Essentials of Project
Management
Valerie M. Grubb, Principle
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Why PM Skills are Important
 Individual Contribution





Roll-out HRIS software
Outsourcing HR activities
Developing new employee programs
Conducting legal compliance audit
Starting an HR department
 Strategic Contribution





M&A
Downsizing or restructuring
Realign performance appraisals to match strategic goals
Developing crisis mgmt plan
Facilitating culture change
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Where to Start
“Plan your work and
then work your plan.”
Norman Vincent Peale
author, The Power of Positive Thinking
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Pre-Project Planning
1. Defining the Project Scope
2. Your Project Plan
3. Adding Costs to the Equation
4. Risks
5. Roles & Responsibilities
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Project Scope
Why is formalizing what is IN and
what is OUT so important?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
What’s IN and What’s OUT
Defining Project Scope
 Draws a “line in the sand” of exactly what
will be included and what will not
 Helps to establish very clear expectations
for your customer(s)
 Good reference in the event there are
questions as the project progresses
 Acts as your foundation as new tasks are
added (and the timeline adjusts)
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Goal Breakdown Structure
Project
Goal
Objectives
(Critical Success Factors)
Subject Matter
Experts
Senior
Management
Functional
Managers
Deliverables
(Critical Success Measures)
Requirements
(definitions on form, fit, feature, function)
From Improving your Project Management Skills by Larry Richman, AMACOM, 2006.
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
SMART Project Objectives
S
pecific
Is the objective clear about what, where, when, and
how?
M
easurable
Is there a reliable system in place to evaluate? Does
it have a clear measurement of success?
ccurate &
Agreed to
Is it stated accurately to ensure you can measure the
results correctly?
Have you gained consensus and agreement from
key stakeholders?
elevant
Does this objective map to a company result? Can
the project team make an impact on the situation?
ime- Bound
Is there a finish and/or a start date clearly stated or
defined?
A
R
T
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Refining the Objectives
Project Deliverables:
 Measurable results, outcomes or specific
products or services that must be provided in
order to consider the project complete
 Deliverables, like goals, should be specific and
measurable
 The more specific the deliverables, the easier it
will be to plan and estimate project activities
 Each of these deliverables requires some type of
action and most large, complex projects have
phased deliverables
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Refining the Deliverables
Project Requirements:
 Different from goals and deliverables – they help
define how we know the goal or deliverable is
completed successfully
 Requirements are a further breakdown of the
deliverables; they describe the characteristics of
the deliverable in very specific detail
 Example: our deliverable is a BEER, but the
requirements are that it be AMBER, IN A
BOTTLE, etc.
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Breaking Down the Goal-Example
Goal Breakdown
Structure (GBS) Levels
Project
Goal
Double market share of Product XYZ by end of 2013.
Objectives
1. Market Size
(Critical Success Factors
Deliverables
(Critical Success
Measures)
1.1 From $25k/yr to $40K/yr
Requirements
1.1.1 Maintain 20% profit margin
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Breaking Down the Goal-Example
Goal Breakdown
Structure (GBS) Levels
Goal
Objectives
(Critical Success Factors
Deliverables
(Critical Success
Measures)
Requirements
Project
Double market share of Product XYZ by end of 2013.
1. Market Size
2. Market Share
3. Product quality
4. Rework
5. Satisfaction rates
1.1 From $25k/yr to $40K/yr
1.1.1 Maintain 20% profit margin
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Breaking Down the Goal-Example
Goal Breakdown
Structure (GBS) Levels
Goal
Objectives
(Critical Success Factors
Deliverables
(Critical Success
Measures)
Requirements
Project
Double market share of Product XYZ by end of 2013.
1. Market Size
2. Market Share
3. Product quality
4. Rework
5. Satisfaction rates
1.1 From $25k/yr to $40K/yr
1.2 Capture 7.5% of new market
1.3 Achieve ISO quality certification
1.4 Decrease rework by 20%
1.5 Achieve customer satisfaction rating of "best-in" by
Consumer Reports standards
1.1.1 Maintain 20% profit margin
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
What’s IN and What’s OUT
Why is formalizing what is IN and what
is OUT so important?
Why is gaining agreement from your
boss on what is IN and what is OUT
critical?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
What’s IN and What’s OUT
GOAL: Reduce Inventory Costs
WITHIN Project Scope
NOT WITHIN Project Scope Comments
Determine the cost savings
of reducing the total
number of parts by 25%.
Reducing total number of parts will
reduce our storage and tracking costs
and reduce complexity. We should know
by how much.
