CULTURE AND SAFETY CROET Safety and Health for the Limited-English-Speaking Workforce: Challenges and Successes June 9, 2006 Revised 01/97 OHSU OR-OSHA Mission Statement To advance and improve workplace safety and health for all workers in Oregon. Consultative Services • Offers no-cost on-site safety and health assistance to help Oregon employers recognize and correct safety and health problems in their workplaces. • Provides consultations in the areas of safety, industrial hygiene, ergonomics, occupational safety and health programs, new-business assistance, the Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP), and the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP). Enforcement • Offers pre-job conferences for mobile employers in industries such as logging and construction. • Provides abatement assistance to employers who have received citations and provides compliance and technical assistance by phone. • Inspects places of employment for occupational safety and health rule violations and investigates workplace safety and health complaints and accidents. Appeals, Informal Conferences • Provides the opportunity for employers to hold informal meetings with OR-OSHA on workplace safety and health concerns. • Discusses OR-OSHA’s requirements and clarifies workplace safety or health violations. • Discusses abatement dates and negotiates settlement agreements to resolve disputed citations. Standards & Technical Resources • Develops, interprets, and provides technical advice on safety and health standards. • Provides copies of all OR-OSHA occupational safety and health standards. • Publishes booklets, pamphlets, and other materials to assist in the implementation of safety and health standards and programs. • Operates a Resource Center containing books, topical files, technical periodicals, a video and film lending library, and more than 200 databases. Public Education & Conferences • Conducts conferences, seminars, workshops, and rule forums. • Presents many workshops that introduce managers, supervisors, safety committee members, and others to occupational safety and health requirements, technical programs, and safety and health management concepts. Additional Public Education Services Safety for Small Business workshops Interactive Internet courses Professional Development Certificates On-site training requests Access workshop materials Spanish training aids Training and Education Grants Continuing Education Units/Credit Hours For more information on Public Education services, please call (888) 292-5247 Option 2 Portland Field Office Salem Field Office Eugene Field Office Medford Field Office Bend Field Office Pendleton Field Office (503) 229-5910 (503) 378-3274 (541) 686-7562 (541) 776-6030 (541) 388-6066 (541) 276-9175 Salem Central Office: (800) 922-2689 or (503) 378-3272 Web Site: www.orosha.org This material is for training use only The lesson plan CHALLENGE LANGUAGE LITERACY DIALECTS TRANSLATORS CULTURE OBSTACLES TO COMMUNICATION QUOTES EFFECTIVE TRAINING TEAM WORKER PARTICIPATION KNOW YOUR WORKERS Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 3 This material is for training use only The challenge OSHA rules require that workers be trained BEFORE they are exposed to hazardous work. And . . . OSHA rules require that workers be effectively supervised WHILE they are working. It takes about 5-6 years for someone learning a new language to reach professional-level, second-language proficiency. It takes about 5-10 years for someone learning a new culture to reach second-culture proficiency. The challenge . . . Bridging a 5-10 year language and culture gap BEFORE an accident happens. Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 4 This material is for training use only Language and literacy Language comprehension: Knowing what sounds are in a language and what sounds are not. You know English if house signifies You know French if maison signifies You know Spanish if casa signifies Did you know? There are no “primitive” languages - all languages are equally complex and equally capable of expressing any idea in the universe. Literacy U.S.A. Russia Mexico Vietnam 92% 90% 99% 95% 100% 100% 100% 100% Secondary enrollment 88% 83% 63% 62% Tertiary enrollment 83% 69% 22% 10% - 8 12 26 27 33 26 Primary enrollment Survival rate to 5th grade Poverty (% of population on less than $2 a day) (poverty population in millions) “Literacy is the cornerstone of human development and economic growth.” UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 5 This material is for training use only Dialects Dialects are the form or variety of a spoken language peculiar to a region, community, social group, or occupational group. Sometimes referred to as jargon or lingo. Southern U.S. Dealing with dialects... hoe cakes fly flapper 1. Encourage workers, supervisors and managers to ask questions when they hear a word they don’t understand and before taking action. 2. Assume the worker has not understood until the supervisor or manager has demonstrated. 