Mastering CAD/CAM Ibrahim Zeid CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION GOAL Understand and master the nature of CAD/CAM systems, their basic structure, their use in engineering tasks, and their use to create geometric models of simple parts. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Product life cycle Scope of CAD/CAM CAD/CAM Applications Acquiring CAD/CAM Systems Installing CAD/CAM Systems Becoming familiar with CAD/CAM systems GUIs and Help menus Demo parts 2 CHAPTER 2 – 3D MODELING AND VIEWING GOAL Understand and master the basic concepts of 3D modeling and viewing, the difference between them, the control of modeling via sketch planes, and the effective use of CAD/CAM systems in geometric modeling. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Types of geometric models Coordinate systems Sketching and sketch planes Modeling entities and features Modeling operations Modeling strategies Model viewing System modes 3 CHAPTER 3 – MODELING AIDS AND TOOLS GOAL Understand and master modeling aids and manipulations, know the available tools offered by CAD/CAM systems, and learn how and when to use the tools to speed up geometric construction. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Geometric modifiers Layers Colors Grids Groups Entity selection Entity manipulation Entity editing 4 CHAPTER 4 – ENGINEERING DRAWINGS GOAL Understand and master the creation of engineering drawings, their use in design documentation, their use in manufacturing activities, the information that a drawing stores, and how to avoid over- or underdimensioning. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Engineering drawings (blueprints) CAD drawings CAD views Title block Dimensioning Tolerances Notes and labels Manufacturing information 5 CHAPTER 5 – CAD/CAM PROGRAMMING GOAL Understand and master the concepts of object-oriented programming and their use in parametric design, become familiar with customizing CAD/CAM systems, and know the various methods of CAD/CAM programming. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Object definition Object creation and use Inheritance Macros CAD/CAM API functions C++ and OpenGL Java 3D 6 CHAPTER 6 - CURVES GOAL Understand and master the theory and practice of curves, their types, parametric formulation, vector analysis, their implementation by CAD/CAM systems, and their use in geometric modeling. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Geometric modeling Modeling entities Curve implicit equations Curve parametric equations Curve properties Analytic curves Synthetic curves Curve manipulations 7 CHAPTER 7 - SURFACES GOAL Understand and master the theory and practice of surfaces, their types, parametric formulation, their implementation by CAD/CAD systems, and their use in geometric modeling. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Surfaces and solid modeling Surface entities Extending curves to surfaces Surface parametric equations Surface properties Analytic surfaces Parametric surfaces Surface manipulations 8 CHAPTER 8 - NURBS GOAL Understand and master the theory and practice of NURBS curves and surfaces, their formulation, their implementation by CAD/CAM systems, and the advantages of their use in geometric modeling. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: NURBS modeling NURBS basics (knot vectors and weights) NURBS curves NURBS lines NURBS arcs and circles NURBS surfaces NURBS bilinear surface NURBS ruled surface 9 CHAPTER 9 - INTRODUCTION GOAL Understand and master the concepts of solid modeling, the use of primitives in geometric modeling, the basics of Boolean operations, and the representation schemes of solids. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Geometry and topology Primitives Primitives’ manipulation Regularized sets Set membership classification Constructive solid geometry (CSG) Boundary representation (B-rep) Sweeps 10 CHAPTER 10 - INTRODUCTION GOAL Understand and master the concept of features and their use in geometric modeling; the basics of parametrics, relations, and constraints; and the use of parametrics and relations in “what-if ” design questions. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Features and primitives Feature entities 3D sketching Feature representation Creating features Parametrics Relations and constraints Feature manipulations 11 CHAPTER 11 – GRAPHICS DISPLAY GOAL Understand and master the concept of raster displays, the types of display monitors (including the digital flat panel displays), and the parameters of these displays. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Impact of displays on CAD models CRTs Flat screen CRTs Flat panel displays LCDs Digital flat panel displays Comparing displays Specifications 12 CHAPTER 12 - TRANSFORMATIONS GOAL Understand and master the concepts of geometric transformations, their types, their use in geometric modeling, how they speed up the creation of CAD models, and how CAD systems use them to create views and engineering drawings. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Need for geometric transformations Translation, rotation, mirroring, scaling, and reflection Homogeneous transformations Concatenated transformations Inverse transformations Projections of geometric models Orthographic projections Perspective projections 13 CHAPTER 13 - VISUALIZATION GOAL Understand and master the concepts of rendering and visualization and their importance to geometric modeling, and understand the related algorithms. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Need for rendering Model cleanup Hidden line removal Hidden surface removal Hidden solid removal Visualization algorithms Shading Colors 14 CHAPTER 14 – COMPUTER ANIMATION GOAL Understand and master the concepts of motion and animation and their importance to geometric modeling, and understand the related algorithms. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Need for motion and animation Computer animation Frame-buffer animation Real-time playback Keyframe technique Simulation approach Animation-related problems Animation of articulated bodies 15 CHAPTER 15 – MASS PROPERTIES GOAL Understand and master geometric and mass properties, how to calculate them, the concept of numerical integration, and how to use CAD systems to calculate mass properties. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Importance of mass properties in CAD design Calculate curve and contour lengths Calculate areas Calculate volumes Calculate centroids Calculate inertia properties Use Gauss quadrature Use mass properties in part design 16 CHAPTER 16 – ASSEMBLY MODELING GOAL Understand and master assemblies, the different approaches to creating then, assembly analysis, and how to use CAD systems to create assembly models. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Differences between part and assembly modeling Mating conditions Bottom-up assembly modeling approach Top-down assembly modeling approach WCS and mate methods to assemble parts Managing assemblies Working with subassemblies Assembly analysis 17 CHAPTER 17 – FINITE ELEMENT METHOD GOAL Understand finite element modeling and analysis. How to calculate stresses an strains, and how to use CAD systems to help perform FEM/FEA. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Why the finite element method Procedure of the finite element method FEA FEM Preprocessors: mesh generation Postprocessors: results display Understanding the results How CAD systems facilitate both FEM and FEA 18 CHAPTER 18 – PRODUCT DATA EXCHANGE GOAL Understand data exchange standards including IGES and STEP, how translators work, why we need preprocessors and postprocessors, and how to test translators to ensure the correct data conversion. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Necessary evil of CAD/CAM data translation Data exchange format IGES standard STEP standard ACIS format DXF de facto standard File structure and format Testing and verification 19 CHAPTER 19 – COLLABORATIVE DESIGN GOAL Understand the difference between traditional and collaborative design, become familiar with collaborative design concepts, understand its requirements, and know what tools are needed to perform collaborative design. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Synchronous and asynchronous communication Distributed computing model Instant messaging Virtual reality Collaborative design principles Collaboration approaches Collaboration tools Collaborative design software 20 CHAPTER 20 – ENGINEERING TOLERANCES GOAL Understand the importance and role of tolerances in manufacturing, the different types of tolerances, part inspection and its relation to tolerances, and how CAD systems implement and use tolerances. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Tolerance concepts: limits and fits, accumulation, cost, and quality Conventional tolerances Geometric tolerances Datums ANSI GD&T Y14.5M standards Inspection gages Tolerance stackup analysis Tolerance synthesis 21 CHAPTER 21 – PROCESS PLANNING GOAL Understand the interface between design and manufacturing and between CAD and CAM, the importance of process planning, the basics of CAPP, and the benefits of CAPP. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Manual process planning Essentials of CAPP Input and output of CAPP systems CAPP models Architecture of CAPP systems CAPP approaches: variant, generative, and hybrid CAPP benefits CAPP software 22 CHAPTER 22 – PART PROGRAMMING GOAL Understand the basics of machine tools and their programming. Part programming an its basics, the fundamentals of coding languages and structure, and the use of CAD/CAM systems for generating and verifying toolpaths. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: Importance of part programming Working at the interface between CAF and CAM CAM requirements of CAD data Fundamentals of machine tools: axes radius programming, and tool offsets APT programming: geometric and motion statements Toolpath generation Toolpath verification 23 CHAPTER 23 – PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT GOAL Understand PLM, why it is crucial for companies to implement, what a PLM system offers, what PDM is and its relationship to PLM, and analyze some PLM and PDM case studies. OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should understand the following concepts: The current engineering and design practice Types of product information PLM goal PLM benefits PLM systems PLM enabling technologies PDM Case studies of implementing PLM and PDM 24

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