‘Ibādāt “acts of worship”.
 duties owed directly to God
 forms more less fixed
 human reason cannot discern the reasons
for the details
 duties owed to other humans
 forms less fixed
 human reason can discern many of the
 still subject to divine guidance
Niyya (Intention)
“Deeds [are judged/rewarded] by intentions
and every person will receive according to
their intention. If someone makes his hijra to
attain a worldly goal or to marry a woman,
then that is what he attains by his hijra.”
(First ḥadīth in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī.)
Purity (Ṭahāra)
Type of impurity
Cause, e.g
(external to the
contact with forbidden Remove by
or unclean things
washing affected
such as urine, faeces parts
or blood, pigs or
dogs, or alcoholic
Minor ḥadath
such things as
sleeping, going to the
toilet, intoxication and
touching a member of
the opposite sex (not
Major ḥadath
Things such as
seminal emission,
sexual intercourse,
and menstruation
ghusl (complete
The Pillars
Shahāda (Witness)
Ṣalāh (Salat) (Namaz)
Zakāh (Zakat)
Ṣawm (Fast of Ramadan)
Ḥajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca)
[Jihād – considered a pillar by some, not by
Basic statement of faith/loyalty
 Ritual of entry for converts
 Recited often: penetrates the culture
Abbasid coin. Obverse within the circle: No god
but God; He has no associate. Reverse
within the circle: Muhammad is the
Messenger of God.
Ṣalāh (Salat) (Namaz, in Persian and other
Times for Ṣalāh in Cairo, Egypt, October 30, 2009
Fajr or Subḥ
4:41 am
Ẓuhr (Jum‘a)
11:39 am
2:47 pm
5:09 pm
6:28 pm
Adhān (or azan) “call to prayer”
Allāhu akbar (God is most great): four times
Ashhadu an lā ilāha illā allāh (I witness that there is no god
but God): twice
Ashhadu anna Muḥammadan rasūl allāh (I witness that there
is no god but God): twice.
 Shi‘is may add here: ashhadu anna ‘Aliyan walī allah (I
witness that Ali is the guardian appointed by God.)
Ḥayya ‘ala al- ṣalāh (Come to salah): twice
Ḥayya ‘ala al-falāḥ (Come to success): twice
Al-Ṣalat khayr min al-nawm (Prayer is better than sleep):
twice, only before fajr salah.
 Shi‘is say instead: Ḥayya ‘ala khayr al-‘amal (come to the
best deeds): twice before all salahs.
Allāhu akbar (God is most great): twice
Lā ilāha illā allāh (There is no god but God): Sunnis once,
Shi‘is twice
Ornate mihrab and minbar at the Madrasa of Sultan Hasan (completed in
1362) in Cairo
The miḥrāb shows the direction to Mecca and the Friday sermon or khuṭba
is given from the minbar. the direction to Mecca is called the Qibla.
Simple mihrab and minbar in a small
“storefront” mosque in a suburban district of
Cairo. (1977).
Men bowing in salah in a park in London, during demonstrations in 1980 protesting
the Soviets’ sending of troops into Afghanistan. (Courtesy Hugh Lifson)
The object in front of them is called a sutra; no one should pass between the sutra
and the people praying.
Significance of ṣalāh:
 Direct obeisance by the individual to the
Creator and King of the universe
 Regular reminder of God
 Communal aspect:
› if possible, done with others, actions in unison
› if alone, same actions at same time as others
› whole community faces the same qibla
To purify the remainder of one’s wealth
To share with the needy.
To strengthen communal bonds via a sense of
mutual responsibility
“Alms are for the poor and the indigent, those who
administer them, recent converts, those in
bondage, those in debt, those serving in the
cause of God, and for travellers. Thus God has
ordained. God is All-Knowing, All-Wise.”
(Qur’an 9:60)
Fast (Ṣawm) of Ramaḍān
Fast trains us to control our lower impulses.
 Provides occasion for additional spiritual
exercises (e.g. tarāwīḥ, retreat)
 Provides a sense of solidarity in hunger
 Allows the well off to have some of the
experience of the poor.
 Modifies the rhythm and pace of society.
Mosque of ‘Umar Makram at dusk during Ramadan. Note that the street is almost
empty since people have gone home to break their fast. The mosque is named
after an Egyptian ‘alim and community leader during the period between
Napoleon and Muhammad ‘Ali.
The two ‘Īds (Eids)
‘Īd al-Fiṭr - Feast of the Breaking of the
Ramadan fast.
‘Īd al-Aḍḥā – Feast of Sacrifice, at the time
when animals are sacrificed during the Ḥajj.
Ṣalāt al-Īd (for both ‘Īds): Special ṣalāh,
performed between dawn and noon.
