Ideas
Key IDs
Congress of
Balance of
Cash crop
Porfirio Diaz
 The Congress of Vienna – after Napoleon’s defeat, European
diplomats met at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to devise a peace
 Their goal – to restore order and stability to Europe
Congress of Vienna
 Metternich of Austria, the dominant figure at the conference, wanted
to restore Europe to the way it was before the French Rev
 Alexander I of Russia wanted to create and alliance of Christian
monarch to suppress future revolutions
 Lord Castlereagh of England wanted to prevent France from
rebuilding its military forces
 Talleryrand of France wanted to obtain equal footing for France with
the rest of the nations
Congress of Vienna
 Balance of Power and Restored Monarchs
 Why the Congress of Vienna was a success
 mutual goals
 all wanted a balance of power
 Distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one
nation from becoming too strong
 All wanted to restore power to monarchs
 The Congress of Vienna was the first of many reactions in Europe
against the revolutionary ideas of the 1700s and 1800s
 A victory for Conservatism – those who wanted to preserve
traditional ways, which clashed with revolutionary ideals
New Revolutions in Europe
 The Congress of Vienna helped to maintain peace among nations for
almost 100 years – the operative word being peace
 Revolutions did occur though
 Revolutionaries opposed the Congress of Vienna, particularly,
attempts to restore Europe to the way it had been before the French Rev.
 Revolts – occurred in many places across Europe
 Causes – Liberalism, people opposed the power of monarchs and
sought democratic reform and Nationalism, people wanted
independent nation-states that were free from foreign rule
Revolution of 1830
 France – restoration of the Bourbons by the Congress of Vienna led to
attempts to restore absolutism; Bourbon monarch Charles X was
overthrown by a revolt and replaced by Louis Philippe
 Belgium – revolutionaries demanded independence from the Dutch,
Belgium would gain independence in 1831
 Italy – CoV (Congress of Vienna) divided Italy among several ruling
families, including those from France and Austria. 1830, revolutionaries
in northern Italy rose up to throw off foreign domination…they were put
down by Austrian troops
 Poland – most were under Russian control, 1830, nationalist in Poland
staged and uprising…they failed to gain widespread support
Revolution of 1848
 France – King Louis Philippe’s gov’t denounced as corrupt,
prompting another revolution in 1848; Louis steps down, and a republic
was established; upper and middle-class interests gained control of the
gov’t and violently put down a workers’ rebellion in Paris. The fighting
left bitter feelings b/t the working class and the middle class
 Austrian Empire – Students revolt, Metternich attempts to suppress;
Metternich resigns when workers rose up to support the students; Austria
agrees to certain reforms; Austrian army regains control and many
revolutionaries were imprisoned, executed, or sent into exile
Revolution of 1848
 Italy and Germany – Rebellions in Italy were successful for short
periods of time; Germany, student protestors who were backed by
peasants and workers demanded reforms. Assembly was formed, it
would be dissolved as the revolutionaries turned on each other
Impact of Revolutions
 1830 and 1848 revolutions frightened many of Europe’s rulers
 As a result, some agreed to reforms
 For the most part, the revolts of 1830 and 48 failed; why
 most revolutionaries did have widespread support
Revolutionaries themselves were divided
 Powerful gov’t forces often crushed the revolts
Absolutism in Russia
 Impact of the French Revolution, Russian Czars strove to keep the
ideals of the revolution (liberty, equality, fraternity) from reaching the
borders of Russia. Therefore, Russia changed very little
Political Conditions of Russia
 Feudal Society – rigid feudal social structures; landowning nobles
were the most powerful and resisted change; middle class was too small
to effect change; serfs were bound to the land, and the owners of the land
had total power over the serfs
 Freeing the Serfs – Crimean War (war with the Ottoman Empire), the
lost caused Russian leaders to realize they needed to modernize and
industrialize…demands for reforms and the end of serfdom
Political Conditions of Russia
 Alexander II, 1861, serfs were free, which brought problems; former
serfs had to purchase land that they worked and many were too poor to
do so. Many serfs moved off their land into the cities, where they took
jobs in industries.
 Russification – because of its size, Russia contained many ethnic
minorities. Czars aimed to maintain tight control over these people as
well as to encourage feelings of Russian unity. Russification was an
attempt to make all groups think, act, and believe as Russians.
 Alexander persecuted non-Russians
 One Church (Russian Orthodox Church)
 Persecuted Jews; pogroms – violent attacks on Jews
Instability in Latin America
 Early 1800s, Latin America had rid itself on Spanish control
 Independence led to revolts and civil wars broke out while poverty
and prejudice continued
 Geographic Barriers – Latin American countries covered a vast area,
from Mexico to the southern tip of South America; barriers included the
Andes Mtns, which hindered attempts at unification.
 Barriers often led to fights b/t various leaders and nationalistic
feelings within different groups.
Instability in Latin America
Social Injustice – Why democracy did not follow independence –
colonial class structure remained intact.
Creoles replaced peninsulares (Spanish born) as the ruling class
 Creoles maintained a tight grip on land and wealth
 Ruling power belonged to a small, powerful elite class, known as an
 Mestizos, mulattoes, Indians, and Africans gained few rights and
continued to face racial prejudice; most continued to work as peasants on
Mestizos – mixed race, Spanish and native
Mulattoes – mixed race, one white, one black
Instability in Latin America
 Military Rulers – Local military strongmen called caudillos,
organized their own armies and challenged central governments
 Some caudillos were strong enough to gain control of governments;
these dictators were often repressive, usually ignored existing
constitutions, and their policies usually favored the upper class
 Power of the Church – The Roman Catholic Church acted as a
stabilizing force; promoted education, but also had an interest in
preserving the old order
 Church continued to own large amounts of land
 Liberals hoped to end the Church’s power over educations and
Instability in Latin America
 Economic Problems – Latin American economies were dependent on
trade with Spain and Portugal
 Economies relied on a cash crop economy; cops such as sugar, cotton,
and coffee
 Dependence on a single or only a few crops created an unstable
economy – if a drought or crop failure were to occur, the economy would
be devastated
 Economic Imperialism – Influence of foreign investment; investment
in foreign economies and infrastructure
 Despite foreign investment, a rigid class structure limited economic
gains for the majority of society
The Mexican Revolution (1910-1930)
 Porfirio Diaz, dictator of Mexico during the late 1800s and early
 Brought economic advances to Mexico; however, the wealth remained
with the upper classes as well as foreign investors
 Under Diaz, suppressed opposition, most Mexicans uneducated,
landless, and poor.
 1910 – revolution to overthrow Diaz
 Key figures of the revolution
 Emiliano Zapata, Indian, led a peasant revolt
 Pancho Villa, rebel leaders, peasant loyalty; conflict would cross
the border into the U.S.; conflict with the U.S.
