Natural Language Processing
winter / fall 2010/2011
41.4268
Prof. Dr. Bettina Harriehausen-Mühlbauer
Univ. of Applied Science, Darmstadt, Germany
www.fbi.h-da.de/~harriehausen
[email protected]
[email protected]
the past - the present - the future
What does Star Trek have to do with NLP ?
What is NLP / Computational Linguistics ?
What is NLP / Computational Linguistics ?
definition:
A system is called a natural language processing system
when
• a subset of the input or output of the system is coded /
written in a natural language and
• the processing of the data is performed by algorithms for
the morpho-syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic analysis or
generation of natural language
Natural Language Processing is ...
an interdisciplinary field / art / science
• computer science (A.I.)
• linguistics (language independent)
• mathematics (logics, predicate logic, knowledge based systems,
statistics, ...)
• psychology (cognitive science)
• physics (speech recognition, spoken language)
• ...
Natural Language Processing is ...
a broad field / art / science
• phonetics / phonology (speech processing / speech recognition)
phonemes = the smallest meaning-distinguishing items
• morphology (segmentation , compounding,...) - tokenization
morphemes = the smallest items carrying meaning
• lexicology / electronic dictionaries – tagging
lexemes , lemmas vs. full-forms (each entry needs a tag)
idiomatic expressions , neologisms / „trendy words“ , homonyms , …
• syntax (analysis and generation of phonemes, morphemes, lexemes,
phrases, sentences, paragraphs) …grammar / - formalisms
(from transformation to unification)
• semantics (meaning, disambiguation, anaphora resolution,...)
• pragmatics (discourse representation)
We will focus on...
• intro
• morphology
• parsing / tokenization
• compounds
• lexicon / electronic dictionaries
• lemmas / inflected forms
• coding features / tagging
• idiomatic expressions
• neologisms / „trendy words“
• homonyms
(1)
We will focus on...
(2)
• syntax -> semantics : from transformation to unification
(RTN / ATN), case grammar (Fillmore) ,
CD-structures
• machine translation
• data mining / text mining
• speech recognition
We will focus on...
dictionary
(3)
grammar
parser
We will focus on...
(4)
together, we want to:
• get an overview of and understand the scope of NLP
• get an overview of the state-of-the-art technologies
(subset)
• understand the parallels between CL and NLP and A.I.
• reach the ability to use principles of linguistic theories in
NLP programming
reading material
Latest edition: Prentice Hall, 2008
ISBN-10: 0131873210, ISBN-13: 978-0131873216
First chapter: http://www.cs.colorado.edu/~martin/SLP/Updates/1.pdf
reading material
http://cognet.mit.edu/library/books/view?isbn=0262133601
MIT Press, 1999, ISBN 0262133601
Reader link:
http://www.amazon.de/gp/reader/0262133601/ref=sib_dp_p
t/028-2523061-0018166#reader-page
more...reading material (A.I.)
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•
Bobrow, D.G., Winograd, T. „An Overview of KRL, a Knowledge Representation
Language“ in: Cognitive Science, Vol.1, No.1, 3-46, 1977
Charniak, E. „A common representation for problem solving and natural language
comprehension information“. Artificial Intelligence, 1981, 225-255.
Friedman, J.A. Computer Model of Transformational Grammar. New York:
Elsevier. 1971.
Christopher D. Manning (Author), Prabhakar Raghavan (Author), Hinrich Schütze
(Author). Introduction to Information Retrieval. Cambridge University Press.
2008. ISBN-10: 0521865719 ISBN-13: 978-0521865715
Norvig, Peter. Unified Theory of Inference for Text Understanding. Univ. of
California, Berkeley, Computer Science Division. Report. No. UCB/CSD 87/339.
1987.
Quillian, M.R. „Sematic Memory“. In: M.Minsky, ed. Semantic Information
Processing. MIT Press. Cambridge. 1968.
more
more...reading material (A.I.)