Here I am, O God, here I am.
Here I am, O God, here I am.
Here I am, O God, here I am.
Here I am, You have no associate,
Here I am.
Praise and blessing belong to you,
and power.
You have no associate. Here I am.
Labbayka Allāhumma labbayka
Labbayka Allāhumma labbayka
Labbayka Allāhumma labbayka
Labbayka lā sharīka laka labbayka
Inna al-ḥamda wa-l-ni‘mata laka wa-l-mulk
Lā sharīka laka labbayka
Road between Mecca and Arafat (Map 4)
Major activities of the Umra and Ḥajj
State intention and enter the state of ihram (men don
the special ihram garb), before passing the mīqāt.
May be done any time from 1 Shawwal.
Ṭawāf (circumambulation) of Ka'ba, seven times.
Ṣalāh at the Place of Ibrahim (Abraham)
Sa'y ('running') between the hills of Safa and Marwah,
seven times, recalling Hagar's quest for for water
for Isma'il (Ishmael)
Symbolic Haircut
Travel to Mina, then to Arafat. (8-9 Dhu al-Hijjah)
Standing at ‘Arafāt (noon to sundown, 9 Dhu al-Hijjah)
Hurry to Muzdalifa, collect stones for stoning. (just after sundown of
9 Dhu al-Hijja)
Stone the largest of three jamarāt (pillars representing Satan). (10
Dhu al-Hijja)
Sacrifice (commemorating Ibrahim’s sacrifice of an animal in place
of Isma'il) (10 Dhu al-Hijja)
Cut hair (partial end of iḥrām state; may remove iḥrām garb)
Second ṭawāf of Ka'ba (normally on 10 Dhu al-Hijjah)
Sleep at Mina (10-13 Dhu al-Hijjah)
Stone all three jamarāt (on 11 and 12 Dhu al-Hijja)
Return to Mecca (before sundown, 13 Dhu al-Hijjah).
Farewell ṭawāf (before departing Mecca)
Visit Prophet's Tomb in Medina (recommended)
Pilgrims standing at Arafat (Courtesy S.M.
Amin /Saudi Aramco World/ SAWDIA)
Significance of Ḥajj
Journey to Sacred Place (the most sacred in
the world)
Arduous journey, demanding sacrifice (less so
Reminder of the actions of the prophets Ibrahim
and Muhammad
Reminder of the gathering of humanity on the
day of judgment
Unity of the umma, symbolized and furthered
Equality of all Muslims (symbolized by iḥrām)
Forgiveness of sins
Mawlid al-Nabī
First celebrated in Egypt during the 11th
centuries (Fatamids)
First celebrated by Sunnis in the 12th century
and became very popular
Opposed as bid‘a by some (especially Salafis)
Viewed as “good bid‘a” by many.
Main life cycle rituals
Birth: adhān and iqāma whispered into the ears
 Naming (6th or 7th day)
 Circumcision: 7 days to 13 years
[Female “circumcision”: not universal, controversial
Marriage: contract between groom and brides
walī (or bride) and mahr
 Death/funeral: body washed and shrouded;
ṣalāt al-janāza; procession (janāza); burial
Funeral procession in Cairo (janāza)
Sibha (Courtesy Khalil Abou El-Nasr / Saudi Aramco World/ SAWDIA)
Sibḥa (also pronounced subḥa) or misbāḥa:
something like a rosary. It usually has thirtythree beads, as does the one pictured, but
sometimes has eleven or ninety-nine. It is
used to count the recitations of prayer
formulae, such as subḥān allāh (praise be to
God), or the ninety-nine names of God. It is
also often used in a more secular way to
keep one’s fingers occupied and in this
context is called “worry beads”.
Food - Ḥalāl
So eat of the halal and good food God has provided
for you, if it is indeed Him whom you serve. He has
forbidden to you only carrion, blood, the flesh of
pigs and that which has been offered to something
other than God. But if one is compelled against
one’s will and without transgressing, God is
forgiving and merciful.
(Qur’an 16:114, cf. 5:3-5 for more detail)
Eat of that over which the name of God has been
pronounced, if you are believers in His Signs (āyāt).
(Qur’an 6:119)
Food - Ḥalāl
Shaddad b. Aws said: Two are the things which I remember
Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said:
Verily Allah has enjoined goodness to everything; so when
you kill, kill in a good way and when you slaughter,
slaughter in a good way. So every one of you should
sharpen his knife, and let the slaughtered animal die
comfortably. (Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, trans., A.H. Siddiqi, Vol. III,
pp.1078 #4810)
Certain animals (and products from them) are forbidden.
Other animals must be slaughtered in a particular way.
The actual rules are quite detailed and require appropriate

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