The Mexican Revolution (1910-1930)
 The Effects of the Revolution – Constitution of 1917; called for land
reforms, gov’t control of Church estates, and more rights to workers and
 Social Reforms – Mexico was Latin Americas first nation to achieve
social and economic reform; set up libraries and schools; some Indians
were able to regain their land
 Economic and Cultural Nationalism – Nationalistic spirit aimed at
ending dependency on foreigners; gov’t brought industries under gov’t
control, took over foreign-owned industries
 Cultural – reject the influences of Europe; began to take pride in Latin
American culture; Art became a medium to tell the story of their
Global Nationalism
Key IDs
Indian National
Muslim League
Young Turks
von Bismarck
Nationalism and Revolution
 Nationalism is a feeling of strong devotion to one’s country; develops
among people who share a common language and heritage
Unification Movements in Europe
 Italy – Ever since the Roman empire, Italy had been divided into
many small states
 Napoleon united several of the Italian states into the Kingdom of Italy
 Congress of Vienna redivided Italy and put much of it under Austrian
or Spanish control
 Giuseppe Mazzini, Camillo Cavour, and Giuseppe Garibaldi were
the leaders of the Italian nationalist movement
 Mazzini formed the Young Italy national movement in 1831
 Mazzini was exiled for his views
 Cavour, prime minister of the Italian state of Sardinia found
inspiration in Mazzini writings
Unification Movements in Europe
 Cavour formed an alliance with France and Prussia
 Used diplomacy and war to drive out the Austrians
 Garibaldi, soldier who led the forces that won control of southern Italy
and helped it to unite with the north
 1861, Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia was crowned king of a united
 Despite unification, with no tradition of unity, the new nation faced
conflicts – north vs. south; Catholic Church resisted the new gov’t
Unification Movements in Europe
 Germany – similar events as Italy; Napoleon influence; Congress of
Vienna; and Conservatism (Metternich)
 Rise of Prussia – 1830s, Prussia set up a trade union among German
states called the Zollverein; agreement ended trade barriers b/t states and
a major step towards unity
 Otto von Bismarck – Chancellor of Prussia; guided German
unification; NOT driven by a sense of nationalism; loyal to the Prussian
 Bismarck’s goal: make the Prussian king the ruler of a strong and
unified German state
Unification Movements in Europe
 Germany
 “Blood and Iron” – Bismarck believed the only way to unite was
through “blood and iron” – through war!
 Bismarck led Prussia into three wars, each war increased Prussia’s
prestige and closer to unity
 Danish War
 Austro-Prussian War
 Franco-Prussian War
 1871, the German states united under the Prussian king, William I –
Kaiser William – a name that came from Caesar, which meant emperor
 Nationalism led to an intensification of anti-Semitism
 More patriotic about their group, the more intolerant of those whom
they saw as outsiders, including Jews
 Pogroms in Russia is an example
 anti-Semitism grew in Europe
 Many Jews moved to Palestine
 Theodor Herzl called for Jews to establish their own state
 Herzl’s writing helped to build Zionism, the movement devoted to
building a Jewish state in Palestine
 1897, first world congress of Zionism – his dream, a independent
Nationalism in Asia
 India, since the 1700s, Britain maintained control
 Nationalistic idea began to grow through Indians educated in the West
 Indian students learned about democracy and natural rights – they
called for self-rule
 Indian National Congress – 1885, made up primarily of Hindu
professionals and business leaders
 Initially, called for equal opportunity to serve in the gov’t in India;
called for greater democracy and western-style modernization, looking
ahead to self-rule
Nationalism in Asia
 Muslim League – Muslim grew distrustful of the Indian National
Congress because it was mostly Hindu
 Increased strength of Hindu nationalism alarmed Muslims
 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to protect their own rights
 1800s, the multinational Ottoman empire faced challenges from the
various ethnic groups in the empire
 Young Turks – young liberals; wanted to strengthen the Ottoman
empire and end the threat of western imperialism
1908, they overthrew the sultan and took control of the gov’t
Nationalism in Asia
 The Armenian Massacre – The Young Turks supported Turkish
nationalism; abandoned traditional Ottoman tolerance of diverse cultures
and religions
 Muslims Turks turned against Christian Armenians who were
living in the Ottoman empire
 Accused the Armenians of plotting with Russia against the empire
 Turks massacred close to 1M Armenians over the 25 years
Nationalism and Conflict in the Balkans
 1800s, Ottomans still controlled much of the area, which was home to
many groups.
 Serbs
 Greeks
 Bulgarians
 Romanians
 Nationalist groups in the Balkans rebelled against foreign rule
 1829-1908, Greece, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria all
gained their independence
Nationalism and Conflict in the Balkans
 Europe now views the Ottoman empire as the “the sick man of
Europe” – they hoped to gain land from the empire
 Russia, Austria-Hungary, Britain, and France all entered into alliances
and wars that were designed to gain territory from the Ottomans
 Russia sponsored a nationalistic movement called Pan-Slavism –
based on the idea that all Slavic peoples shared a common nationality
 Serbia had a large Slavic population and was supported by Russia
Austria-Hungary takes control of two provinces that would have given
Serbia access to the Adriatic Sea
 Early 1900, the Balkans were the “powder keg if Europe”
 Stay tuned for WWI
Nationalism and Conflict in the Balkans
 Europe now views the Ottoman empire as the “the sick man of
Europe” – they hoped to gain land from the empire
 Russia, Austria-Hungary, Britain, and France all entered into alliances
and wars that were designed to gain territory from the Ottomans
 Russia sponsored a nationalistic movement called Pan-Slavism –
based on the idea that all Slavic peoples shared a common nationality
 Serbia had a large Slavic population and was supported by Russia
Austria-Hungary takes control of two provinces that would have given
Serbia access to the Adriatic Sea
 Early 1900, the Balkans were the “powder keg if Europe”
 Stay tuned for WWI
Economic and Social Revolutions
Key IDs
Laissez Faire
Adam Smith
Thomas Malthus
Karl Marx
The Agrarian Revolution
 In 1750, most people still lived in small villages and made their own
clothing and tools
Economic and Social Revolutions
The Agrarian Revolution
 Increased Food Production – the movement away from rural life
began with the Agrarian Revolution, a change in methods in farming
 technology – Dikes, fertilizer, new ways to produce more food, the
seed drill
 Enclosure Movement – fencing off land that once had been shared by
peasants farmers; replaced the many small strip farms with larger fields;
made farming more efficient, improving agricultural production
 Population Explosion – the Agrarian Rev led to rapid population
Economic and Social Revolutions
The Industrial Revolution
 1750s, shift from had tools to complex machines and from human and
animal power to steam power
 Causes of the Industrial Rev
 Began in Britain, Belgium, France, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.
 Geography – G.B. had plenty of coal and iron ore; natural harbors,
and rivers
 Population Growth led to more avail. Workers
 The enclosure movement required fewer workers
 People moved to the cities to work in the factories
 Capital – The British overseas empire had made the economy strong
and as a result, more capital to invest
Economic and Social Revolutions
The Industrial Revolution
 Causes of the Industrial Rev
 Energy and Technology – 1700s, people used giant water wheels to
power new machines; soon coal was used to power steam engines
Factory System and Mass Production
 Textile industry was the first to use the inventions of the Industrial Rev.
 Workers move to sheds that were owned by the manufactures
 Machines were larges and costly
 Sheds were the first factories
Economic and Social Revolutions
Factory System and Mass Production
 Laissez-Faire Economics – during the Enlightenment a new economic
theory emerged – laissez faire – businesses should operate with little or no
government interfernce
 Adam Smith – The Wealth of Nations – became the basis prevailing
economic system during the Industrial Rev.