•
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Stuart Russell (Author), Peter Norvig (Author) Artificial Intelligence: A Modern
Approach (2nd Edition) (Prentice Hall Series in Artificial Intelligence). Prentice
Hall, 2002. ISBN-10: 0137903952
Schank, R.C. Conceptual Information Processing. Amsterdam: North Holland.
1975.
Schank, R.C., Abelson, R.P. Scripts, Goals and Understanding: An Inquiry into
Human Knowledge Structures. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1977.
Wilensky, R., Arens, Y. PHRAN: A knowledge-based approach to natural
language analysis. Electronics Research Laboratory, College of Engineering.
University of California, Berkeley. Memorandum No. UCB/ERL M80/34. 1980.
Wilensky, Robert. „Some Problems for proposals for Knowledge
Representation“. University of Berkeley, CS Dept. 1986.
Woods, W.A. „What‘s a link: Foundations for Semantic Networks“. In:
Representation and Understanding: Studies in Cognitive Science. D.G. Bobrow,
A. Collins, eds. New York: Academic Press, 1975.
more
more...reading material (NLP)
•
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Bresnan, Joan, ed. The mental Representations of Language. London: MIT Press.
1982.
Bresnan, Joan. Lexical Functional Grammar. Stanford Linguistic Institute. 1987
Chomsky, Noam. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge: MIT Press. 1965.
Ronen Feldman (Author), James Sanger (Author) The Text Mining Handbook:
Advanced Approaches in Analyzing Unstructured Data (Hardcover). Cambridge
University Press. 2006.
Fillmore, Charles. The Case for Case. Ohio State University, 1968.
Fillmore, Charles. „The case for Case reopened“. In: P. Cole, J.M. Saddock, eds.
Syntax and Semantics 8: Grammatical Relations. Academic Press, N.Y. 1977.
Harriehausen, B. „Why grammars need to expand their scope of parsable input“,
Proceedings Second Conference on Arabic Computational Linguistics, Kuwait, 11/89.
Harriehausen, B. „The PLNLP Grammar checkers - CRITIQUE“, Proceedings ALLCACH 90 Conference „The New Medium“. Siegen. 6/1990.
Harriehausen-Mühlbauer, B. „PLNLP - a comprehensive natural language processing
system for analysis and generation across languages“, Proceedings: The First
International Seminar on Arabic Computational Linguistics, Egyptian Computer
Society, Cairo, 6/92.
more
more...reading material (NLP)
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Harriehausen-Mühlbauer, B,. Koop, A. „SCRIPT - a prototype for the recognition of
continuous, cursive, handwritten input by means of a neural network simulator“,
Proceedings 1993 IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, San
Francisco, 3/1993.
Jurafsky, Daniel, and James H. Martin. 2008. Speech and Language Processing:
An Introduction to Natural Language Processing, Speech Recognition, and
Computational Linguistics. 2nd edition. Prentice-Hall.
Manning, Christopher / Schütze, Hinrich. Foundations of Statistical Natural
Language Processing. MIT Press. 1999.
Levin, L., Rappaport, M., Zaenen, A., eds. Papers in Lexical Functional Grammar.
Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistics Club. 1983.
Ruslan Mitkov (Editor) The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics (Oxford
Handbooks in Linguistics). Oxford University Press. 2005 .
Radford, A. Transformational Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1981.
Rieger, C.J. „Conceptual Memory and Inference“. In: R.C. Schank. Conceptual
Information Processing. North Holland. 1975.
Shieber, S.M. An Introduction to Unification-based Approaches to Grammar. Stanford:
CSLI. 1986.
Winograd, T. Phenomenological Foundations of AI in Language.Stanford University,
Linguistic Institute, 1987.
history of NLP / CL
How did it all start ?

1949-1960
beginning of electronic language
processing: machine translation,
linguistics data processing
The spirit is strong but the flesh is weak.
