```Mastering CAD/CAM
Ibrahim Zeid
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
GOAL
Understand and master the nature of CAD/CAM systems, their basic
structure, their use in engineering tasks, and their use to create geometric
models of simple parts.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Product life cycle
 Becoming familiar with CAD/CAM systems
 Demo parts
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CHAPTER 2 – 3D MODELING AND VIEWING
GOAL
Understand and master the basic concepts of 3D modeling and viewing,
the difference between them, the control of modeling via sketch planes,
and the effective use of CAD/CAM systems in geometric modeling.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Types of geometric models
 Coordinate systems
 Sketching and sketch planes
 Modeling entities and features
 Modeling operations
 Modeling strategies
 Model viewing
 System modes
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CHAPTER 3 – MODELING AIDS AND TOOLS
GOAL
Understand and master modeling aids and manipulations, know the
available tools offered by CAD/CAM systems, and learn how and when
to use the tools to speed up geometric construction.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Geometric modifiers
 Layers
 Colors
 Grids
 Groups
 Entity selection
 Entity manipulation
 Entity editing
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CHAPTER 4 – ENGINEERING DRAWINGS
GOAL
Understand and master the creation of engineering drawings, their use in
design documentation, their use in manufacturing activities, the
information that a drawing stores, and how to avoid over- or underdimensioning.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Engineering drawings (blueprints)
 Title block
 Dimensioning
 Tolerances
 Notes and labels
 Manufacturing information
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GOAL
Understand and master the concepts of object-oriented programming
and their use in parametric design, become familiar with customizing
programming.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Object definition
 Object creation and use
 Inheritance
 Macros
 C++ and OpenGL
 Java 3D
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CHAPTER 6 - CURVES
GOAL
Understand and master the theory and practice of curves, their types,
parametric formulation, vector analysis, their implementation by
CAD/CAM systems, and their use in geometric modeling.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Geometric modeling
 Modeling entities
 Curve implicit equations
 Curve parametric equations
 Curve properties
 Analytic curves
 Synthetic curves
 Curve manipulations
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CHAPTER 7 - SURFACES
GOAL
Understand and master the theory and practice of surfaces, their types,
their use in geometric modeling.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Surfaces and solid modeling
 Surface entities
 Extending curves to surfaces
 Surface parametric equations
 Surface properties
 Analytic surfaces
 Parametric surfaces
 Surface manipulations
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CHAPTER 8 - NURBS
GOAL
Understand and master the theory and practice of NURBS curves and
surfaces, their formulation, their implementation by CAD/CAM systems,
and the advantages of their use in geometric modeling.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 NURBS modeling
 NURBS basics (knot vectors and weights)
 NURBS curves
 NURBS lines
 NURBS arcs and circles
 NURBS surfaces
 NURBS bilinear surface
 NURBS ruled surface
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CHAPTER 9 - INTRODUCTION
GOAL
Understand and master the concepts of solid modeling, the use of
primitives in geometric modeling, the basics of Boolean operations, and
the representation schemes of solids.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Geometry and topology
 Primitives
 Primitives’ manipulation
 Regularized sets
 Set membership classification
 Constructive solid geometry (CSG)
 Boundary representation (B-rep)
 Sweeps
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CHAPTER 10 - INTRODUCTION
GOAL
Understand and master the concept of features and their use in geometric
modeling; the basics of parametrics, relations, and constraints; and the use
of parametrics and relations in “what-if ” design questions.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Features and primitives
 Feature entities
 3D sketching
 Feature representation
 Creating features
 Parametrics
 Relations and constraints
 Feature manipulations
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CHAPTER 11 – GRAPHICS DISPLAY
GOAL
Understand and master the concept of raster displays, the types of display
monitors (including the digital flat panel displays), and the parameters of
these displays.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Impact of displays on CAD models
 CRTs
 Flat screen CRTs
 Flat panel displays
 LCDs
 Digital flat panel displays
 Comparing displays
 Specifications
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CHAPTER 12 - TRANSFORMATIONS
GOAL
Understand and master the concepts of geometric transformations, their
types, their use in geometric modeling, how they speed up the creation of
CAD models, and how CAD systems use them to create views and
engineering drawings.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Need for geometric transformations
 Translation, rotation, mirroring, scaling, and reflection
 Homogeneous transformations
 Concatenated transformations
 Inverse transformations
 Projections of geometric models
 Orthographic projections
 Perspective projections
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CHAPTER 13 - VISUALIZATION
GOAL