 New Class Structure – the Industrial Rev. added more complexity to the
class system
 Upper Class – very rich industrial and business families
 Middle Class – business people and professionals
 Working Class – factory workers and peasants; harsh living and
working conditions in overcrowded cities
Economic and Social Revolutions
Urbanization – people moved from villages and farms to the cities where the
factories were located; lived in overcrowded buildings; without sewage or
sanitation system; garbage rotted in the streets; disease spread
 Working Conditions – long factory hours; men, women, and children
would work 12-16 hours a day; machines were dangerous
 Changing Social Roles – Farming– the family worked together; artisans
worked in their homes
 During the IR, middle-class men worked in businesses and gov’t
 Impact on family life – middle-class children had a high standard of
living; working class children had it rough; worked long hors to help
support the family
Economic and Social Revolutions
Factory System and Mass Production
 Urbanization – people moved from villages and farms to the cities where
the factories were located; lived in overcrowded buildings; without sewage
or sanitation system; garbage rotted in the streets; disease spread
 Working Conditions – long factory hours; men, women, and children
would work 12-16 hours a day; machines were dangerous
 Changing Social Roles – Farming– the family worked together; artisans
worked in their homes
 During the IR, middle-class men worked in businesses and gov’t
 Impact on family life – middle-class children had a high standard of
living; working class children had it rough; worked long hors to help
support the family
Economic and Social Revolutions
Competing Philosophies
 Liberalism – strong belief in individual right to liberty, equality, and
property. The main purpose of gov’t was to protect individual liberty; most
liberals accepted Smith’s laissez-faire ideas of economics
 Conservatism – beliefs held by classes who had been in power
previously – monarchs, nobles, and church leaders
 Wanted social and political structures to return to what had been
before the revolutionary movements
 Thomas Malthus – concluded that the poor would continue to suffer
as long as the population kept increasing; urged families to have fewer
Economic and Social Revolutions
 Social Darwinism – Using ideas of Thomas Malthus, Charles Darwin
argued that species naturally produced more offspring than the food supply
could support ; members of each species had to compete to survive; natural
forces selected the most able members, producing an improved species
 According to Social Darwinism – successful businesspeople were
successful because they were naturally more “fit” to succeed than others.
 War allowed stronger nations to week out the weaker ones
 Social Darwinism would play a role in racism
 Play a role in the development of Imperialism
Economic and Social Revolutions
 Social Reformism – Jeremy Bentham argued that the goal of society
should be the happiness of its people
 John Stuart Mills believed that gov’t should improve the lives of the
 Reform movements attempted to correct the abuses of child labor; trade
unions grew in power; worked for social reform
 Concentrated less on the interests and rights of individuals and more on
the interests of society; believed that industrial capitalism created a large
gap between rich and poor. Under socialism, farms and business would
belong to all the people, not to individuals
Economic and Social Revolutions
 Utopian
Socialism – Utopians sought to create self-sufficient
communities, where all property and work would be shared; all would have
equal wealth; fighting would end
Marxist Socialism
 Karl Marx – “scientific socialism, 1848, Marx and Friedrich Engels
penned the Communist Manifesto
 history was a class struggle b/t capitalists and the working class,
 Capitalists took advantage of the proletariat
 Proletariat would rise up to overthrow the capitalist system, creating
their own society
Economic and Social Revolutions
Marxist Socialism
 The proletariat society would take control of the means of production and
establish a classless, communist society, in which wealth and power would
be equally shared
 1900s, Soviet Union, Marx’s ideas would lead to a communist
dictatorship and a command economy, in which gov’t officials made all
economic decisions.
Japan and Meiji Restoration
Key Ids
Matthew Perry
Treaty of Kanagawa
Meiji Restoration
Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
The Opening of Japan
 1853, U.S. ships sailed into Edo Bay (Tokyo)…ended more than 200
years of Japanese isolation
 This Contact led to significant changes and had a huge impact of Japan
Japan and Meiji Restoration
Tokugawa Isolation
 Timeline
 1500s Europeans traders arrive
 1600s, Tokugawa shoguns take control
 Brought stability
 Banned contact with the outside world
 Limited trade with only the Dutch
Japan and Meiji Restoration
Commodore Matthew Perry
 1854, American warships, commanded by Perry sailed to Japan
 Perry presents letter from the President of the U.S. asking for Japan to
open its ports to trade
 Initially, Japan refuses
 Impressed by America’s show of strength, the shogun agreed to the
Japan and Meiji Restoration
Treaty of Kanagawa
 Ended Japan’s long period of isolation
 Open two ports to American ships
 Britain, Russia, and France would follow
 Many Japanese believed that the shogun had shown weakness
 Some Japanese believed that Japan needed to modernize in order to
compete with the West
 Rebellion to overthrow the shogun
 Restored power to the emperor , and launched Japan into a period of
modernization and industrialization
Japan and Meiji Restoration
Modernization and industrialization
 1867, daimyo and samurai led a rebellion that removed the Tokugawa
shogun from power
 1868, the emperor restored
 1868-1912 is known as the Meiji Restoration
 Meiji – “enlightened rule”
 During this period, the emperor implemented a series of reforms that
changed Japans forever
Japan and Meiji Restoration
Western Influence
 Goal – to strengthen Japan against the West
 Government officials traveled to the west to learn about gov’t,
economics, technology, and customs
Economic Development
 The Meiji gov’t used western methods and machinery to develop and
industrial economy
 Built factories and sold them to wealthy families – known as Zaibatsu
 Gov’t developed banking and postal system; built railroads and improved
 By 1890, economy flourished and peasant move to the cites
Japan and Meiji Restoration
Strong Central Government
 Modeled their gov’t after Germany
 Constitution gave the emperor autocratic power
 Created a two-house legislature; only one house was elected and suffrage
was limited
Military Power
 1890, Japan had a modern army and strong navy
 All men had to enter military service
 Would prove victorious in battle against China and Russia
Japan and Meiji Restoration
Japan as a Global Power
 Japan used its industrial and military strength to begin a policy of
 Sought colonies and sources for raw materials
 Colonies were gained through war
Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)
 1894, war with China
 Japan quickly won
 Gained Formosa (Taiwan) and ports in China
 Made Korea a Japanese protectorate
Japan and Meiji Restoration
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
 War with Russia
 Conflicting interest over Korea
 Japan’s modern military crushed Russia
 1910, Japan had complete control of Korean and parts of Manchuria
Dependence of a World Market
 Industrialization forced Japan to become dependent of trade
 Japan – an island empire with few natural resources
 Relied on foreign trade for resources
Key IDs
Sepoy Mutiny
Boer War
Opium War
Treaty of Nanjing
Sphere of Influence
Taiping Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
Sun Yet Sen
What is Imperialism?