->
The vodka is strong but the meat is rotten.
history of NLP / CL
How did it all start ?

1960-1970
first formal (transformation) grammars
(Chomsky 1957),
beginning of language oriented research
in A.I.: first simple question-answeringsystems; keyword (pattern-matching)systems



1963 Sad-Sam (Lindsay), BASEBALL (Green)
1966 DEACON (Craig), ELIZA (Weizenbaum), SYNTHEX (Simmons et.al.)
1968 TLC (Quillian), SIR (Raphael), STUDENT (Bobrow), CONVERSE (Kellog)
ELIZA – pattern-matching
(1)
•
ELIZA is a computer program devised by Joseph
Weizenbaum (1966) that simulates the role of a
Rogerian psychologist.
•
ELIZA was one of the first programs developed that
explored the issues involved in using natural language
as the mode of communication between humans and
the machine.
ELIZA – pattern-matching
(2)
Why Simulate a Rogerian Psychologist?
Client-Centered Therapy (CCT), was developed by Carl Rogers in the 40's and 50's
and is described as being a "non-directive" approach to counselling. That is,
unlike most other forms of counselling, the therapist does not offer treatment,
disagree, point out contradictions, or make interpretations or diagnoses. Instead,
CCT is founded on the belief that people have the capacity to figure out their own
solutions which can be facilitated by a psychologist who provides an accepting and
understanding environment. As pointed out by Weizenbaum, "[this form of]
psychiatric interview is one of the few examples of categorized dyadic natural
language communication in which one of the participating pair is free to assume
the pose of knowing almost nothing of the real world." For example, an
appropriate response to a client's comment of "I went for a long walk„ could
possibly be "Tell me about long walks." In this reply, the client would not assume
that the therapist knew nothing about long walks, but instead, had some motive
for steering the conversation in this direction. Such assumptions make this an
appealing domain to simulate, as a degree of realism can be obtained without the
need for storing explicit information about the real world.
ELIZA – pattern-matching
How successful is ELIZA ?
(3)
ELIZA – pattern-matching
(4)
How does ELIZA work?
• identifying keywords or phrases that the user inputs
• using patterns associated with these phrases to generate responses
• the most basic of these output patterns respond identically to all
sentences containing the keyword
ELIZA – pattern-matching
(5)
How does ELIZA work?
single keywords triggering a response:
key: xnone 0
answer: I‘m not sure I understand you fullyanswer: That is interesting. Please continue.
key: sorry
answer: Please don‘t apologise.
answer: Apologies are not necessary.
xnone = ELIZA responds to an input sentence that is not understood
(xnone is the default used when no other keyword is found in the sentence)
sorry = ELIZA responds to an input sentence that contains the word
„sorry“
ELIZA – pattern-matching
(6)
How does ELIZA work?
keyphrases triggering a response with a conversion:
key: I like xxx. (where xxx is an arbitrary string)
answer: Why do you like xxx ?
answer: Why do you say you like xxx ?
Example:
user: I like xxx.
ELIZA: Why do you like xxx?
ELIZA – pattern-matching
(7)
How does ELIZA work?
keyphrases triggering a response with a conversion:
key: I am xxx. (where xxx is an arbitrary string)
answer: Tell me why you think you are xxx .
Example:
user: I am very unhappy at the moment.
ELIZA: Tell me why you think you are very unhappy at the moment.
ELIZA – pattern-matching
(8)
How does ELIZA work?
keyphrases triggering a response with a conversion plus
postprocessing of reference words:
key: remember
decomp: * I remember *
answer: Do you often think of (2) ?
answer: What else do you recollect ?
Example:
user: I remember my first boyfriend.
Decomposition: the first * = empty string, the second * = my first
boyfriend (= (2))
ELIZA: Do you often think of (* my ) your first boyfriend.
ELIZA – pattern-matching (9)
Now it‘s your turn !