Benchmark current
That would take too much time.
inventory costs against Besides, we don't have to know what our
key competitors.
competitors are doing in order to achieve
significant reductions.
Develop a plan to design Great idea, but it should be a separate
parts complexity our of
project run by product development
future products.
people.
Develop a plan for just-inThis will save us on floor space and
time parts delivery.
inventory-carrying costs. We should
have done this years ago.
From The Essential of Project Management by Harvard Business Press, 2006.
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Finalizing the Project Scope
Written sign-off of
Project Scope
is
CRITICAL before you begin!!!
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Finalizing the Project Scope
Before sign-off, ensure you’ve answered
the following:
 Can we afford the project?
 If the project succeeds, will it be worth the
cost?
 Do we have the skills needed to succeed?
 Will the project finish in time to make a
difference for our business?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Finalizing the Project Scope
Sign-off of Project Scope:
 Key Stakeholders
 Key Management Team Members
 Project Sponsor
Who could come back after the fact and
“balk” at the scope of the project?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Pre-Project Planning
1. Defining the Project Scope
2. Your Project Plan
3. Adding Costs to the Equation
4. Risks
5. Roles & Responsibilities
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Your Project Plan
Where do you start when
trying to define your
Project Plan?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Where to Start?
START
with the
END!
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Where to Start?
Start with the end in mind to help you define
where you need to go and what you need to
do to get there.
As-is
state
To-be
state


What major drivers exist that you should review?
What tasks define how you’ll evaluate each major driver?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
When Beginning With the End…
Think of the End Deliverable from your
boss’s perspective:
How would your boss define success?
OR
How will he or she indicate that the project has
been completed satisfactorily?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Begin with the End
Anheuser Busch Project:
•
•
•
•
$3.0 billion in revenue across Canada
Upwards of $300MM residing in A/R
In 2010, 30%+ of A/R were overdue
~2% of avg monthly receivables balance is
written off as bad debt resulting in ~$2-3MM
EBIDTA impact each year
WHAT IS THE END DELIVERABLE?
SUGGESTIONS ON HOW TO GET TO THE
END DELIVERABLE?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
24
Defining Your Project Plan
Any questions on beginning
with the end?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Defining Your Project Plan
Project Managers use a tool called a
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to
illustrate what tasks need to be
accomplished.
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
WBS Best Practices
 Start with major deliverables/milestones then
work your way “down” (i.e., more detailed) based
on each major task or deliverable.
 Involve the people who will have to do the work.
You DON’T need to do it alone!
 Be sure to include any assumptions regarding the
project.
 Consider presenting time factors as a range vs. a
fixed # of days.
 Include a contingency BUT spell it out (don’t hide
it within your estimate).
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Defining Your Project Plan
 A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is simply an
outline of what needs to be done to accomplish
your project.
 Simple WBS:
Goal: Make land useable for construction
1. Conduct site survey
2. Obtain permits
3. Clear site
4. Excavate site
5. Regrade and groom site
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
WBS Example
HRIS Work Breakdown Structure
Level 2 Subtasks
1.1.1 Survey other HR depts. for their best
1.1 Assess proposed
practices
1 - Conduct needs
system's interact with
1.1.2 Interview HR staffers to define process
assessment
current systems
flows and functionality
2.1.1 Write separate specs for each module
2 - Create system 2.1 Specify database
(benefits, recruitment, etc.)
specifications
functionality
2.2.2 Specify data-entry and retrieval processes
3.1.1 Design ad hoc report formats
3 - Design system 3.1 Design report formats
3.1.2 Design standard report formats
4.1.1. Engage technical security specialist
4.1 Ensure system's
4 - Develop system
4.1.2 Create security plan
security
5.1 Develop user training 5.1.1 Develop online tutorial
5 - Install system
5.1.2 Create in person training
program
6 - Evaluate
6.1 Assess effectiveness 6.1.1 Assess recruiting module
6.1.2 Assess applicant tracking modules
system
of modules
Major Task
Level 1 Subtask
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Defining Your Project Plan
Once you identify the tasks that
need to be accomplished, you
then need to add the time it takes
to accomplish each task.
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Defining Your Project Plan
 Gantt charts are a graphical representation
of the duration of tasks
 Gantt charts illustrate how long a project
should take
 Gantt charts also lay out the order in which
tasks need to be carried out and any
dependencies
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Estimating Time via WBS
HRIS Work Breakdown Structure
Major Task
Level 1 Subtask
1.1 Assess proposed
1 - Conduct needs
system's interact with
assessment
current systems
2 - Create system
specifications
2.1 Specify database
functionality
3 - Design system 3.1 Design report formats
4 - Develop system
5 - Install system
6 - Evaluate
system
4.1 Ensure system's
security
Level 2 Subtasks
1.1.1 Survey other HR depts for their best
practices
1.1.2 Interview HR staffers to define process
flows and functionality
2.1.1 Write separate specs for each module
(benefits, recruitment, etc.)