 The domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life
of another country
 Old Imperialism – 1500-1800
 European nations established colonies in the Americas, India, and SE
 Gained territory on the coasts of Africa and China
 New Imperialism – 1870-1914
 Rise of nationalism
 Newly industrialized nations made economies stronger
 Nations interested in expanding into other lands
 Focused mainly in Asia and Africa, where declining empires and local
wars left many states vulnerable
Causes for Imperialism
 Nationalism and Darwinism
 Nationalism promoted the idea of national superiority
 Believed they had a right to take control of countries viewed weaker
 Social Darwinism – it was natural rights for stronger nation to
dominate weaker ones
 Military Motives
 Linked to Nationalism
 Use of military to promote a nation’s goals
 Colonies were important as bases for resupply of ships
 A nation with many colonies had power and security
Causes for Imperialism
 Economic Motives
 Need for raw materials
 Need for additional markets to sell goods
 Need for a place to invest their profits
 White Man’s Burden
 Rudyard Kipling’s poem, “White Man’s Burden”
 Justification for imperialism
 White imperialists had a moral duty to educate people in nations they
considered less developed
 Missionaries spread western ideas, customs, and religion
British in India
 British East India Company
 Established trading rights in India in the early 1600s
Mid-1800s, decline of the Mughal empire and the defeat of French
rivals, British East India Company controlled 3/5 of India
 Company employed Indian soldiers, called Sepoys
British in India
The Sepoy Mutiny
 1857, tensions rose
 Britain asked Indians to follow rules against their religious beliefs
 The Rebellion called for Hindus and Muslims to revolt
 Britain crushed the revolt
 Left bitter feeling
 Caused Britain to change their policies
 1858, Parliament ended the rule of the East India Company
 British gov’t takes complete control of India
Scramble for Africa
 1870, King Leopold of Belgium sent a mission to the interior of Africa
 Established trade agreements with the leaders of the Congo
 The Congo sets off a scramble among other European nations to establish
their presence on the continent
 The Berlin Conference
 1884, European nations idea to avoid conflict among themselves
 Rules for colonizing Africa
 Divided Africa
 1850, most of Africa had been free – 70 years later, most of Africa
was under European control
The Battle of Southern Africa
 The Zulu Empire
 Early 1800s – Shaka, organized Zulu warriors into a fighting force
 Shaka used his power against European slave traders and ivory hunters
 Through conquest of other African groups, Shaka united the Zulu nation
Arrival of the Europeans
 Mid-1600s, Dutch farmers, called Boers, settled southern Africa
 Built Cape Town
 1700s, began to move north
 Fought African groups, including the Zulus
 Early 1800s - Britain acquires the Cape Colony for the Dutch
The Battle of Southern Africa
 The Zulu Nations Fights Back
 Boers, resenting British rule, migrated north during the 1830s
 Came into conflict with Zulus
 Fighting would continue until late in the century
 Zulus conflict with Britain
 Zulus experience victory in 1879
 Superior weapons of the British would eventually crush Zulu
The Battle of Southern Africa
 The Boer War
Cecil Rhodes became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony
 Britain expands its control of southern Africa
 Late 1800s, Britain annexes the Boer republic
 The Boer resists – The Boer War(1899-1902)
 The British win
 1910, Britain combines the Boer Republics with Cape Colony to
form the Union of South Africa
The Battle of Southern Africa
 Anti-Slave Legislation
 Prior to the scramble, most European nations had abolished slave
 Denmark 1803
 Britain 1807
 France 1818
 Illegal slave-trading continued throughout the 1800s
Imperialism in China
 The Opium War
 British merchants began to trade opium in China in the late 1700s
 China tried to halt imports of the addictive drug
 1839, Britain fought to China (The Opium War) to keep trade open
 Military superiority – Britain wins!
 Treaty of Nanjing
 1842, China forced to agree to the harsh terms of the treaty
 China had to pay Britain’s war costs; open ports to Britain, give
Britain the island of Hong Kong
Imperialism in China
 Treaty of Nanjing
 Extraterritoriality – the right British citizens living in China to
live under their own laws and be tried in their own courts
 Forced China to sign unequal treaties
 Western powers carved out spheres of influence, areas in which
an outside power claimed exclusive trade privileges
Imperialism in China
 China Resists
 The Taiping Rebellion
 1850-1864 – Chinese peasant, angry at their poverty and at corrupt
Qing officials, rose up in revolt
 The Taiping Rebellion resulted in millions of Chinese deaths and
weakened China
 The Boxer Rebellion
 1900, Chinese assaulted foreign communities across China
 The West and Japan crushed the uprising; forced China to grant more
concessions to foreign powers
Imperialism in China
 China Resists
 The Boxer Rebellion
 After this defeat, many Chinese called for western-style reforms
 Sun Yet Sen and the Chinese Revolution
 Reformer
Imperialism in China
 China Resists
 The Boxer Rebellion
 Father of Modern China
 Chinese nationalism
 Led movement to replace the Qing Dynasty
 Goals: end foreign domination; forma a representative gov’t, to
create economic security to the Chinese
 1911, workers, peasants, students, and warlords toppled the
monarchy, Sun Yet Sen was named president of the Chinese Republic.
The Effects on the Colonies
 Short-term
 Large numbers of Asians and Africans came under foreign control
 Local economies became dependent on industrialized power
 Nations introduced changes to meet imperialist challenges
 Indiv. And groups resisted
 Western culture spread
 Traditional political units were disrupted or destroyed
 Famines occurred in lands where farmers grew export crops for new
imperialist nations in place of food for local use
The Effects on the Colonies
 Long-term
 Western culture continued to influence
 Transportation, education, and medical care were improved
 Resistance to imperial rule evolved into nationalist movements
 Many economies became based on single cash crops grown for export
 Effects on Europe and the World
 Discovered new crops, foods, and other products
 Introduced to new cultural influence
 Competition for empire created conflict..led to war
 The industrial nations controlled a new global economy
Part Six
Crises and Achievements
Scientific and Technological Advancements
Key IDs
Louis Pasteur
Marie Curie
Albert Einstein
Sigmund Freud
Thomas Edison
Germ Theory
 1800s and early 1900s, medical discoveries would revolutionize the
field of medicine
 Improve health care
 Increase in human life expectancy
Scientific and Technological Advancements
 Germ Theory – Prior to the mid-1800s, the cause of disease was still
 Late 1800s, scientist were making great progress in this area
 Louis Pasteur – 1870s, Pasteur made two important discoveries
 The link between germs and disease
 Proved that killing certain germs stops the spread of certain
 Robert Koch – discovered the bacteria that cause tuberculosis
 Koch and Pasteur – established the germ theory of disease, the idea
that many disease are caused by microorganisms; people washed more
often and made other lifestyle changes to limit the spread of disease
Scientific and Technological Advancements
 Antibiotics – Another turning point in the field of medicine
 1928 – A mold called Penicillium killed germs
 This discovery paved the way for the development of drugs called
 Antibiotics – attacked or weakened the bacteria that caused many
 Antibiotics would become a standard of healthcare by the 1940s
Improved Standard of Living
 Better Wages and Working Conditions – late 1800s, labor unions
became legal in most countries of Europe
 Unions, reformers, and working-class voters pushed for better
working conditions and higher wages
 Wages improved, people ate better, lived a cleaner life, and lived in
safer homes
 Reform laws regulated working conditions and provided social
benefits to the elderly and unemployed
Improved Standard of Living
 Better Housing – Late 1800s and early 1900s, city governments paved
their streets, making cities a better place to live
 Housing improved
 Steel now used to construct taller and stronger buildings
 Improved Sanitation – Underground sewage = healthier cities
 Waste no longer ran through the streets, spreading disease and
polluting drinking water
 Death rates were dramatically reduced
New Inventions
 Electricity – Early 1800s, small amounts of electricity discovered
 Dynamo – enabled the generation of large amounts of electricity
 1879, Thomas Edison – developed the first practical light bulb
 Soon cities had electric street lights
 1890s, Factories were powered by electricity
 Homes were able to run appliances
 Telephone – 1876 Alexander Graham Bell
 Radio – 1895, wireless communication
 The Automobile – Late 1870s
 The Airplane – The Wright Brothers (1903)
Population Explosion
 Population Exploded because:
 Technology made life healthier, safer, and easier
 Fewer children died
 Life expectancy increased
New Scientific Theories
 Marie Curie – experimented with radioactivity, energy released by
certain substances
 Discovered radium and polonium – had a huge effect on fields such as
energy production, medicine, and military technology
Population Explosion
 Einstein – Theory of Relativity
 space and time measurements are not absolute, but are determined
many factors that are unknown
 Caused people to question the common view of the universe as a
machine that worked by easily understood laws
 Freud – the human mind – believed that a part of the mind, which he
called the unconscious, drives much of human behavior
 Believed tension between the drives of the unconscious mind and the
demands of a civilized society caused psychological and physical illness
 Developed a new method to treat mental illness
World War I
Key IDs
Allied Powers
Total War
Central Powers
World War I
 Nationalism – Early 1900s, aggressive nationalism was a source of
tension throughout Europe
 Germany and France
 Strong in both nations
 Germany now unified and proud of its growing military and
industrial growth
 France was looking to regain its position as a leading European
 Lost the Franco-Prussian War in 1871; wanted revenge
 Lost the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine
World War I
 Pan-Slavism
 Russia had encourage a form of nationalism in Eastern Europe
called Pan-Slavism – movement to draw together all Slavic people
 Russia was the largest Slavic country
