Modern English
1800-2005
English 1720
British Colonies 1763
Declaration of Indepence 1776
British Colonies 1815
British Empire 1918-1939
Languages
of India
English-speaking countries 2000
British Empire 1918-1939
English-speaking countries 2000
English in Europe
English in North America
English in the Caribbean
English in Africa
English in Asia and the Pacific
English as a world language
English is the language of all
international affairs: politics, economy,
culture, science, air traffic, sports.
Globalisation
• Political dominance of the US
• World wide trading relationships
• Increasing mobility
• The Internet
The Future of English
Will the world end up with only one
language?
Will English become the native language
of the world?
The growth of the vocabulary
English has acquired many new words for new
scientific and technological concepts.
The bulk of the new vocabulary is only known
to the specialst, but some words have become
part of the everyday language.
Transportation
automobile
car
train
truck
plane
railroad
airport
traffic light
windshield
freeway
clutch
gearshift
to park
to tune up
Electronic media
cinema
movie
film
broadcast
television
cable TV
telephone
cell phone
videotape
VCR
DVD
stereo
radio
soap opera
antenna
microphone
Computer
computer
software
hardware
mouse
cursor
download
to surf the internet
virus
spam mail
PC
modem
RAM
byte
internet
email
hacker
firewall
CD-ROM
Medicine
AIDS
Antibiotics
vaccine
clinic
injection
hormones
aspirin
insulin
proteins
cholesterol
carbohydrate
EKG
DNA
x-rays
schizophrenic
immune system
Food
chili
enchilada
taco
nachos
junk food
French fries
potato chips
hamburger
Goulash
tofu
muesli
pizza
coca cola
pepsi
gyros
muffin
French
chef
menu
beige
gourmet
restaurant
au pair
chauffeur
coupon
elite
garage
genre
semantics
Spanish
gringo
mustang
ranch
bronco
nachos
enchilada
chili
taco
Italian
lasagna
pasta
salami
mafia
fiasco
inferno
Japanese
judo
tycoon
karaoke
kamikaze
bonsai
karate
geisha
hara-kiri
Yiddish
kosher
bagel
to schlep
to schwitz
German
German
kindergarten
zeitgeist
gestalt
pretzel
schnaps
strudel
leitmotif
angst
festschrift
weltanschauung
poodle
to yodel
Compounding
fire extinguisher
lipstick
railroad
jet lag
junk food
lifestyle
roller blades
streamline
skyline
airplane
airport
space shuttle
to skydive
to outsource
Affixation
transoceanic
transcontinental
trans-Siberian
transliterate
prenatal
preschool
preregistration
prehistoric
postmodernism
postcolonialism
postgraduate study
post doc
decode
defrost
deflate
debunk
Blends
brunch
motel
chunnel
smog
snark
Frisco
Amtrack
trafficator
fantabulous
chortle
Brand names
sandwich
kodak
cola
camembert
shrapnel
boycott
limousine
tabasco
Acronyms
Radar
radio detecting and ranging)
AIDS
Acquired Immune Deficiency
Syndrom
OPEC
Organization of Petrolium
Exporting Countries
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Metaphor
hardware
mouse
memory
language
program
spyware
virus
garbage can
desktop
file
window
email
firewall
antivirus
Phonological changes
Flapping of [t] in American English:
ladder
matter
writer
Spelling pronunciations
forehead
clapboard
calm, psalm, palm, balm
chalk, folk
Strong-weak verbs
abide
mow
saw
strive
swell
Thrive
OLD
abode
mew
sew
strove
swoll
throve
NEW
abided
mowed
sawed
strived
swelled
thrived
Relative pronoun
1. Which can no longer be used with a human
antecedent.
2. Which and that mark the contrast between
restrictive and non-restrictive relatives.
3. In SUBJ-relatives, the relative pronoun is
obligatory.
(1)
(2)
*He talked to the man __ bought our company.
He talked to the man Jack met __ on the street.
Prepositions and conjunctions
(1)
(2)
granted, pending
in front of, on the basis of
(3)
(4)
assuming that, given that
on grounds that, in view of the fact that
Standard use
convince of
married to
take charge of
in search of
New common use
convince about
married with
take charge over
in search for
Passive progressive
(1)
(2)
(3)
My car is being broken.
My house is being painted.
This problem is being discussed at today’s
meeting.
(1’)
(2’)
(3’)
My car is repairing.
My house is painting.
This problem is discussing today’s meeting.
Get passive
(1)
(2)
The walls were painted.
The walls got painted.
Gonna future
I am going to marry Bill.
[i.e. I am leaving in order to marry Bill]
I [am going [to marry [Bill]]].
>>> I [[[am [going to]] marry] [Bill]]
Lexical expressions and
grammatical markers
Lexical
Grammatical
noun
prepositions
verbs
conjunctions
adjectives
pronouns
auxiliaries
bound morphemes
Grammaticalization
Source
Target: AUX
go (motion)
gonna
will (intention)
will
have (possession)
have
Grammaticalization
Source
Target: P
during (verb)
during
in front of (PP)
in front of
a-gone (PRE-verb)
ago
Grammaticalization
Source
Target: CONJ
by cause (PP)
because
DEM while SUB
while
given
given
Grammaticalization
Source
Target: PRO/ART
some body (NP)
somebody
one (numeral)
the one
one (numeral)
a
Grammaticalization
Source
Target: Discourse
do you know
y‘know
I think
(I) think
I guess
(I) guess
Grammaticalization
Source
Target: Bound
NOUN
-ly
NOUN
-hood
did
-ed
Grammaticalization
Grammaticalization is cross-linguistically
so pervasive that some linguists suggested
that all grammatical expressions are
eventually derived from a lexical source.
The grammaticalization of
demonstratives
There is at least one other class for the
development of grammatical markers:
demonstratives.
Demonstratives provide a frequent historical
source for a wide variety of grammatical
expressions: articles, relative and third person
pronouns, sentence connectives, copulas,
directional preverbs, focus markers etc.
The grammaticalization of
demonstratives
Hans bemerkte, dass jemand, den er
heute noch nicht gesehen hatte, zu Franz
hinüberging, nachdem dieser den Raum
betrat.
The grammaticalization of
demonstratives
Hans bemerkte, dass jemand, den er
heute noch nicht gesehen hatte, zu Franz
hinüberging, nachdem dieser den Raum
betrat.
The grammaticalization of
demonstratives
There is no evidence from any language
that demonstratives developed from lexical
expressions.
The grammaticalization of
demonstratives
Are demonstratives grammatical markers?
The grammaticalization of
demonstratives
Demonstratives function to establish
joint attention, which is one of the most
fundamental functions of human
communication.
The grammaticalization of
demonstratives
Demonstratives have a special status in
language: They are part of the basic
vocabulary of every language.
The grammaticalization of
demonstratives
lexical expressions
demonstratives
lexical
grammatical markers
Grammaticalization and
linguistic theory
Grammaticalization is of central signifiance for
the theory of language:
1. Challenges rigid division between lexicon
and grammar.
2. Suggests that grammar is a dynamic model.
3. Supports the hypothesis that grammatical
categories have a prototype structure.
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History of the English Language - uni