Try out ELIZA, make up your own mind as to ELIZA‘s
realism. Get a first idea of man-machine
communication.
ELIZA – pattern-matching
(10)
to „play“ with ELIZA (see: the following links)
ELIZA program:
http://www.manifestation.com/neurotoys/eliza.php3
http://www-ai.ijs.si/eliza-cgi-bin/eliza_script
http://www-ai.ijs.si/eliza/eliza.html
Reading:
http://i5.nyu.edu/~mm64/x52.9265/january1966.html
but now back to the history of NLP / CL
history of NLP / CL
How did it all start ?

1970-1980
knowledge-based expert systems and
natural language database interfaces,
development of formal grammars (esp.
syntax analysis)
dialogue systems
1972
SHRDLU (Winograd)
1977
GUS (Bobrow et.al.), PAL (Sidner et.al.)
natural language interfaces
1972
LUNAR (Woods et.al.)
1972-1976 RENDEVOUZ (Codd), REL (Thompson), REQUEST (Plath)
1977
LIFER (Henrix), INTELLECT (Harris), PLANES (Waltz et.al.), CO-OP (Kaplan)
Natural language DB interface
LanguageAccess (natural language interface to a relational database)
Sentence xy: WHICH COUNTRY EXPORTS FISH
SQL-query: SELECT DISTINCT X1 COUNTRY, X1.PRODUCT
FROM EXPORTBASE X1
WHERE X1.PCLASS=„FMF“
history of NLP / CL
How did it all start ?
text “understanding“ and text generating systems
1975
MARGIE (Schank et.al.), SAM (Schank et.al.)
1976-1979 TALE-SPIN (Meehan), PAM (Wilensky), FRUMP (DeJong)
1980
PHRAN (Wilensky)
• 1980-1990
focus on semantic-pragmatic analysis,
natural language applications, models
of complex communication pattern
- robust dialogue systems
- integration of natural language components in expert systems
- knowledge acquisition via natural language (both man and machine
learn)
history of NLP / CL
How did it all start ?
• 1990-2000+
that‘s where we are
today:
- growing demand
- growing size of
applications
- growing user
expectations
machine translation (revival), data
mining / text mining, intelligent text
processing systems (text critiquing),
integration of computerlinguistic
components in multimedia (CALL,
CBT, TELL,...)...
boom (integration of NLP everywhere)
NLP / CL today
we have come very far,
but...
...there are still a lot of open questions:
• what is knowledge ?
• when do we have to consider knowledge in natural language processing ?
• how can knowledge be formalized ?
• how are the analysis of language and the understanding of language interrelated ?
• what is communication ?
• easy (?) natural language
• technical language as a „dialect“ of natural language (e.g. medical language)
• artificial language as „meta language“ (e.g. Esperanto)
• logics (a special form of representation on an abstract level)
Question : Natural language ... easy ?
…after all… we all use / speak / write it
Does this mean natural language is easy and
easy to formalize ?
Natural language ... easy ?
Little Red Ridinghood
Rotkäppchen
Do you remember the story of the little girl that wore a
red cape and which met a wolf while going to her
grandmother‘s house ?
What‘s the problem ?
a little girl -> in German, -chen is the diminutive
Don -> Donny ; Kate -> Katie , Bill -> Billy
Natural language ... easy ?
other application: natural language database query
LanguageAccess (natural language interface to a relational database)
Sentence xy: WHICH COUNTRY EXPORTS FISH
natural language paraphrase / disambiguation of the input:
Which interpretation did you mean ?
Which country exports the product fish (fish = object)
Which country is exported by fish (fish=subject)
in German: with zero-article, it‘s ambiguous (disambiguation by case
marking of the article)
SQL-query: SELECT DISTINCT X1 COUNTRY, X1.PRODUCT
FROM EXPORTBASE X1
WHERE X1.PCLASS=„FMF“
Natural language ... easy ?