 Ready to defend Serbia, a nation located in the Balkans
 Within the Balkans, all small Slavic populations lloked to Russia
for leadership in their desire for unity
 Austria-Hungary, multinational empire, opposed Slavic national
World War I
 Militarism
 The buildup of military power in Europe led to fear and suspicion by
many nations
 Nations became more willing to use military force to attain their
national goals
 Arms Race – race to expand navies and armies
 Fierce rivalry between Germany and Britain
World War I
 Imperialism
 European nations competed for colonies and economic power
 France and Germany competed for gain in Africa
 Britain and Germany competed industrially
 Germany had industrialized rapidly and Britain felt threatened
 Threatened by Germany, Britain and France began to form close ties
with each other
World War I
 Alliance System
 Increased tensions and suspicions led nations to form alliances
 Nations agreed to defend each other in case of attack
 Triple Alliance and Triple Entente – 1914
 Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
 Triple Entente – Britain, France, and Russia
World War I
 Decline of the Ottoman Empire
 In addition to M.A.I.N., other situations also set the stage for war
 The Sick Man of Europe – The Ottoman Empire had become weak
 Britain relations with the Empire had become strained
 Germany develops a relationship with the Empire
Genocide – The Armenian Massacres (1890s)
 Rivalry between Turkey and Russia
 Muslim Turks distrusted the Christian Armenians, believing they
supported Russian again the Ottoman Empire
World War I
 Decline of the Ottoman Empire
 Genocide – The Armenian Massacres
 Armenians protested oppressive Ottoman policies
 Turks massacred millions Armenians over the next 25 years
 The Balkan Powder Keg
 Ottoman control over the Balkans weakens
 Serbia declares its independence, hoping to build a Slavic State
 Serbia wanted control of Bosnia and Herzegovina, two provinces
that would give landlocked Serbia access to the Adriatic Sea;
Ottoman provinces and administered by Austria-Hungary
World War I
 Decline of the Ottoman Empire
 The Balkan Powder Keg
 Austria-Hungary opposed Serbian ambitions
 Feared that the same kind of nationalism would spread to its own
multinational empire
 Austria-Hungary feared Russian expansion
 1912, Serbia attacked the Ottoman Empire
 All of Europe were interested in gaining land from the crumbling
Ottoman Empire
 1914, any spark in the Balkan (the powder keg) could lead to war
World War I
War Begins
 The Balkan Crisis – World War I began in the Balkans
 June 28, 1914, Archduke Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne
assassinated in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia.
 Gavrilo Princip, member of a radical Slavic nationalist group that
opposed Austrian rule, shit and killed the archduke and his wife
World War I
War Begins
 Chain Reaction
 After the assassination, the major nations of Europe responded
 Each hostile action led to another hostile action
 Austria-Hungary blames Serbia
 Serbia refuses to comply with Austrian demands
 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
 Russia, a Slavic nation, mobilizes to prepare for war
 Germany, ally of Austria-Hungary, declared war on Russia
 Germany declared war on France, an ally of Russia
 Germany invades Belgium
 Britain declared war on Germany
World War I
Central Powers and Allied Powers
 Central Powers -- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman
 Allied Powers – Britain, France, and Russia
 Italy remain neutral, but it eventually joined the Allies
 U.S. would also join the allies
World War I
Central Powers and Allied Powers
 Three Major Fronts
 The Western Front – extended across Belgium and northeastern
France to the border of Switzerland
 Eastern Front – From the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea
 Southern Front – Between Italy and Austria-Hungary
 Fighting also took place in Africa and the Middle East
The Dual Alliance
Germany and Austria-Hungary
made an alliance to protect
themselves from Russia
Triple Entente (no separate
Britain, Russia and France
agreed not to sign for peace
Triple Entente
This was made between Russia,
France and Britain to counter the
increasing threat from Germany.
Austro-Serbian Alliance
The Triple Alliance
Germany and Austria- Hungary
Austria-Hungary made an alliance
made an alliance with Italy to
with Serbia to stop Russia gaining
stop Italy from taking sides with
control of Serbia
Franco-Russian Alliance
A Path towards
Friendship or War
Anglo-Russian Entente
This was an agreement between
Britain and Russia
Russia formed an alliance with
France to protect herself
against Germany and AustriaHungary
Entente Cordiale
This was an agreement, but not
a formal alliance, between
France and Britain.
World War I
An Industrialized War
 WWI – a war between industrialized powers
 New technology made this war an enormously destructive one
 Dynamite, invented in 1867 would become a popular weapon
 The airplane, and communication devices were also put to use
 The submarine; the tank; poison gas; the machine gun
Trench Warfare – The Western Front, a 600-mile stretch
 Troops dug trenches along the front
 Very little ground was gained by wither side
 Many soldiers were killed
World War I
Civilian Life and Total War
 The war was fought at home as well as on the battlefield – a total war
 In a total war, all of a nation’s resources go into the war effort
 The Draft
 Raised Taxes and borrowed money
 Rationed or limited the supply of goods at home so that the
military could be provided for
 Use of the press to print propaganda, the spreading of ideas to
promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause
 Women join the war effort at home, the factory, and the front
World War I
Turning Points
 Entry of the U.S. in 1917
 Germany used unrestricted submarine warfare, meaning it
attacked any ships on the Atlantic
 This policy carved the way for U.S. entry
 Russian Withdrawal
 Low morale contributed to a revolution in 1917
 1918, Russia signs a treaty with Germany that took Russia out of
the war
World War I
Costs of War
 1918, an armistice, or an agreement to end the fighting was declared
 The costs were enormous
 8.5M+ had died
 17M+ soldiers had been wounded
 Famine threatened many regions
 Disease was widespread
 Factories, farms, and homes destroyed
 Nations had huge war debts to repay
 Reparations – the Allies, bitter as the destruction, insisted that the
Central Powers had to make reparations, payments for the damage
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
Key IDs
Vladimir Lenin
New Economic Policy
Joseph Stalin
Totalitarian State
Command Economy
Five-Year Plan
 Long-Term Causes
 Late 1800s- Early 1900s, discontent grew as Russian czars resisted
needed reform
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Czarist Rule
 Late 1800s, Alexander III and his son, Nicolas II, sought to
industrialize the country and build Russia’s economic strength
 Wanted to import Western ideas
 Wanted to prevent French Revolution ideas from leaking in
 Russian liberals called for a constitution and reforms that would
eliminate corruption in gov’t
 Czars used harsh tactics to suppress reform (secret police)
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Peasant Unrest
 Landowning nobles, priests, and an autocratic czar dominated society
 Peasants (a small middle class) was prevented from gaining power
 Peasants were poor to buy land, did not have enough food to feed
their families
 Opposed industrialization because they feared the changes it brought
and preferred the old ways
 Some peasant moved to the cities and worked in factories
 Worked long hours, low pay
 It was these workers that socialist spread ideas about revolution and
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Diversity and Nationalism
 Russia ruled a vast and diverse empire
 Many different ethnic minorities
 Czars maintained strict control over these groups
 Russification – czars attempted to make all in their empire to think,
act, and believe as Russians
 Ethnic minorities did want their native cultures destroyed
 Pockets of nationalism remained
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Revolution of 1905
 Jan. 22, 1905, a march occurred in St. Petersburg
 Peaceful marchers hoped to influence the czar for reform
 Nicolas II calls in the soldiers
 “Bloody Sunday” -- Many marchers were killed; destroyed the
people’s faith and trust in the czar
 Strikes and revolts exploded across Russia’s cities and countryside
 Nicolas made some changes; agreed to reforms and promised to
grant more rights, such as freedom of speech
 Duma, elected national legislature; had limited powers and did
little to relieve peasant and worker discontent
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 WWI and the end of Czarist Rule
 Nation in Chaos; little industry; not ready to fight a modern war
 Russian soldiers lacked adequate weapons and supplies
 Suffered a series of battlefield defeats
 Food was scarce
 Many soldiers lost confidence in Russia’s military leadership and
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 WWI and the end of Czarist Rule
 The March Revolution
 1917, military defeats and shortages of food, fuel, and housing in
Russia sparked a revolt
 St. Petersburg, rioters demanded bread
 Czar’s soldiers sympathized with the demonstrators and refused to
fire on them
 Car forced to abdicate his rule in March of 1917
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Failure of the Provisional Government
 Duma officials set up a provisional gov’t
 Middle-class liberals planned to write a constitution and promised
democratic reforms
 Provisional gov’t continued the war against Germany – an
unpopular decision that drained resources and men
 New gov’t implemented only moderate reforms that did little to
end unrest among peasants and workers
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Bolshevik Revolution
 Provisional gov’t unable to effect change led revolutionary
socialists to plot further actions
 Established soviets, or councils of workers and soldiers in Russian
 Vladimir Lenin gains support -- exiled Russian revolutionary
returned home
 Lenin and Leon Trotsky headed a socialist party, the Bolsheviks
 Followed the ideas of Karl Marx, adapted them to the Russian
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Bolshevik Revolution
 Marx said that the urban workers would rise on their own to
overthrow the capitalist system
 Russia lacked a large working class
 Lenin suggested that an elite group of reformers – the Bolsheviks –
would guide the revolution
 Lenin gained the support of the people by making promises of
“Peace, Land, and Bread.”