2.1.2 Specify data-entry and retrieval processes
3.1.1 Design ad hoc report formats
3.1.2 Design standard report formats
4.1.1 Engage technical security specialist
4.1.2
5.1 Develop user training 5.1.1
program
5.1.2
6.1 Assess effectiveness 6.1.1
of modules
6.1.2
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Create security plan
Develop online tutorial
Create hands-on training
Assess recruiting module
Assess applicant tracking modules
TOTAL DURATION (DAYS):
Level 2
subtask
duration (days)
2
2
4
3
3
2
5
4
10
5
3
3
46
Where to Start?
@Home Exercise:
• Using the End Goal worksheet, detail the major
milestones and sub-tasks for your upcoming
project.
• How long will it take you to accomplish each
individual task? What is the total length of your
project?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Defining Your Project Plan
Has anyone done a
Gantt chart before?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Sample Gantt Chart
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Pre-Project Planning
1. Defining the Project Scope
2. Your Project Plan
3. Adding Costs to the Equation
4. Risks
5. Roles & Responsibilities
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Estimating Costs
Conventional Project Management
Wisdom says:
You may want it good, fast and cheap
BUT you only get TWO!!
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Estimating Costs
Time, Cost & Performance Trade-offs:
 If technical requirements are fixed,
compressing the schedule will probably
increase project costs.
 The more the schedule is compressed, the
greater the rate of increase in cost per unit
of time.
From Improving your Project Management Skills by Larry Richman, AMACOM, 2006.
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Estimating Costs
Time, Cost & Performance Trade-offs:
 Adding requirements to the scope will
either increase cost or time (or both!).
 If the budget is fixed, negotiation is
necessary on the other two parameters.
From Improving your Project Management Skills by Larry Richman, AMACOM, 2006.
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Estimating Costs
Time vs. Cost Trade-off
UNITS of COST
Highest Cost Solution
Early Finish Date
Late Finish Date
Least Cost Solution
UNITS of TIME
From Improving your Project Management Skills by Larry Richman, AMACOM, 2006.
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Estimating Costs
Time vs. Cost Trade-off
UNITS of COST
Highest Cost Solution
LIMITS
Early Finish Date
Late Finish Date
Least Cost Solution
UNITS of TIME
From Improving your Project Management Skills by Larry Richman, AMACOM, 2006.
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Estimating Costs
If you have to estimate costs,
where do you start?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Estimating Costs
Tips on determining costs:
 Historical costs for similar projects completed in
the past
 Pull costs for the individual pieces, then sum
them up for the total (equipment, labor, etc.)
 Speak with experts in the field of your project –
who might that include?
 Request for Quotes from vendors if outside labor
is required
 Speak with Finance for similar spend
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Estimating Costs
At most companies, asking for $ can
be a challenge...
How do you sell the cost for your
project?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Estimating Costs
When asking for Money:
 Start with WIIFT (What’s In It For Them) or
benefits
 Craft your message around the ROI of the
project:
 Time
 Efficiency
 Other cost savings?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Monitoring the Project Budget
Typical Budget Challenges:
 Scope creep
 Inflation during long-term projects
 Unfavorable changes in currency rates
 Failing to get firm prices from suppliers or
contractors (or not properly defining the
scope during the RFP process).
 Unplanned personnel costs such as
overtime, training or consulting fees
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Pre-Project Planning
1. Defining the Project Scope
2. Your Project Plan
3. Adding Costs to the Equation
4. Risks
5. Roles & Responsibilities
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Risks, Constraints, Assumptions
Why is identifying risks and
constraints important?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Risks and Constraints
Identifying Risks
Risk Probability vs. Impact
IMPACT
PROBABILITY
Low
Moderate
High
High
Moderate
Low
From Improving your Project Management Skills by Larry Richman, AMACOM, 2006.
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Risks and Constraints
The “critical path” of a project is one
of the best ways to track RISKs or
CONSTRAINTs to your project.
What is meant by the “critical path”?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Determining the Critical Path
Critical Path is the series of tasks with
the longest duration.
If anything is delayed in that path, it
will delay project completion.
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Risks and Constraints
Other Risks/Constraints:
 When do decisions need to be made to
keep you on track and how long does it
take to schedule the decision makers?
