Linguistic Diversity and Conceptual
Approaches to Designing and
Delivering Professional Training Case Study Sámi Journalists
Tom Moring, D.Soc.Sc., Professor II
Lia Markelin, PhD, Associate Professor
Sámi University College, Kautokeino, Norway
Abstract
This presentation addresses the raison d'être of
higher education of journalism in indigenous
languages. It describes the process of developing
such a programme in the context of the Sámi
University College in Kautokeino. It explains why
there is a need for self determination of Sámi in
higher education and which are the benefits that
are achieved when indigenous communities in
different parts of the world network in this regard.
The conceptual approaches of journalism in
indigenous languages are discussed, with a
particular view on aspects of how the several Sámi
languages and other indigenous cultures can be
expressed in the media.
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
Why Higher Education in
Indigenous Journalism?





Indigenous media an expansive sector: media are
growing in numbers and becoming more diverse
Continuous need for educated journalists
Demand of supply of teachers
Expanding indigenous media requires experts and
policy makers with indigenous media expertise
Basic point of departure: Media crucial to language
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
Why a Master in Journalism?
Increasing demand for research and statistics
(e.g. audience research) for indigenous media &
journalism.
 International co-operation creating more
indigenous media options; requiring knowledge
and networks.
 Indigenous journalism lacks centre for education
and research.
 Academic self-determination in dialogue
 = Recognition of indigenous knowledge
Inter Pares

Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
Building a Network of Competence:
Sámi University College and
other education institutions
(WINHEC)
Media networks, e.g. WITBN
(NRK Sámi Radio)
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
World Indigenous
Nations Higher
Education Consortium
Centres of knowledge
(e.g. Gáldu)
World Indigenous
Broadcasting Network
http://www.witbn.org/index.php/project#
What is ”Indigenous” in indigenous
journalism?

Demarkation
Co-creating the ”inside”
 Representing to the outside


Narration
Reporting with an everyday
perspective
 Reporting in an own language,
voice and style


Reclaiming position
Rights to self determination
 Rights to nature

Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
Three aspects of professional conditions
Identity claims
 Indigeneity
 Professionalism
Institutional claims
 Interest of funding sources
 Autonomous standing
Resource base
 Institutional complexity
 Complete or complementary service
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
The Language Component
How are the several Sámi languages and other
indigenous cultures expressed in the media?
 How can this be catered for in journalism
education?
 What is the language component in media
all in all?

South, Ume, Pite, Lule, North, Skolt, Inari, Kildin
and Ter Sámi.
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
”Languaging” or ”Superdiversity” ?
(Blommaert/ Rampton 2011; Jørgensen 2010; Makoni/ Pennycook
2007; Vygotsky 1978)
Critique against essentialist claims of
fixed languages
andcontext of the Sámi languages
BUT: In the
critique
on aspirations
nation
and cultures
power
claims and towards
community
building
and
poweris
claims
relating
to
building
through
language
seen
as
a
In order to maintain and develop Sámi
language.
condicio
sine qua
to thethat
continuous
languages and culture
in anon
context
tends
construction
Sáminess.
to marginalize
them, of
it is
legitimate to defend
and actively develop the position of the Sámi
through striving to strengthen the position of
their languages.
(Markelin, Husband and Moring in
Sociolinguistica, forthcoming)
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
Sámi journalists are confident of a role
for the language…
“Indigenous language? I think it’s the
foundation, if we wouldn’t speak
Sámi language, why should there be
the option of NRK Sápmi?”
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
… but recognize problems
Minority within the minority
 “It is difficult of course. We probably get a lot of criticism
from the Lule Sámi and South Sámi communities, since we
have hardly any broadcasts in those languages”
 “If it is difficult to find North Sámi journalists, how difficult
is it to find Lule or South Sámi journalists?”
 “Even if you’d want to, I mean, it is pretty difficult to
strengthen all the languages, that is really hard”
“Language police” claims
 “I notice in myself this language police -syndrome, in which
you almost get angry when you hear journalists say
something wrong. On the other hand it gets me angry that
the responsibility is pushed to the journalist. Often these so
called language police don’t see that it is society’s problem,
not the journalists”
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
To express it somewhat ironically:

“It seems reasonable that the easy acceptance of
vibrant, constantly changing patterns of
language usage that may be found amongst the
cohorts of cosmopolitan academic linguists might
not be so readily shared by the Sámi media
professionals.”
(Markelin, Husband and Moring,
Sociolinguistica, Forthcoming)
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
What do we really know about languages
and media?
Indicative claims can be made for at effects in at
least these fields:
But much more
 symbolic
research is
 economic
needed!
 agenda setting and framing
 representation
 culture formation
 routinely daily language use
 construction and re-construction of the
language/culture
Source: Cormack1998, 2004,2007; Moring and Husband 2007)
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
Aim of the new Master’s Programme
in Indigenous Journalism
To provide Sámi and
other indigenous
communities with
media professionals,
academics and policy
makers in the field of
media in an
Indigenous and
multicultural setting
To contribute to the
status of Higher
Education in Sámi
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
Networking with other indigenous institutions:
Looking for partnerships with other education
institutions, in order to build and ensure:
 A global academic network of expertise in the
field of media and journalism in indigenous
communities.
 Co-operation in the recruitment of students in
order to sustain a truly international
comparative perspective.
 Academic support for the international students
in their own environment.
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
Background of Programme:
Need for education in the field of journalism
discussed for a long time, e.g. UN conferences on
Indigenous media (1998 in Madrid and 2000 in
New York).
 Strategic discussions on development of the Sámi
University College to recognized Scientific Higher
Education
 Idea discussed and task given Sámi University
College at Indigenous Media conference ”Same
Voice But Different” in Alta 2007.
 Preparation process started at Sámi allaskuvla.
 Preliminary discussions, hearings and
presentations with and for Sámi and other
indigenous media 2008-2011 (including WITBN
and WINHEC)

Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
For the student, the Programme
provides:
 An
opportunity for advanced study and
professional development in Sámi
language
 An Indigenous environment and
content.
 A professional international network.
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
The process:
Accreditation in NOKUT (Norwegian Agency for
Quality Assurance in Education).
 Development of partnerships, securing funding
(scholarships), securing guest lecturers etc.
 Amendments and completion of curriculum.
 Recruitment of students.

 Start
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
of programme autumn 2014
Programme Facts (1/3)





Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
120/90 ECTS, 2 years
(3-4 semesters)
15 students every three
years, of which 10 Sámi
and 5 international
Courses in blocks of 10
study points
Two blocks (20 study
points) optional courses
Thesis can be either 30
study points or 60 study
points
Programme Facts (2/3)
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Possible to complete the course in 1.5 years: one
year courses + 6-12 months thesis.
Optional courses and/or dissertation can be
facilitated by other educational institutions,
within the framework of the programme
Final exam and presentation of Thesis takes place
in Kautokeino.
Both Sámi and international students should
have a possibility to meet their study
requirements partly in Sápmi and partly
elsewhere
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
Programme Facts (3/3)


Following the requirements of a Norwegian
journalist Master and of Norwegian quality
assurance system
Securing indigenous content inter alia by:
Respect of use of all the Sámi languages (7-9)
 Looking specifically at the issues and challenges
facing Indigenous journalism and media
 Utilising the students as an important resource
for comparative knowledge
 Utilising Indigenous media and experts for guest
lectures and expertise

Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
Programme Language
Students can complete all their
written works in either Sámi
languages or English
 Possible to meet the course
requirements in English

Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
Admission Criteria:

Bachelor in Journalism, Social Sciences or
Humanities; OR
Any other degree or professional training of minimum 3 years; OR
 Other documented qualifications can be approved as completely or
partially equivalent in special cases

2 years of relevant work experience
 Understanding of English
 Writing skills in Sámi or English

Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
Term 1
1. What is Indigenous journalism?
2. Ethics, law and professional identity
3. Optional course (e.g., Indigenous Media
Rights; Sami Language and Writing Skills;
Environment Journalism, Indigenous
Philosophy, Indigenous Studies)
(10 ECTS)
(10 ECTS)
(10 ECTS)
Term 2
4. Advance journalism course for indigenous
journalism / Optional course
5. Theory and methodology
(10 ECTS)
Term 3
6a. Masters thesis writing
(30 ECTS)
Term 4
6b. Masters thesis writing (optional)
(30 ECTS)
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
(20 ECTS)
For contact and further information:
[email protected]
http://www.samiskhs.no/index.php?c=604&kat=Indigenous+Journalism&p=
Sámi allaskuvla
Sámi University
College
Samisk høgskole
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