 The Bolsheviks promised an end to Russia’s involvement in the war
 Promised land reform and an end to the food shortages
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Bolshevik Revolution
 Lenin Takes Control
 Nov. 1917, Bolsheviks soldiers, sailors, and factory workers in an
uprising that overthrew the government (provisional gov’t)
 Bolsheviks called on the Communists
 Distributed land to the peasants and gave workers control of the
factories and mines
 Communists still faced a struggle to maintain control over Russia
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Russia withdrawals from WWI
 March 1918, Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litosk
 Agreement was costly, Russian had to give a large amount of
Russian territory
 Lenin believed he had to reach an agreement with Germany at any
price so he could deal with the enemies at home
 Civil War
 1918-1921, Lenin’s Red Army battled against forces loyal to the
czar, called the Whites
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Civil War
 1918-1921, Lenin’s Red Army battled against forces loyal to the
czar, called the Whites
 Nationalist groups also rose up against the Red Army, winning
independence for Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland
 Brutal tactics used by both sides; The Whites slaughtered
Communists and tried to assassinate Lenin
 Communists employed a secret police force to root out enemies
 They executed thousands who were suspected of opposing the
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Civil War
 The Communist executed Czar Nicolas II – eliminated a rallying
 Britain, France, and U.S. sent troops to help the Whites
 This foreign intervention stirred Russian nationalism
 The Red Army defeated its enemies by 1921
One-Party Government
 The communist party, not the people had the power
 The Communist Party was the only legal party
 Enforced its rule through military and a secret police force
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 New Economic Policy
 During the Civil War, the Bolsheviks had taken over banks, mines,
factories, and railroads; resulted in an economic disaster
 1921, Lenin adopted the New Economic Policy – the gov’t still
controlled banks, large industry, and foreign trade
 Some privately owned businesses were allowed – these helped the
economy recover
 The Soviet Union – 1922 – The Communists gained control over
much of the old Russian empire; created the Union of the Soviet
Socialist Republic (USSR); made up of diverse European and Asian
peoples; controlled the other states in the Soviet Union
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Joseph Stalin
 Lenin dies in 1924
 Stalin emerged as the new leader
 Ruled through terror and brutality
 The Great Purge – Stalin accused thousands of people of crimes
against the gov’t; many were executed; others were exiled or sent to
prison camps
 For the next 20 years, Stalin pursued ruthless policies that created a
totalitarian state in the Soviet Union
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Joseph Stalin
 Totalitarian Rule – a one-party dictatorship attempts to regulate
every aspect of the lives of its citizens
 Russification – Stalin, a strong Russian nationalist; began to create
a Russian ruling elite throughout the Soviet Union
 Promoted Russian history, language, and culture
 Appointed Russians to key posts in the gov’t and secret police
 Redrew boundaries of many republics to ensure that nonRussians would not gain a majority
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Joseph Stalin
 A Command Economy – gov’t officials made all basic economic
decisions; under Stalin, the gov’t controlled all factories, businesses,
and farms
 Industrialization – to make the Soviet Union strong by turning it
into a modern industrial power
 1928 – launched the first of a series of five-year plans to rebuild
industry and increase farm output
 Emphasis placed on heavy industry; consumer goods were
 Oil, coal, steel, mining, and military goods increased
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Joseph Stalin
 Collectivization – forced peasants to give up their small farms and live
on state-owned farms (collectives); large farms owned and operated by
peasants as a group
 They owned all farm animals and equipment
 Gov’t controlled prices and farm supplies and set production quotas
 Stalin's collective plan was to grow enough grain for the workers in the
cities and to produce surplus to sell abroad
 Many peasants resisted collectivization – Stalin crushed all that
opposed him
 Seized farms of those who resisted; set farmers to prison camps, or
Revolution in Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution
 Joseph Stalin
 Forced Famine – The results of Stalin’s policies were devastating
 Peasants continued to resist by growing just enough grain to feed
 Gov’t seized all the grain of some of those communities
 Mass starvation resulted
 In the Ukraine alone, more than 5M people died from starvation;
millions more throughout the Soviet Union
The Interwar Period
Key IDs
Treaty of
Adolf Hitler
League of
Reza Khan
The Interwar Period
Treaty of Versailles
 Jan. 1919, victorious Allied gather to work out terms of peace
 The “Big Three” --U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, Prime Minister
David Lloyd George of England, and French leader Georges Clemenceau
 Wilson stressed self-determination, by which people would choose
their own gov’t
 Wilson hoped to create a world organization that would guarantee
peace in the future.
The Interwar Period
Treaty of Versailles
 Britain and France wanted to punish Germany and be sure that it
would never again become a threat
 Harsh Provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
 Territorial Losses – land taken from Germany; some used to help
create Poland; Alsace and Lorraine returned to France; Germany lost
many overseas colonies
 Military Restrictions – Germany’s army and navy were limited;
Germany had to remove its troops from the Rhineland, and industrial
area along the French border
The Interwar Period
Treaty of Versailles
 Harsh Provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
 War Guilt Clause – Germany had to accept full responsibility for
the war and pay huge reparations to help undo war damage;
accepting the blame and paying the reparations caused bitterness in
The League of Nations
 Group of 40 countries that hoped to settle problems through
negotiations, not war
 Wilson’s idea, U.S. never joins – many Americans were afraid that
participation would drag the U.S. into future European wars
The Interwar Period
Collapse of Empires
 WWI caused the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman
 New nations were carved out of their former territories
 Breakup of Austria-Hungary – new nations created; Austria and
Hungary became independent nations; Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia,
two multinational states, were formed; Italy and Romania gained land
The Interwar Period
Collapse of Empires
 Breakup of the Ottoman Empire – Most Arab lands of the Ottoman
empire were placed under Britain and French control
 In theory, these countries were being prepared for selfdetermination.