3. Develop training programs with the actual objects and tasks management expects the workers to perform. British amber hole in the wall Australian whinger rubber Metaphors are fun and say a lot about your culture. But they can be tricky. It’s usually best to avoid them unless you spend the time to explain them: “Step up to the plate and grab the bull by the horns.” Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 6 This material is for training use only Translators Electronic translators do not work. Please do not use electronic translators to communicate safety information. If electronic translators worked, the first and last sentence should be the same (or at least, very close in meaning): ENGLISH (SOURCE) GERMAN (SOURCE) TO GERMAN (TARGET) TO ENGLISH (TARGET) Johnny went to the store to buy milk on a cold, rainy day. Johnny ging zum Speicher, Milch an einem kalten, regnerischen Tag zu kaufen. Johnny went buying rainy day to the memory, milk at a cold. Translator: Google Language Tools Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 7 This material is for training use only Translators & Interpreters Translators convert SOURCE language to TARGET language in writing. Interpreters convert SOURCE language to TARGET orally. Employers can and should verify translator’s and interpreter’s accuracy. TIP If the instructor and the interpreter can’t sustain a fluent conversation for 2-3 minutes about the training topic before the training, the interpreter is not qualified. Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 8 This material is for training use only Translators & Interpreters Translators and Interpreters can be: Workers Professionals (Yellow pages, Courts, Hospitals, and Language Associations have lists of them) Translating services (Language banks) Should you give preference to the native speaker of the TARGET language? YES! Example: Which is correct? THE TREE BIG GREEN THE BIG GREEN TREE Even if someone doesn’t know the rule that in English, adjectives precedes nouns, native speakers will know which is correct by the sound. American Translators Association: http://www.atanet.org/ Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 9 This material is for training use only Culture Culture is communication and communication is culture. Edward T. Hall The Silent Language Culture refers to a large group of people who over generations, have accumulated certain: Knowledge Experience Meanings Beliefs Values Time concepts Religions Relationships Spatial relations Culture summarized: “It’s the way we do things around here!” Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 10 This material is for training use only Obstacles to communication HIERARCHY The ranking order in a society. Also called the “pecking order.” Classified as Flat or Steep. Flat Hierarchy: Good example is the U.S. Even the constitution says: “All men are created equal...” Encourages people to explore, take risks. People feel it’s O.K. to participate and debate. People are informal with each other. Strangers talk to each other. Steep Hierarchy Asian and Latin countries have steep hierarchies. People respect social classes. People born into a class usually die in that class. Order and harmony is highly valued. People are formal. Strangers don’t talk. TIP Employers must teach workers from other cultures that in the U.S., we have a flatter hierarchy. Tell workers that they should EXPECT that someone ranked higher will ask their opinion: “What do you think?” Tell workers that the boss EXPECTS them to take the initiative: “If it is broken, fix it.” Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 11 This material is for training use only Obstacles to communication GENDER Many cultures regard certain behaviors as either masculine or feminine. In many cultures, gender determines what you can and can’t do. In some cultures, it is acceptable for a man to stare at a women in public. In some cultures, it is incomprehensible that a woman may give a direct order to a man. TIP Employers must teach workers from other cultures how women in the U.S. workplace should be treated. A hostile work environment can occur if employers don’t deal with gender issues promptly and directly. Tell workers that they should EXPECT that women in the workplace participate equally in making decisions and giving directions to men. Tell workers that in the U.S., it is skill and ability that determines what a worker can and can’t do - not gender. Explain to workers that in the U.S. there are laws that protect workers from gender discrimination or harassment. Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 12 This material is for training use only Obstacles to communication AGE Some cultures will not permit younger people to advance in society or career until they reach a certain age. TIP Employers must teach their workers that in the U.S., it is skill and ability that determines what a worker can and can’t do. GOVERNMENT VERSUS FAMILY People who can rely on effective governments (U.S., England, Denmark) are more likely to follow their country’s laws. People from cultures with less effective governments rely on extended family relationships for goods and services. Government laws and rules take second place. TIP Employers must teach their workers that in the U.S., the laws and rules must be followed. Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 13 This material is for training use only Obstacles to communication U.S.A LATIN AMERICA Product-oriented People-oriented Hard working; values time Hard-working; values enjoying time Decision-making by lower and middle management Decision-making by top management Direct communication: Yes / No Indirect communication: Preserves dignity of both saying No difficult Pride in competitiveness Pride in cooperation More willing to accept close supervision Feels that close supervision shows lack of trust Shifts to informal as soon as it’s possible Prefers formality until a real relationship exists TIP We use translators and interpreters for written and verbal communication. We should also use interpreters for cultural communication. Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 14 This material is for training use only Quotes . . . What Are Immigrant Workers Saying About Safety? We feel vulnerable because we don’t have papers to work legally so we don’t really have a right to complain about dangerous working conditions. If we ask for personal protective equipment, we’ll be turned over to the INS or fired and then placed on “blacklist” which will be shared with other employers. When we learn to read English, we’ll finally be able to read the hazard warnings on the chemical containers. We would do our work more safely if we were trained how even a brief safety meeting before starting the job and how to do it safely would help a lot. It would be good to have educational materials in our language. Some of us can read in our language. Many of us worry all the time about getting injured on the job and we also worry what’s going to happen to us in the future from the chemicals we’re working with today. Excerpts from Voices From the Margin, Immigrant Workers’ Perceptions of Health and Safety in the Workplaces. UCLA Labor Occupational Safety and Health Program. www.losh.ucla.edu Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 15 This material is for training use only Form an effective training team To be effective, newly hired workers must learn many things quickly. They must learn how to do the job, they must learn how to act safely, and they must learn the workplace’s unique culture. It is important for owners who hire Hispanic workers with limited English skills to know that because of this language barrier, these workers need more help than native English speaking workers in learning how to do the job, how to act safely, and how to be consistent with the owner’s beliefs and values. Form an effective training team consisting of the following key people: Language Leader – The person with the best bilingual skills. Social Leader – The person the group recognizes as their leader. Technical Leader – The person with the best skills and knowledge to get the job done. Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 16 This material is for training use only Form an effective training team Training Team Workers Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 17 This material is for training use only Initiate worker participation Have a Conversation About Cultural Attitudes Toward Safety Asking someone’s opinion makes them feel valued. Here are safety questions to ask that will make the workers the experts and will teach you about them! What rights do workers have in your country regarding a safe work environment? During the time you have been working in the United States, do you pay a) more attention b) less attention c) same attention to safety than you had to pay in your country? Which safety rules here are different from those in your country? What safety rules are the same? Are there safety committees in your country? If so, how often do they meet? In the companies you worked for in your country, were safety inspections conducted? From your work experience, what happened in case of a serious injury in your country? Did you use personal protective equipment in your country? Was it voluntary or mandatory? What are some of the reasons that people don’t follow workplace safety rules even though they know them? (U.S. or in your country) Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 18 This material is for training use only Know your workers RUSSIA Population: 142,893,540 Ethnic groups: Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8% Ukrainian 2% Bashkir 1.2% Chuvash 1.1% other or unspecified 12.1% Top trading partner: Netherlands (9%) (!) Languages: Russian, many minority languages National holiday: Russia Day, 12 June (1990) Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts Executive branch: chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN head of government: Premier Mikhail Yefimovich FRADKOV SOURCE: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 19 This material is for training use only Know your workers VIETNAM Population: 84,402,966 Ethnic groups: Kinh (Viet) 86.2% Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.7%, Muong 1.5% Khome 1.4%, Hoa 1.1%, Nun 1.1% Hmong 1%, others 4.1% Languages: Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer Top trading partner: U.S. (20%) National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945) Legal system: based on communist legal theory and French civil law system Executive branch: chief of state: President Tran Duc LUONG head of government: Prime Minister Phan Van KHAI SOURCE: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 20 This material is for training use only Know your workers MEXICO Population: 107,449,525 Ethnic groups: mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian 30%, white 9%, Top trading partner: U.S. (87%) other 1% Languages: Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810) (Not Cinco de Mayo) Legal system: mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction, with reservations Executive branch: chief of state: President Vicente FOX Quesada head of government: President Vicente FOX Quesada note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government SOURCE: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 21 This material is for training use only Know your workers HISPANIC NAMES - Which is the last name? JUAN CARLOS RAMIREZ FIRST NAME MIDDLE NAME FATHER’S LAST NAME ORTEGA MOTHER’S MAIDEN NAME If you ask me my name and we have not met, my culture compels me to tell you my FULL name: Juan Carlos Ramirez Ortega. Why? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Now that we’ve met, you don’t have to use my mother’s maiden name. Call me: Mr. Ramirez, Juan Ramirez, or Juan (Before using “Juan” it’s polite if you ask, “may I call you Juan?”). AND LAST... Consider posting a large map on the wall and provide push-pins to identify places of origin. (Lots of fun!) Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 22 This material is for training use only Programa en Español de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo de OR-OSHA OR-OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Program in Spanish These modules are designed to be taught in 30 to 60 minutes. Estos instructivos están diseñados para ser enseñados en 30 a 60 minutos. Obtain these bilingual training modules and the Spanish-English / English-Spanish Occupational Safety and Health Dictionary (30,000 words) at Obtenga estos instructivos bilingües y el Diccionario Español-Inglés / InglésEspañol de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo (30,000 palabras) en www.orosha.org www.orosha.org Please send comments to [email protected] Favor de enviar comentarios a [email protected] Nota: Este material educativo o cualquier otro material utilizado para adiestrar a patrones y empleados de los requisitos de cumplimiento de los reglamentos de la OR-OSHA por conducto de la simplificación de los reglamentos, no se considerará substituto de cualquiera de las previsiones de la Ley de Seguridad en el Trabajo de Oregon, o por cualquiera de las normas dictaminadas por la OR-OSHA. Este material educativo fue producido por el Programa PESO de la OR-OSHA. Note: This educational material or any other material used to inform employers and workers of compliance requirements of OR-OSHA standards through simplification of the regulations should not be considered a substitute for any provisions of the Oregon Safe Employment Act or for any standards issued by OR-OSHA. This educational material was produced by the OR-OSHA PESO Program. Excerpts from OR-OSHA Workshop - Safety Training and Your Hispanic Workforce 23 Programa en Español de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo de OR-OSHA OR-OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Program in Spanish TOPICS INCLUDE TEMAS INCLUYEN Accident Investigation Cultures, Languages, and Safety Excavations Fall Protection Hazard Communication Hazard Identification Hazardous Energy Control Industrial Vehicles Machine Safeguarding Manual Material Handling Occupational Health Portable Ladders Safety Committees Scaffolds Investigación de Accidentes Culturas, Idiomas, y la Seguridad Excavaciones Protección Contra Caídas Comunicación de Riesgo Localización de Riesgos Control de Energía Peligrosa Vehículos Industriales Resguardos de Máquinas Manipulación Manual de Cargas Higiene Laboral Escaleras Portátiles Comites de Seguridad Andamios LA LLAVE AL ACCESO En cumplimiento con el Acta de Americanos Incapacitados (ADA), esta publicación esta disponible en formatos alternos comunicándose con la Sección de Relaciones Públicas de OR-OSHA, (503) 378-3272 (V/TTY). In Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), this publication is available in alternative formats by calling the OR-OSHA Public Relations Section, (503) 378-3272 (V/TTY).