Information Technology
in the Digital Age
Information Highway
The Digital Economy
 The digital economy
refers to an economy that
is based on digital
technologies, including
digital communication
networks, computers, and
software.
 The digital economy is
also sometimes called the
Internet economy, the
New economy, or the
Web economy.
Electronic Framework
Electronic Commerce (EC)
 Electronic commerce is the use of Webbased systems to support buying, selling,
and customer service.
 Click-and-mortar companies add some
EC activities to their regular business.
Models of EC
Business-to-Business (B2B)
 Business-to-Consumers (B2C)
 Consumer-to-Organizations (C2O)
 Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)
 Intrabusiness (Intraorganizational)
Commerce
 Government-to-Citizens (G2C)
 Collaborative commerce (c-commerce)
 Mobile Commerce (m-commerce)

Mobile-Commerce

M-commerce (mobile commerce) refers to the conduct of
e-Commerce via wireless devices. It is the commercial
application of mobile computing which is based on
wireless networks.
 There is an increased interest in m-commerce because
the number of mobile devices is projected to top 1 billion
by 2004.

Location-based commerce (L-commerce) is an
application of m-commerce that offers customers the
location information of anything they want to purchase.
IT Architecture
Information Architecture

Information architecture is a high-level map or plan of the
information requirements in an organization.

In preparing information architecture, the designer requires
two kinds of information:
1.
2.
The business needs of the organization—that is, its objectives and
problems, and the contribution that IT can make.
The information systems that already exist in an organization and how
they can be combined among themselves or with future systems to
support the organization’s information needs.
Architecture Example’s
 APU’s Enterprise Architecture
 APU’s Information Architecture
Components of Information Systems
 Hardware is a set of devices
such as processor, monitor,
keyboard, and printer.
 Network is a connecting
system that permits the sharing
of resources between
computers.
 Software is a set of
programs that enable the
hardware to process data.
 Procedures are the set of
instructions about how to
combine the above
components.
 Database is a collection of
related files, tables, relations,
and so on, that stores data.
 People are those individuals
who work with the system or
use its output.
Computers

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
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Supercomputer
Main Frame
Mini Computer
Workstations
Microcomputers / PC’s



Desktops / Thin Clients
Laptops and Notebooks
Palmtops / PDA’s
 Smart Cards
Input Devices
Output Devices
Communications Media
Audio




Tape/cassette/record/CD/DVD
Teleconference / Audio conference
Sound digitizing
Microphone
Graphic materials
 Pictures
 Printed job aids
 Visual Displays
Text
 Printouts
Computer
 Digital video interactive
 Compact disc interactive
 Computer simulation
Motion / Still image






Slides / Overheads
Videodisc (cassette)
Motion pictures
Broadcast television
Teleconference/videoconference
Animation & Virtual Reality
Source Data Automation
 Captures data in computer-readable form at the moment
the data are created.
 Examples of Source Data Automation:



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Point-of-sale systems
Optical bar-codes
Code scanners
Handwriting recognizers
Voice recognizers
Magnetic ink character readers (MICR)
Digitizers
Digital Cameras
Wire vs. Wireless Media
Wire
 Twisted pair wire
 Coaxial cable
 Fiber optic cable
Wireless
 Cellular radio
 Microwave transmission
 Satellite transmission

Global positioning system
 Radio & Infrared light
 Bluetooth
Networks
 WAN
 LAN
 PAN
 VPN
LAN
WAN’s
 Network which extends geographical
boundaries - distance
 Network which joins remote networks
– use of 3rd party vendors
 Network which extends existing
resources
 Change of protocols
Equipment
 Repeaters
 Bridges (DSU/CSU)
 Routers
 Hubs / Switches
 Interface Cards (NIC)
Connectivity Technologies
Connectivity Services




POTS
xDSL
ISDN
Cable Modem
 Frame Relay
 Dedicated
 ATM
Connectivity Speeds







56 Kbps
T1 – 1.544 Mbps
T3 – 43.232 Mbps
OC3 – 155 Mbps
OC12 – 622 Mbps
OC48 – 2.5 Gbit
OC192 – 9.6 Gbit
Topology
 The topology of a network is the physical
layout and connectivity of a network.

Ring topology

Bus topology

Star network
Topology
 Bus - Ethernet
 Token Ring
 Star
WebHog
Types of Software
 Application software - set of computer instructions that directs
computer hardware to perform specific processing activities.


General Purpose
Specific
 Systems software - controls and supports the computer hardware
and its information processing activities between hardware and
applications.



System control programs
System support programs
System development programs
Internet Oriented Languages
 Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard
language the Web uses for creating and recognizing
hypermedia documents.


Hypertext (hyperlinks.)
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
 Dynamic HTML makes Web pages more like dynamic
applications and less like static content.
 XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is a language for defining,
validating and sharing document formats.
 Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) is a file format for
describing three-dimensional interactive worlds and objects.
Internet Oriented Languages (cont.)
 Java is an object-oriented programming language that gives
programmers the ability to develop applications that work across the
Internet.
 JavaScript. is an object-oriented scripting language that allows users
to add some interactivity to their Web pages.
 ActiveX is a set of technologies that combines different
programming languages into a single, integrated Web site.
 ASP (Active Server Pages) is a Microsoft CGI-like technology that
allows you to create dynamically generated Web pages from the
server side using a scripting language.
 PHP
Information Environment
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Data Integrity – Accuracy, Relevance
Timeliness
Data redundancy
Data inconsistency - Completeness
Data isolation
Security.
Application/ Data independence
The numerous problems arising from the file environment
approach led to the development of databases.
Database Typology
 A centralized database has all
the related files in one physical
location.
 A replicated database has
complete copies of the entire
database in several locations.
 A distributed database has
complete copies of a database,
or portions of a database, in
more than one location, which is
usually close to the user.
 A partitioned database is
subdivided, so that each location
has a portion of the entire
database.
Database Management Systems
 The program (or group of programs) that provides access to a
database is known as a database management system
(DBMS).
 There are many specialized databases, depending on the type or
format of data stored.
 A geographical information database
 A knowledge database
 A multimedia database
Logical Data Organization
There are three basic models for logically structuring
databases:

Hierarchical

Network

Relational
Data Warehouses
 A data warehouse is an
additional database that is
designed to support DSS,
EIS, online analytical
processing (OLAP), and other
end-user activities, such as
report generation, queries,
and graphical presentation.
 A data mart is smaller, less
expensive, and more focused
than a large-scale data
warehouse.
 Data marts can be a
substitution for a data
warehouse, or they can be
used in addition to it.
The Internet, Intranets & Extranets
 The Internet. From about 50 million Internet users in
1997, there could be as many as 750 million by 2007.
 Intranets utilize information technology to provide
organizations with internal communication systems.
 Extranets combine intranets with the Internet to create a
powerful interorganizational systems for collaboration.
Corporate Portals
 A corporate portal refers to a company’s Web site that is used
as a gateway to the corporate data, information, and
knowledge. (Single Point of Entrance)

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Knowledge bases and learning tools
Business process support
Customer-facing sales, marketing, and service
Collaboration and project support
Access to data from disparate corporate systems
Internal company information
Policies and procedures
Best practices and lessons learned
Human resources and benefits
Jeopardy
Future
“More Devices on Internet than People”
 Vending machines – Vending Express
 Wireless – Sprint Broadband Direct
 Mobile E-Commerce – Nokia, Visa Team
 Picture Frames
 SMART Devices – CoolTown
 Homes
Virtual Laboratories
 Interactive research
and instruction
 Real-time access to
remote scientific
instruments
Images courtesy of the
University of Michigan
Teleimmersion
 Shared virtual reality
 University of Illinois
at Chicago
Virtual
Temporal
Bone
Images courtesy
Univ of IllinoisChicago
Case: Wearable Computers
 For years, many mobile employees were unable to enjoy the new
technologies designed to make employees work or feel better.
 The use of wireless devices that can communicate with each other and
with remote IS is increasing very rapidly (m-commerce).
 Such systems could easily include GPS (global positioning systems).
 So far only a few companies make and sell wearables for mobile
workers, but this is expected to change in the future.
10 Hottest Jobs?
1. Tissue Engineers
2. Gene Programmers
3. Pharmers
4. Frankenfood Monitors
5. Data Miners
6. Hot-line Handymen
7. Virtual-reality Actors
8. Narrowcasters
9. Turing Testers
10. Knowledge Engineers
http://www.time.com/time/reports/v21/index_ie.html
Speech Recognition & Understanding
SPEECH RECOGNITION
is a process that allows us to
communicate with a
computer by speaking to it.
The computer recognizes
words that have been spoken
without necessarily
interpreting their meanings.
SPEECH UNDERSTANDING
refers to the second part of
the communication
process, where the
meaning of the speech is
ascertained.
Why do Managers Need the Support of IT?
Making decisions while processing information manually is
growing increasingly difficult due to the following trends:
 The number of alternatives to be considered is ever increasing.
 Many decisions must be made under time pressure.
 Due to increased fluctuations & uncertainty in the decision environment,
it is frequently necessary to conduct a sophisticated analysis to make a
good decision.
 It is often necessary to access remote information, consult with experts,
or have a group decision-making session, all quickly & in expensively.
“Digital –Economy Ready”
Actions organizations can take to become “digital-economy ready”;
 Build strategic information systems and use innovations
 Create effective and efficient communication and collaboration networks.
 Examine possible new models and initiatives of e-commerce
 Examine supply chains – business processes.
 Make a continuous effort to increase productivity, quality, security, and effectiveness
in every facet of the organization’s operations.
 Address organizational, personal, and socioeconomic issues associated with the
increase use of IT.
“Digital –Economy Ready” (cont.)
Plan IT systems in coordination with the business plans they intend
to support.
Increase recognition of knowledge, its creation, preservation,
storage, and dissemination.
Support managerial decisions with IT and especially the Web.
Have the ability to process a large amount of data.
Carefully address the economies of IT in general and e-commerce
in particular, including outsourcing, when moving to the new
economy.
Properly build and deploy information systems that will provide for
internal efficiency and connect to the many business partners.
Acronym Full Name
Downstream
Upstream
Maximum
Distance
(C.O./user)
18,000 ft
IDSL
Integrated
DSL
128 Kbps
128Kbps
HDSL
High Data
Rate DSL
Symmetric
DSL
1.544Mbps
1.544Mbps 12,000 ft
1.544Mbps
1.544Mbps 10,000 ft
Asymmetric
DSL
RADSL Rate Adapter
ADSL
8Mbps
1Mbps
12,000 ft
7Mbps
1Mbps
18,000 ft
VDSL
51.84Mbps
2.3Mbps
1,000 ft
SDSL
ADSL
Very High
Rate DSL
Lawrence Livermore Lab
New Computer
Baby
Number of Frames
Nodes per Frame
Number of Nodes
Processors per Node
Number of Processors
Speed in MHZ
Mega FLOPS
Memory in GB
Local Disk in GB
Global Disk in GB
Top 500
10T
4
4
16
8
128
222
113,664
128
4
512
16
8,192
310
10,158,080
64
4,000
288
1,200
10,000
150,000
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