 In practice, the Allies added to their own overseas empires by
creating a system of territories administered by western powers
 The remainder of the empire became Turkey
The Interwar Period
Unfulfilled Goals
 Germany was horrified by the terms of the Treaty
 Italy had hoped to gain more land than it received
Japan was angry because the Allies did not recognize its claims in
 China was angry that Japan had been given control over former
German possessions in China
 Russia was angry over the reestablishment of Poland and the creation
of independent Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania on lands that been part of
the Russian empire
The Interwar Period
National Movements -- Turkey
 The spirit of nationalism continued after WWI
 Turkish Nationalism – Kemal Ataturk (“Father of Turkey”); war
hero; led a Turkish nationalist movement to overthrow the sultan,
defeated western forces, and declared Turkey a republic
 Westernization and Modernization of Turkey
 Ataturk believed that Turkey had to change to survive
 Islamic law was replaced with a new law code, based on European
The Interwar Period
National Movements -- Turkey
 Westernization and Modernization of Turkey
 Ataturk believed that Turkey had to change to survive
 Muslim calendar was replaced with the western (Christian) one
 People were required to wear western dress
 State schools were set up
 Arabic script was replaced with the western (Latin) alphabet
 Women no longer had to wear veils and allowed to vote; allowed
to work outside their homes
 Built roads, railroads, and factories
The Interwar Period
National Movements -- Iran
 British and the Russians had carved out spheres of influence
 1925, Reza Khan overthrew the ruler of Iran, called the shah
 Established his own dynasty and proclaimed himself shah
 Quickly tried to modernize
 Factories, roads, and railroads
 Western alphabet and dress were adopted
 Secular schools established
 Islamic law replaced by secular law
 Women took on a larger role
 Khan had the support of wealthy urban Iranians but not Muslim leaders
The Interwar Period
Arab Nationalism
 During the war, many Arabs had been promised independence for
their help
 After the war, Britain and France divided up the Ottoman lands
 Established mandates, territories administered by European powers
 France had mandates in Syria and Lebanon
 Britain had mandates in Palestine and Iraq
 1920s and 1930s, Arab nationalists sought to be free of foreign control
 Arab Nationalism gave rise to Pan-Arabism – unity of all Arab
people based on a shared heritage
The Interwar Period
 Jewish people wanted to establish a Jewish state in Palestine
 Complex problem – Arab people already living there
 Conflicting problem – Allies promised Arabs land that included
Palestine; they had promised to set up a Jewish state in the same region
More Jews moved to Palestine to escape persecution in the 1930s,
tensions grew
The Interwar Period
Indian Nationalism
 Indians had few right before and during the war
 Britain had promised India greater self-government; Britain failed to
fulfill these promises
 The Amritsar Massacre – 1919, British troops fired on a group of
Indian protestors without warning; killing 400 people; the incident
convinced many Indians that British rule must end.
 Mohandas Gandhi – taught nonviolent resistance and civil
disobedience, the refusal to obey unjust laws, rather than bloodshed,
were the way to win rights.
The Interwar Period
Indian Nationalism
 Gandhi used tactics such as boycotting, or refusing to buy , British
 Embraced western ideas of democracy and nationalism
 Rejected the caste system and urged equal rights for all, including
 India did not achieve independence until 1947, one year before
Gandhi’s death
The Interwar Period
China Nationalism
 Rival warlords attempted to take control of China
 Economy collapsed
 Peasants faced great economic hardship
 Foreign powers – especially Japan – increased their influence
 Rival Groups in China
 May 4th Movement – student movement; wanted to make China
stronger through modernization; turned to ideas such as democracy
and nationalism
The Interwar Period
China Nationalism
 Rival Groups in China
 Communists – some Chinese turned to the ideas of Marx and
Lenin. A Chinese Communist party was formed
 Nationalists – Sun Yet Sin formed a nationalist party, the
Guomindang. Chiang Kai-Shek took over after the death of Sun
 Civil War – Initially, Nationalist and Communist worked together to
unite China. Over time, Chiang saw the Communist as a threat
 Civil War began between the Nationalism and the Communists
that would last for 22 years.
The Interwar Period
The Lost Generation
 WWI produced disquiet in social as well as political arena
 The war had shaken many people’s long-held beliefs; left scars on
those who survived it
 Writers, artists and musicians throughout the 1920s and 1930s
expressed a loss of hope, rejecting former rules and moral values – these
individuals became known as the “Lost Generation”
 Writers such as Ernest Hemingway expressed loss of faith in western
 Artists expressed their feelings of loss of meaning, they experimented
with color and distorted shapes
The Interwar Period
The Women’s Movement
 Mid-1800s, women begun to demand greater rights; property rights
and suffrage
 1918, Britain, granted women the right to vote
 1918, the 19th amendment, U.S., gave women the right to vote
The Interwar Period
Worldwide Depression
 After WWI, economic problem emerged throughout Europe
 Soldiers returning home needed jobs
 Nations was war debts to pay and cities to rebuild
 In the decade following the war, nations began a shaky recovery
 Middle-class families realized a rising standard of living
 After the war, the U.S. experienced an economic boom
 U.S. became the world’s economic leader
 1929, American Stock Market crashed
 The Great Depression of the 1930s was a time of global economic
The Interwar Period
Worldwide Depression
 Causes of the Depression
 Weaknesses in the economies of the U.S. and other nations led to
the Great Depression
 Less demand for raw materials – the war increased this demand,
after the war, demand was less
 Overproduction of Manufactured Goods – workers had won high
wages, which increased the price of goods; farmers and other people
couldn’t afford the prices; factories kept producing
 Stock Market Crash – stocks purchased on margin (paid only a
part of the cost and borrowed the rest)
The Interwar Period
Worldwide Depression
 Impact of the Depression
Banks and businesses closed, putting millions out of work and
drastically decreasing production of goods
 Millions came to rely on soup kitchens as a source for food
 Countries raised tariffs to protect their own markets, causing a
decline in global trade
 People lose faith in democracy and capitalism
 Communists celebrated what they saw as the failure of capitalism
 Strong leaders supported intense nationalism, militarism, and a
return to authoritarian rule
The Interwar Period
Worldwide Depression
Industrial Unemployment Rates
The Interwar Period
Rise of Fascism
 Rise of dictators
 Strong leaders in Italy and Germany promised solutions
 Fascism – rule of a people by dictatorial gov’t that is nationalistic and
imperialistic; anti-communist
 Mussolini in Italy – war veterans couldn’t find jobs, trade was slow,
taxes were high, workers went of strike
 Mussolini promised to end unemployment and gain more land for
 Vowed to outlaw rebellion among workers and end all threats of
The Interwar Period
Rise of Fascism
 Mussolini in Italy –
 Fascist used force and terror to gain control of Italy
 Ended free elections, free speech, and free press
Killed or jailed their enemies
 Italians put the goals of the state above their individual rights
The Interwar Period
Rise of Fascism
 Hitler in Germany --
 The Weimar Republic – After the war, the Kaiser stepped down;
Germany was in chaos; new democratic gov’t (Weimar Republic)
was politically weak
 Inflation created major economic problems
 Troubles of the nation led to the rise of the Nazi Party
The Interwar Period
Rise of Fascism
 Hitler in Germany --
 Adolf Hitler promised to provide jobs and rebuild German pride
 Stated that Germans were a superior race who were destined to
build a new empire
 The Nazi Party – the Workers Party
 1933, Hitler appointed Chancellor
The Interwar Period