 Are resources (i.e., people or equipment)
available when you need them?
 What happens if funding is not approved?
 How to ensure Senior Management support
on a recommendation?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Risks and Constraints
Other Considerations:
 Anticipate what’s going to go wrong 2-3
steps down the road.
 Figure out where/how you’ll make up for
lost time later in the project.
 How to meet deadlines without burning
bridges?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Monitoring the Project Budget
What is scope creep?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Monitoring the Project Budget
How Scope Creep occurs:
 Lack of agreement on the original Project
Scope statement
 Not sticking to the original Project Scope
statement
 Lack of a Project Scope statement
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Pre-Project Planning
1. Defining the Project Scope
2. Your Project Plan
3. Adding Costs to the Equation
4. Risks
5. Roles & Responsibilities
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Monitoring the Project Budget
Where do you start when
identifying your project team?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Roles & Responsibilities
Determining your Project Team:
1. Skills needed for each task or group of
tasks
2. Ability to learn new things
3. Knowledge
4. Personality
5. Availability
6. Experience
7. Ability to work with others
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Roles & Responsibilities
Defining Skills Required by Task
Tasks
Define program
requirements
Skills Needed Level of Experience
Web
programming
2 years
Oracle database 2 years
Experience writing
Good
requirements on
communication previous internal
skills
projects
Senior
Determine platform and programming
languages
skills
5 years
Design programming
modules
OO design/UML 5 years
Write help screens and
manual
Technical writing 1 year
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Potential Team Members
Roles & Responsibilities
Skills Inventory
Employee
Bob Smith
Title
Programmer I
Suzy Jones
Database
Administrator
Skills/Training
Degree
Java
XML
.NET
Payroll System
PeopleSoft HRIS
Degree
Oracle programming
Oracle administration
Payroll System
Accounting System
Tyrell Bisogno Technical writer Degree
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Years Education
BS Computer Science
3
2
0
1
2
BS Computer Science
5
3
3
3
1
BA English
Roles & Responsibilities
Need answers to the following:
 Are the right resources going to be
available at the right time?
 Has priority been established between your
project and their other tasks?
 Do the resources have the available time to
put towards the project?
What happens if these are not in place?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Organizing Your Resources
Clearly Define
Roles &
Responsibilities
Step 2:
Define Roles:
Who is
responsible
for what?
Steering Committee
Name
Project Champion
Name
Position
Name
Position
Name
Project Leader
Function
Function
Function
Function
Bob R.
Controller
Name
Position
Name
Position
Name
Position
Name
Position
Name
Position
Name
Position
Name
Position
Name
Position
Name
Position
Name
Position
Name
Position
Core Team
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
As Needed Support/
Functional Experts
Organizing Your Resources
Clearly Define
Roles &
Responsibilities
Step 2:
Define Roles:
Who is
responsible
for what?
Steering Committee
Name
Project Champion
Name
Position
Name
Position
Name
Project Leader
Function
Bob R.
Controller
Name
Position
Responsibilities:
 Deliver weekly updates on budget tracking
 Validate Financial Analysis
 Align saving to budgeting process
 Contribute to Business case
Name
Position
Core Team
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
As Needed Support/
Functional Experts
Pre-Project Planning
1. Defining the Project Scope
2. Your Project Plan
3. Adding Costs to the Equation
4. Risks and Constraints
5. Roles & Responsibilities
Any Final Questions?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Typical PM Challenges
Challenge
Strategies
Responsibility vs.
authority trap
 Draw on your expertise, knowledge, and track record to
influence and persuade others to support your efforts.
 Resist temptation to develop your project schedule by
starting with the imposed unrealistic finish date.
 Assemble evidence showing why deadline is unrealistic.
 Present the situation as concisely as you can to your boss.
 Negotiate conflicting demands from both bosses: ask for
clarification on priorities, highlighting deadlines for both
bosses.
Unrealistic targets
Serving multiple
bosses
Project Uncertainty  Use ranges of values instead of single figures when
or Undefined Goals
providing cost and schedule estimates.
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Continue Your Learning
Good Resources
 The Essential of Project Management,
Harvard Business School Press, 2006.
 Project Management Jump Start: The Best
First Step Toward a Career in Project
Management, Kim Heldman, Jossey- Bass
Publisher, 2005.
 Improving your Project Management Skills,
Larry Richman, AMA, 2006.
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
Essentials of Project Management
Any Final Questions?
Valerie M. Grubb, Principal
www.valgrubbandassociates.com
[email protected]
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