‘Ibādāt “acts of worship”. duties owed directly to God forms more less fixed human reason cannot discern the reasons for the details Mu‘āmalāt; duties owed to other humans forms less fixed human reason can discern many of the reasons still subject to divine guidance Niyya (Intention) “Deeds [are judged/rewarded] by intentions and every person will receive according to their intention. If someone makes his hijra to attain a worldly goal or to marry a woman, then that is what he attains by his hijra.” (First ḥadīth in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī.) Purity (Ṭahāra) Type of impurity Cause, e.g Purification Najāsa (external to the person) contact with forbidden Remove by or unclean things washing affected such as urine, faeces parts or blood, pigs or dogs, or alcoholic beverages Minor ḥadath such things as sleeping, going to the toilet, intoxication and touching a member of the opposite sex (not maḥram) Wuḍū’ Major ḥadath Things such as seminal emission, sexual intercourse, and menstruation ghusl (complete bath) The Pillars Shahāda (Witness) Ṣalāh (Salat) (Namaz) Zakāh (Zakat) Ṣawm (Fast of Ramadan) Ḥajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) [Jihād – considered a pillar by some, not by most] Shahāda Basic statement of faith/loyalty Ritual of entry for converts Recited often: penetrates the culture Abbasid coin. Obverse within the circle: No god but God; He has no associate. Reverse within the circle: Muhammad is the Messenger of God. Ṣalāh (Salat) (Namaz, in Persian and other languages) Times for Ṣalāh in Cairo, Egypt, October 30, 2009 Fajr or Subḥ 4:41 am Ẓuhr (Jum‘a) 11:39 am ‘Aṣr 2:47 pm Maghrib 5:09 pm ‘Ishā 6:28 pm Adhān (or azan) “call to prayer” Allāhu akbar (God is most great): four times Ashhadu an lā ilāha illā allāh (I witness that there is no god but God): twice Ashhadu anna Muḥammadan rasūl allāh (I witness that there is no god but God): twice. Shi‘is may add here: ashhadu anna ‘Aliyan walī allah (I witness that Ali is the guardian appointed by God.) Ḥayya ‘ala al- ṣalāh (Come to salah): twice Ḥayya ‘ala al-falāḥ (Come to success): twice Al-Ṣalat khayr min al-nawm (Prayer is better than sleep): twice, only before fajr salah. Shi‘is say instead: Ḥayya ‘ala khayr al-‘amal (come to the best deeds): twice before all salahs. Allāhu akbar (God is most great): twice Lā ilāha illā allāh (There is no god but God): Sunnis once, Shi‘is twice Ornate mihrab and minbar at the Madrasa of Sultan Hasan (completed in 1362) in Cairo The miḥrāb shows the direction to Mecca and the Friday sermon or khuṭba is given from the minbar. the direction to Mecca is called the Qibla. Simple mihrab and minbar in a small “storefront” mosque in a suburban district of Cairo. (1977). Men bowing in salah in a park in London, during demonstrations in 1980 protesting the Soviets’ sending of troops into Afghanistan. (Courtesy Hugh Lifson) The object in front of them is called a sutra; no one should pass between the sutra and the people praying. Significance of ṣalāh: Direct obeisance by the individual to the Creator and King of the universe Regular reminder of God Communal aspect: › if possible, done with others, actions in unison › if alone, same actions at same time as others › whole community faces the same qibla Zakāh To purify the remainder of one’s wealth To share with the needy. To strengthen communal bonds via a sense of mutual responsibility “Alms are for the poor and the indigent, those who administer them, recent converts, those in bondage, those in debt, those serving in the cause of God, and for travellers. Thus God has ordained. God is All-Knowing, All-Wise.” (Qur’an 9:60) Fast (Ṣawm) of Ramaḍān Fast trains us to control our lower impulses. Provides occasion for additional spiritual exercises (e.g. tarāwīḥ, retreat) Provides a sense of solidarity in hunger Allows the well off to have some of the experience of the poor. Modifies the rhythm and pace of society. Mosque of ‘Umar Makram at dusk during Ramadan. Note that the street is almost empty since people have gone home to break their fast. The mosque is named after an Egyptian ‘alim and community leader during the period between Napoleon and Muhammad ‘Ali. The two ‘Īds (Eids) ‘Īd al-Fiṭr - Feast of the Breaking of the Ramadan fast. ‘Īd al-Aḍḥā – Feast of Sacrifice, at the time when animals are sacrificed