Understand and master the concepts of rendering and visualization and
their importance to geometric modeling, and understand the related
algorithms.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Need for rendering
 Model cleanup
 Hidden line removal
 Hidden surface removal
 Hidden solid removal
 Visualization algorithms
 Colors
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CHAPTER 14 – COMPUTER ANIMATION
GOAL
Understand and master the concepts of motion and animation and their
importance to geometric modeling, and understand the related algorithms.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Need for motion and animation
 Computer animation
 Frame-buffer animation
 Real-time playback
 Keyframe technique
 Simulation approach
 Animation-related problems
 Animation of articulated bodies
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CHAPTER 15 – MASS PROPERTIES
GOAL
Understand and master geometric and mass properties, how to calculate
them, the concept of numerical integration, and how to use CAD systems
to calculate mass properties.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Importance of mass properties in CAD design
 Calculate curve and contour lengths
 Calculate areas
 Calculate volumes
 Calculate centroids
 Calculate inertia properties
 Use mass properties in part design
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CHAPTER 16 – ASSEMBLY MODELING
GOAL
Understand and master assemblies, the different approaches to creating
then, assembly analysis, and how to use CAD systems to create assembly
models.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Differences between part and assembly modeling
 Mating conditions
 Bottom-up assembly modeling approach
 Top-down assembly modeling approach
 WCS and mate methods to assemble parts
 Managing assemblies
 Working with subassemblies
 Assembly analysis
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CHAPTER 17 – FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
GOAL
Understand finite element modeling and analysis. How to calculate
stresses an strains, and how to use CAD systems to help perform
FEM/FEA.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Why the finite element method
 Procedure of the finite element method
 FEA
 FEM
 Preprocessors: mesh generation
 Postprocessors: results display
 Understanding the results
 How CAD systems facilitate both FEM and FEA
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CHAPTER 18 – PRODUCT DATA EXCHANGE
GOAL
Understand data exchange standards including IGES and STEP, how
translators work, why we need preprocessors and postprocessors, and
how to test translators to ensure the correct data conversion.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Necessary evil of CAD/CAM data translation
 Data exchange format
 IGES standard
 STEP standard
 ACIS format



DXF de facto standard
File structure and format
Testing and verification
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CHAPTER 19 – COLLABORATIVE DESIGN
GOAL
Understand the difference between traditional and collaborative design,
become familiar with collaborative design concepts, understand its
requirements, and know what tools are needed to perform collaborative
design.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Synchronous and asynchronous communication
 Distributed computing model
 Instant messaging
 Virtual reality
 Collaborative design principles
 Collaboration approaches
 Collaboration tools
 Collaborative design software
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CHAPTER 20 – ENGINEERING TOLERANCES
GOAL
Understand the importance and role of tolerances in manufacturing, the
different types of tolerances, part inspection and its relation to tolerances,
and how CAD systems implement and use tolerances.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Tolerance concepts: limits and fits, accumulation, cost, and quality
 Conventional tolerances
 Geometric tolerances
 Datums
 ANSI GD&T Y14.5M standards
 Inspection gages
 Tolerance stackup analysis
 Tolerance synthesis
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CHAPTER 21 – PROCESS PLANNING
GOAL
Understand the interface between design and manufacturing and between
CAD and CAM, the importance of process planning, the basics of CAPP,
and the benefits of CAPP.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Manual process planning
 Essentials of CAPP
 Input and output of CAPP systems
 CAPP models
 Architecture of CAPP systems
 CAPP approaches: variant, generative, and hybrid
 CAPP benefits
 CAPP software
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CHAPTER 22 – PART PROGRAMMING
GOAL
Understand the basics of machine tools and their programming. Part
programming an its basics, the fundamentals of coding languages and
structure, and the use of CAD/CAM systems for generating and verifying
toolpaths.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 Importance of part programming
 Working at the interface between CAF and CAM
 CAM requirements of CAD data
 Fundamentals of machine tools: axes radius programming, and tool
offsets
 APT programming: geometric and motion statements
 Toolpath generation
 Toolpath verification
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CHAPTER 23 – PRODUCT LIFECYCLE
MANAGEMENT
GOAL
Understand PLM, why it is crucial for companies to implement, what a
PLM system offers, what PDM is and its relationship to PLM, and analyze
some PLM and PDM case studies.
OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts:
 The current engineering and design practice
 Types of product information
 PLM goal
 PLM benefits
 PLM systems
 PLM enabling technologies
 PDM
 Case studies of implementing PLM and PDM
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