SENTENCE XY: Who placed as many software orders as Garzillo?
SQL-query:
SELECT DISTINCT X.1 NAME, X1.PURCHASENUMBER
FROM PURCHASES X1, ORDERS X2
WHERE X1.PURCHASERNUMBER=X2.PURCHASERNUMBER
GROUP BY X1.PURCHASERNUMBER, X1.NAME
HAVING COUNT (*) =>
(SELECT COUNT (*)
FROM ORDERS X3, PURCHASERS X4
WHERE X3.PURCHASERNUMBER = X4.PURCHASERNUMBER
AND X4.NAME=‘Garzillo‘
GROUP BY X3.PURCHASERNUMBER)
Natural language ... easy ?
language is extremely ambiguous
easy for humans ??? easy for machines ???
• lexical
The pipe was brandnew.
• structural
I saw the man with the telescope.
• deep structural She got ready for the picture.
• semantic
Mary wants to get married to an Italian.
• pragmatic
While walking from the gate to the house it collapsed.
Natural language ... easy ?
language is complex...you can say a lot with a few words
Mary sold John a book.
surface structure (obvious): transfer of book
deep structure (implication of „to sell“): transfer of money
Natural language ... easy ?
language can do a lot....e.g. with conjunctions
NP–NP
VP-VP
S-S
PP-PP
ADJP-ADJP
ADVP-ADVP
V-V
AUX-AUX
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
am eating a hamburger and a pizza.
will eat the hamburger and throw away the pizza.
eat a hamburger and Bill eats a pizza.
eat a pizza with ham and with salami.
eat a cold but delicious hamburger.
eat the hamburger slowly and patiently.
bake and eat a hamburger.
can and will eat a hamburger.
and even more....
???-???
Mary is sitting on and Bill under the table.
Natural language ... easy ?
language is analyzed on different levels
The 7 levels of language understanding
acoustic signals
Needed knowledge:
features of the voice
phonetic analysis
æçÞðţş
sound combinations of language
phonological analysis
Bill
dictionary
...
sentences
semantic analysis
small (Billy)
world knowledge
words
syntactic analysis
Billy is eating his lunch.
knowledge representation
letters
morphological / lexical analysis
Billy...
grammar rules (parser)
sounds
knowledge
pragmatic analysis
[Billy] is [mother]
child of
consequences
Natural language ... easy ?
Why then natural language ?
Computers speak their own language. This language is efficient,
economical, and exact. Why then would we want to „teach“ the
computer a natural language with all its ambiguities and
difficulties ?
when you don‘t want to learn a
database query language to get
when
you don‘t(textanalysis,
want to learn a
data (Startrek)
when busy with
your hands and
programming
language
textgeneration,
machineto
you still want
to type (voice
type)
program
your computer
(machine
translation)
when travelling (machine
translation)
when
you
need
maketyper
a phonecall
when
you
are to
a slow
translation)
Back to the boom!
with
someone
in to
Japan,
but you
when
(voice
you
type)
want
evaluate
don‘t
speak
Japanese
(voice
millions
of lines
of text
(text/data
recognition,
machine translation)
mining)
Applications
applications of natural language
systems
spoken text
Speech input
written text
Speech output
understanding
text
dialogue
analysis
Dialogue Systems
generation
translation
• speaker &
voice
recognition
• spoken
commands /
command &
control
• automatic
dictation
• text-to-speech
• telephony
• IVR
(interactive
voice
response)
• information
systems
• DB query
• expert systems
• CALL
• robot stearing
• programming
languages
• spell aid
• text
critiquing
• text
summaries
• knowledge
acquisition
(e.g. for
expert
systems)
• help
functions for
translations
• automatic
translation
•simultaneous
translation
• explanations
for users
• knowledge
representation
• text
generation
• writing
support
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Natural Language Processing winter / fall 2010/2011 41.4268