Rise of Fascism
 Hitler’s Germany, called the Third Reich – a totalitarian state
 Built a one-party gov’t
 Ended civil rights, silenced his enemies with force, business under
gov’t control, employed many people in large public works programs,
standard of living increased, rearmed Germany and rebuilt the military
 Believed Jews were the cause of Germany’s problems (anti-Semitic
policies); used propaganda to push these policies; boycotting Jewish
businesses and selling them to non-Jews
 The Nuremburg Laws of 1935 – took away the political rights and
German citizenship of Jews
The Interwar Period
Rise of Japan
 1920s, Japan moved toward greater democracy
 The Great Depression gave rise to militarists and extreme nationalists
 Unhappiness over loss of traditions
 High Unemployment
 Poverty of peasants
 Renewed expansion and efforts to control China
World War II
Key IDs
Bataan Death
Pearl Harbor
De Gaulle
World War II
Causes Of The War
 1930s, Italy, Germany, and Japan sought to build new empires
 League of Nations was weak
 Western countries recovering from the Great Depression and did not
want any more war
 Acts of aggression occurred and allowed to go unchecked
Japan Invades China
 1931, Japan seized Manchuria; League of Nations condemns the
actions; Japan withdrawals from League of Nations
World War II
Causes Of The War
Japan Invades China
 This incident strengthens militarism in Japan
 1937, Japan invades Chinese mainland
 Established a puppet gov’t
 “Rape of Nanjing”
 Japan continued to gain territory during the period of war with
World War II
Causes Of The War
Italy Attacks Ethiopia
 1935, Italian army invaded the African country of Ethiopia
 Ethiopia appeals to the League of Nations
 The league agreed to stop the sale of weapons and other war
materials to Italy
 Agreement was not honored by all nations
World War II
Causes Of The War
German Aggression
 Ignoring the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler rebuilt the German army
 1936, Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland (border b/t Germany
and France)
 The Treaty required that Germany remove troops from this region
 1938, Hitler made Austria part of the German empire
 Forced Czechoslovakia to give Germany a border area called the
Sudetenland, where many Germans lived
World War II
Causes Of The War
German Aggression
 Appeasement – Western democracies adopted a policy of
appeasement. Under this policy, nations gave in to aggressive
demands to maintain peace
 Western democracies responded weakly to German aggression
 Munich Conference, 1938, western democracies agreed that
Germany would seize control of the Sudetenland
World War II
War Begins
 In the face of this weakness, Japan, Italy, and Germany formed the
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis; agreed to fight Soviet communism and not to
stop each other from making foreign conquests
 Appeasement failed
 March 1939, Hitler takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia
 Aug. 1939, Hitler made a pact with Stalin, agreed not to fight each
 Sept. 1939, Germany invaded Poland
 Britain and France declared war on Germany….the start of WWII
World War II
Axis Power
 War between the Axis Powers vs. Allied Powers
 Axis – Germany, Italy, and Japan
 Allied – Britain and France; Allies would later be joined by the Soviet
Union, China, and the U.S.
 Nazi forces conquered Poland in a swift, massive attack known as
blitzkrieg, or lighting war
 1940, Hitler overran Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Belgium
 June 1940, Germans take Paris
World War II
Axis Power
 Charles de Gaulle, formed a French gov’t in exile; calling on French
forces to continue fighting Germany
Turning Points of the War
 1941, U.S. enters the war
 FDR met with England’s Prime Minister, Winston Churchill,
declared their common desire to end Nazi tyranny
 U.S. continued to supply arms to the Allies
World War II
Turning Points of the War
 U.S. banned the sale of war materials to Japan in order to stop
Japanese aggression
 Dec. 7, 1941, Japan launches a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor
 FDR asks congress to declare war on Japan
 U.S. entry into the war gave the Allies added strength
 Battle of Stalingrad (1942-1943)
 Germans invaded the Soviet Union; advanced as far as Moscow
and Leningrad; Hitler turns south to Stalingrad; Russian troops and a
freezing winter caused the Germans to surrender in 1943; Red Army
pushes the Nazi army out and advances on Germany
World War II
Turning Points of the War
 El Alamein (1942)
 North Africa
 General Rommel gained many victories in 1941-1942
 British forces in Egypt finally stopped Rommel's advances during
the Battle of El Alamein
 With U.S. help, Rommel’s army forced to surrender in 1943
World War II
Turning Points of the War
 Invasion of Italy (1943)
 Victory in N. Africa allowed the Allies to land in Italy in July,
 Hitler was forced to send troops ot Italy, weakening his forces in
Western Europe
 Invasion of Normandy (1944)
 June 6, 1944; Allied troops cross the English Channel, landing on
the beaches of Normandy
 Broke through German defenses to advance towards Paris; Allies
move up from France into Germany
World War II
The War Ends
 War in Europe ended on May 7, 1945 with the German’s surrender
 Fighting in the Pacific would continue until August
 Yalta Conference
 Feb. 1945; Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at a Soviet resort
called Yalta; knew the war was close and end; decided they would
divide Germany temporarily
 British, French, American, and Soviet forces would each control a
zone of Germany
 Agreed that Stalin would oversee the creation of new governments
in Eastern Europe.
World War II
The War Ends
 Victory in the Pacific
 U.S. takes the fight to a weakened Japan; American forces
recaptured Japanese-held islands south of Japan and advanced north
 By 1944, the Americans had begun to comb Japanese cities; Japan
refuses to surrender
 Hiroshima and Nagasaki
 Aug 6 and Aug 9, U.S. drops two atomic bombs on Japan killing
110K people immediately; approx. another 100K would die from
radiation poisoning
 Sept. 2, 1945, Japan surrenders
World War II
Civilian life and Total War
 Total War – all resources deployed, major cites attacked and destroyed
 The Blitz – massive bombing of London
 Democratic gov’t increased their power during the war
 Factories produced war materials instead of civilian products
 Prices and wages were fixed, and consumer goods were rationed
 Women worked in the factories, served as nurses at field hospitals
 Totality of War: 50-60M killed, 6M Jews, 20M Russians, 400K U.S.,
13.6M Germans (10M on Eastern Front)
World War II
The Holocaust
 One of Hitler’s goals was to create “living space” for Germans who he
considered racially superior
 Planned to destroy the people he found inferior – the Jews were his
main target
 Wanted to destroy or enslave other, including Slavs, Gypsies, and the
mentally or physically disabled
 Genocide – the attempt to destroy an entire ethic or religious group
 Hitler committed genocide against the Jews
 Nov 8, 1937, called Kristallnacht, organized violence against the
Jews began
World War II
The Holocaust
 Nov 8, 1937, called Kristallnacht, organized violence against the
Jews began
 Thousands of Jewish synagogues, businesses, cemeteries, schools, and
home were destroyed
 30K Jews were arrested for being Jewish and forced to live in separate
 Concentration Camps, death camps – Jews were starved, shot, or
gassed to death
 By 1945, over 6M Jews died in what became known as the Holocaust
World War II
Wartime Atrocities
 In addition to the Holocaust, there many other wartime atrocities or
crimes against humanity
 1937, “The Rape of Nanjing” – 250K Chinese were slaughtered by the
 Bataan Death March – Japanses soldiers forced American and
Filipino prisoners of war on a march up the Bataan peninsula. Soldiers
were beaten, stabbed, and shot
 Poland – Soviet troops subjected thousands of Poles to imprisonment,
torture, and execution
World War II
Impact of War
 Economic Losses – Europe and Asia in ruins.
 European countryside was devastated as well
 The economies of war-torn countries took years to recover
The United Nations
 April 1945, United Nations established
 To provide a place to discuss world problems and develop
Part Seven

Giesler Global Studies Regents Review