Modern English 1800-2005 English 1720 British Colonies 1763 Declaration of Indepence 1776 British Colonies 1815 British Empire 1918-1939 Languages of India English-speaking countries 2000 British Empire 1918-1939 English-speaking countries 2000 English in Europe English in North America English in the Caribbean English in Africa English in Asia and the Pacific English as a world language English is the language of all international affairs: politics, economy, culture, science, air traffic, sports. Globalisation • Political dominance of the US • World wide trading relationships • Increasing mobility • The Internet The Future of English Will the world end up with only one language? Will English become the native language of the world? The growth of the vocabulary English has acquired many new words for new scientific and technological concepts. The bulk of the new vocabulary is only known to the specialst, but some words have become part of the everyday language. Transportation automobile car train truck plane railroad airport traffic light windshield freeway clutch gearshift to park to tune up Electronic media cinema movie film broadcast television cable TV telephone cell phone videotape VCR DVD stereo radio soap opera antenna microphone Computer computer software hardware mouse cursor download to surf the internet virus spam mail PC modem RAM byte internet email hacker firewall CD-ROM Medicine AIDS Antibiotics vaccine clinic injection hormones aspirin insulin proteins cholesterol carbohydrate EKG DNA x-rays schizophrenic immune system Food chili enchilada taco nachos junk food French fries potato chips hamburger Goulash tofu muesli pizza coca cola pepsi gyros muffin French chef menu beige gourmet restaurant au pair chauffeur coupon elite garage genre semantics Spanish gringo mustang ranch bronco nachos enchilada chili taco Italian lasagna pasta salami mafia fiasco inferno Japanese judo tycoon karaoke kamikaze bonsai karate geisha hara-kiri Yiddish kosher bagel to schlep to schwitz German German kindergarten zeitgeist gestalt pretzel schnaps strudel leitmotif angst festschrift weltanschauung poodle to yodel Compounding fire extinguisher lipstick railroad jet lag junk food lifestyle roller blades streamline skyline airplane airport space shuttle to skydive to outsource Affixation transoceanic transcontinental trans-Siberian transliterate prenatal preschool preregistration prehistoric postmodernism postcolonialism postgraduate study post doc decode defrost deflate debunk Blends brunch motel chunnel smog snark Frisco Amtrack trafficator fantabulous chortle Brand names sandwich kodak cola camembert shrapnel boycott limousine tabasco Acronyms Radar radio detecting and ranging) AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrom OPEC Organization of Petrolium Exporting Countries NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Metaphor hardware mouse memory language program spyware virus garbage can desktop file window email firewall antivirus Phonological changes Flapping of [t] in American English: ladder matter writer Spelling pronunciations forehead clapboard calm, psalm, palm, balm chalk, folk Strong-weak verbs abide mow saw strive swell Thrive OLD abode mew sew strove swoll throve NEW abided mowed sawed strived swelled thrived Relative pronoun 1. Which can no longer be used with a human antecedent. 2. Which and that mark the contrast between restrictive and non-restrictive relatives. 3. In SUBJ-relatives, the relative pronoun is obligatory. (1) (2) *He talked to the man __ bought our company. He talked to the man Jack met __ on the street. Prepositions and conjunctions (1) (2) granted, pending in front of, on the basis of (3) (4) assuming that, given that on grounds that, in view of the fact that Standard use convince of married to take charge of in search of New common use convince about married with take charge over in search for Passive progressive (1) (2) (3) My car is being broken. My house is being painted. This problem is being discussed at today’s meeting. (1’) (2’) (3’) My car is repairing. My house is painting. This problem is discussing today’s meeting. Get passive (1) (2) The walls were painted. The walls got painted. Gonna future I am going to marry Bill. [i.e. I am leaving in order to marry Bill] I [am going [to marry [Bill]]]. >>> I [[[am [going to]] marry] [Bill]] Lexical expressions and grammatical markers Lexical Grammatical noun prepositions verbs conjunctions adjectives pronouns auxiliaries bound morphemes Grammaticalization Source Target: AUX go (motion) gonna will (intention) will have (possession) have Grammaticalization Source Target: P during (verb) during in front of (PP) in front of a-gone (PRE-verb) ago Grammaticalization Source Target: CONJ by cause (PP) because DEM while SUB while given given Grammaticalization Source Target: PRO/ART some body (NP) somebody one (numeral) the one one (numeral) a Grammaticalization Source Target: Discourse do you know y‘know I think (I) think I guess (I) guess Grammaticalization Source Target: Bound NOUN -ly NOUN -hood did -ed Grammaticalization Grammaticalization is cross-linguistically so pervasive that some linguists suggested that all grammatical expressions are eventually derived from a lexical source. The grammaticalization of demonstratives There is at least one other class for the development of grammatical markers: demonstratives. Demonstratives provide a frequent historical source for a wide variety of grammatical expressions: articles, relative and third person pronouns, sentence connectives, copulas, directional preverbs, focus markers etc. The grammaticalization of demonstratives Hans bemerkte, dass jemand, den er heute noch nicht gesehen hatte, zu Franz hinüberging, nachdem dieser den Raum betrat. The grammaticalization of demonstratives Hans bemerkte, dass jemand, den er heute noch nicht gesehen hatte, zu Franz hinüberging, nachdem dieser den Raum betrat. The grammaticalization of demonstratives There is no evidence from any language that demonstratives developed from lexical expressions. The grammaticalization of demonstratives Are demonstratives grammatical markers? The grammaticalization of demonstratives Demonstratives function to establish joint attention, which is one of the most fundamental functions of human communication. The grammaticalization of demonstratives Demonstratives have a special status in language: They are part of the basic vocabulary of every language. The grammaticalization of demonstratives lexical expressions demonstratives lexical grammatical markers Grammaticalization and linguistic theory Grammaticalization is of central signifiance for the theory of language: 1. Challenges rigid division between lexicon and grammar. 2. Suggests that grammar is a dynamic model. 3. Supports the hypothesis that grammatical categories have a prototype structure.