Emerging Digital Media Forms for Increasing Engagement
in Health Messages Across Diverse Communities
Susan J. Robinson
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
Communication Across Borders
July 2008
Fine Print
Presentation contents are solely the responsibility of the
author and do not necessarily represent the official
views of the CDC.
Overview
• eHealth evolution
• Emerging Technologies
• Mobile media: texting and peer-generated video
• Engagement
• Evaluation design
• Tangible media: responsive objects, surfaces, and
spaces
• Key Research Questions
eVolution of eHealth
2005
2008
• Interactive
• Networked
• Tailoring –
Individual-level
• Peer-to-peer -Group level/social
• Personalization
• Participation
Theory Behind Tailoring*
Increase information
processing
Impact behavioral
determinants
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•
•
•
•
•
•
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•
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Attention
Effortful processing
Self-reference
Peripheral processing
Emotional response
Behavioral intention
Skills
Self-efficacy
Attitudes/expectancies
Normative perceptions
Source: Hawkins et al. Understanding tailoring in Cancer Communication,
eHealth Summit 2005.
Social Networks
Social Networking Sites:
• Improve user reach
• Improve customer
satisfaction
• Promote products and
services
• Facilitate knowledge
sharing
• Increase brand
awareness
World AIDS Day / Know It Campaign – bloggers
Mobile Phone Use
•
•
•
More adults in the U.S.
adults (85%) own a
mobile phone, as
compared to those
(71%) who have a
landline or home
phone.
About 200 million text
messages are sent on
the average day
(2007), up from 75
million per day in the
same period the year
before (2006).
An estimated 8 million
people viewed mobile
videos in May 2007
Texting: Evidence of Effectiveness
•
•
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Smoking cessation
Weight managemnet
Diabetes management
Asthma control
HIV awareness
Text Messaging and Internet Zip Code Finder
Mobile Texting Campaign: KnowIt
• To encourage users to know their HIV
status and to locate HIV testing facilities
nearby
• Mobile phone users text their zip code to
“KNOWIT” (566948) and within seconds
they receive a text message with an HIV
testing location near them.
• This mobile phone service connects users
with CDC’s testing database found at
www.HIVtest.org.
• Localization
Date
12/31/2007
12/29/2007
12/27/2007
12/25/2007
12/23/2007
12/21/2007
12/19/2007
12/17/2007
12/15/2007
12/13/2007
12/11/2007
12/9/2007
12/7/2007
12/5/2007
12/3/2007
12/1/2007
11/29/2007
11/27/2007
11/25/2007
11/23/2007
11/21/2007
11/19/2007
11/17/2007
11/15/2007
Number of SMS Hits
KnowIt – Texting Hits (World AIDS Day 2007)
KnowIt SMS Hits
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Personal Public Service Announcements: PPSAs
Engagement with HIV Prevention:
A Mobile Media Experience
• Engaging target audience in the making of
the message
• Ensuring diversity of participants – brought
together through a problem in common
• First Department-level clearance for peergenerated mobile content
• PPSAs available on YouTube
• From more information about the event, see:
http://www.nmi.uga.edu/aids_ppsa/
2008 Event Sponsored by
the University of Georgia, CDC,
Verizon, Nokia, AIDS Research
Consortium of Atlanta, and many others.
Peer-Generated Process: 2 Days
• Diverse students – state liberal arts, state engineering
universities and historically black college/university
• Received briefing on HIV science, epidemiology, & effective
health message “platforms” (tested messages)
• Heard from/interacted with HIV positive gay men working in
AIDS prevention
• Pitched ideas & received feedback from experts on message
translation before shooting/production
• Produced messages entirely on mobile phone equipment
(phones & bluetooth microphones)
• Edited PPSA’s on personal computers
The Lens of Contact Theory
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Equal status?
Cooperation over superordinate goals?
Close, meaningful contact?
Institutional support?
Willingness to participate?
Distribution: WWW & Mobile (VCast, Ads)
(http://youtube.com/user/CDCStreamingHealth)
Evaluation
• Centers for Excellence in Health Marketing
• Pretesting with high-risk 18-26 year olds for message
effects, attention-getting, positive effects
• Compare cell phone and YouTube channel formats
effects, willingness to pass to friends
• Study process and impact of peer-to-peer distribution
of the messages
• Performance of promoted behavior (txt zip to KNOWIT)
• Campaign metrics analysis (mobile ad buy)
Tangible User Interface (TUI): Definition
Marble Answering Machine
Royal College of Art,
Interaction Design
Durrell Bishop, 1992
•
•
[Ishii & Ullmer 1997]
TUIs give physical form to digital information by
seamlessly coupling the dual worlds of bits and
atoms…
• Digital information [bits]
• Everyday physical objects and spaces [atoms]
•
This means we can…
• Use physical spaces, surfaces, and objects as
both controls and representations of digital
information
• Enable co-located collaborative user
interactions with digital information
Tangible Media
• [Dourish 2001]
• "Where the Action Is: The
Foundations of
Embodied Interaction“
WikiTUI
Digital Annotation of Physical Books
Synaesthetic Media Lab,
Andy Wu & Ali Mazalek, 2008
• Emphasizes how social
action is embedded in
settings - not only
material, but also the
social, cultural and
historical - focusing on
the social construction of
meaning.
Making Contact?
• Tangible tabletop stories that can be told from many
different perspectives, understood in many different ways
Storytelling workshop at the Boston Museum
of Science Computer Clubhouse, 2001
Experiments: Multi-Viewpoint Stories
Insert
architales
KinoPuzzle
Documentary Collage
Synaesthetic Media Lab,
Robinson & Ali Mazalek, 2008
Architales
Experimental Media Class 2008
The Iterative Development Cycle
Design the
interface
Use the interface
Identify possible
improvements
Test and Analyze
interface
utilization
Source: A. Badre. www.interfacile.com
Key Research Questions
• What are potential application domain areas for tangible
media in health interventions?
• How can we engage affected communities in designing
interventions (problem solving)?
• How would we evaluate these interventions, e.g. identify
comparison conditions and groups?
• What is the type and magnitude of effects that can be
expected from tangible interventions versus traditional
digital media?
• For border health issues (e.g. environment) could
tangible media increase the feeling of significant
contact?
Contact Information
Susan J. Robinson [email protected]
NCHHSTP Health Communication Science Office
Thanks to:
Ann Aikin
[email protected]
Division of eHealth Marketing
National Center for Health Marketing
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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