during the Ḥajj. Ṣalāt al-Īd (for both ‘Īds): Special ṣalāh, performed between dawn and noon. Hajj Talbiya Here I am, O God, here I am. Here I am, O God, here I am. Here I am, O God, here I am. Here I am, You have no associate, Here I am. Praise and blessing belong to you, and power. You have no associate. Here I am. Labbayka Allāhumma labbayka Labbayka Allāhumma labbayka Labbayka Allāhumma labbayka Labbayka lā sharīka laka labbayka Inna al-ḥamda wa-l-ni‘mata laka wa-l-mulk Lā sharīka laka labbayka Road between Mecca and Arafat (Map 4) Major activities of the Umra and Ḥajj State intention and enter the state of ihram (men don the special ihram garb), before passing the mīqāt. May be done any time from 1 Shawwal. UMRA Ṭawāf (circumambulation) of Ka'ba, seven times. Ṣalāh at the Place of Ibrahim (Abraham) Sa'y ('running') between the hills of Safa and Marwah, seven times, recalling Hagar's quest for for water for Isma'il (Ishmael) Symbolic Haircut ḤAJJ Travel to Mina, then to Arafat. (8-9 Dhu al-Hijjah) Standing at ‘Arafāt (noon to sundown, 9 Dhu al-Hijjah) Hurry to Muzdalifa, collect stones for stoning. (just after sundown of 9 Dhu al-Hijja) Stone the largest of three jamarāt (pillars representing Satan). (10 Dhu al-Hijja) Sacrifice (commemorating Ibrahim’s sacrifice of an animal in place of Isma'il) (10 Dhu al-Hijja) Cut hair (partial end of iḥrām state; may remove iḥrām garb) Second ṭawāf of Ka'ba (normally on 10 Dhu al-Hijjah) Sleep at Mina (10-13 Dhu al-Hijjah) Stone all three jamarāt (on 11 and 12 Dhu al-Hijja) Return to Mecca (before sundown, 13 Dhu al-Hijjah). END OF ḤAJJ Farewell ṭawāf (before departing Mecca) Visit Prophet's Tomb in Medina (recommended) Pilgrims standing at Arafat (Courtesy S.M. Amin /Saudi Aramco World/ SAWDIA) Significance of Ḥajj Journey to Sacred Place (the most sacred in the world) Arduous journey, demanding sacrifice (less so today) Reminder of the actions of the prophets Ibrahim and Muhammad Reminder of the gathering of humanity on the day of judgment Unity of the umma, symbolized and furthered Equality of all Muslims (symbolized by iḥrām) Forgiveness of sins Mawlid al-Nabī First celebrated in Egypt during the 11th centuries (Fatamids) First celebrated by Sunnis in the 12th century and became very popular Opposed as bid‘a by some (especially Salafis) Viewed as “good bid‘a” by many. Main life cycle rituals Birth: adhān and iqāma whispered into the ears Naming (6th or 7th day) Circumcision: 7 days to 13 years [Female “circumcision”: not universal, controversial today] Marriage: contract between groom and brides walī (or bride) and mahr Death/funeral: body washed and shrouded; ṣalāt al-janāza; procession (janāza); burial Funeral procession in Cairo (janāza) Sibha (Courtesy Khalil Abou El-Nasr / Saudi Aramco World/ SAWDIA) Sibḥa (also pronounced subḥa) or misbāḥa: something like a rosary. It usually has thirtythree beads, as does the one pictured, but sometimes has eleven or ninety-nine. It is used to count the recitations of prayer formulae, such as subḥān allāh (praise be to God), or the ninety-nine names of God. It is also often used in a more secular way to keep one’s fingers occupied and in this context is called “worry beads”. Food - Ḥalāl So eat of the halal and good food God has provided for you, if it is indeed Him whom you serve. He has forbidden to you only carrion, blood, the flesh of pigs and that which has been offered to something other than God. But if one is compelled against one’s will and without transgressing, God is forgiving and merciful. (Qur’an 16:114, cf. 5:3-5 for more detail) Eat of that over which the name of God has been pronounced, if you are believers in His Signs (āyāt). (Qur’an 6:119) Food - Ḥalāl Shaddad b. Aws said: Two are the things which I remember Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: Verily Allah has enjoined goodness to everything; so when you kill, kill in a good way and when you slaughter, slaughter in a good way. So every one of you should sharpen his knife, and let the slaughtered animal die comfortably. (Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, trans., A.H. Siddiqi, Vol. III, pp.1078 #4810) Certain animals (and products from them) are forbidden. Other animals must be slaughtered in a particular way. The actual rules are quite detailed and require appropriate expertise.