Andralee Cain Lloyd
George Mansour
http://www.mythicjourneys.org/bigmyth/
myths/english/2_yoruba_full.htm
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Obatala was sent down to create dry
land, but got drunk before the task was
completed.
Oduduwa was sent down to take over
Obatala’s task
Oduduwa became the first king of Ife.
Upon his death his children dispersed
and started the Yoruba kingdoms of
Owu, Ketu, Benin, Ila, Sabe, Popo, and
Oyo.
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Liberia
Mali
Mauritania
Niger
Nigeria*
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo*
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Benin*
Burkina Faso
Côte d'Ivoire
Cape Verde Islands
The Gambia
Ghana*
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
* Denotes countries in which the Yoruba tribe resides
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Occupies 6,140,000 km squared
or a fifth of Africa
The vast majority of this land
is plains lying less than 300
meters above sea level
The northern section of West
Africa is composed of semiarid terrain known as Sahel
It has desert landscapes and
also the tropical rain forests of
the more humid south
Consists of 16 countries
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Second largest and second mostpopulous continent in the world
just after Asia with 11,668,545
square miles
Africa is surrounded by the
Mediterranean Sea, the Suez
Canal, the Red Sea, the Indian
Ocean, as well as the Atlantic
Ocean
Located just under Europe and
connected to Asia on its
northeast extremity by the
Isthmus of Suez
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500 BC - there is evidence found
to support the start of the city of
Ife
700-900 AD – Ife began to develop
major artistic center
1200-1400AD- During this time
they are known for their ancient
and naturalistic bronze, stone and
terracotta sculptures
1400 AD- Started to decline due to
the Oyo and Benin Empires that
were begining to form during this
time.
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1440-1897- Benin Empire (Edo Empire) – Was an
African state located in modern day Nigeria
1485- First European travelers, the Portuguese,
reached Benin. Trade begin to develop with the
exchange of tropical products and slaves for
European goods and guns.
1553- trade between Benin and England grew. They
traded ivory, palm-oil and pepper.
1897- British forces conquered and burned the city
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1400 - 1835 - Oyo Empire created by immigrants from Ife
 Becomes the most populous kingdom in Yoruba history
 Participate in the Trans-Saharan and Trans- Atlantic trade
where they exchanged salt, leather, horses, kola nuts,
ivory, cloth and slaves
 At the ports Porto Novo and Whydah the Oyo Empire's
took captives and criminals and sold them to Dutch and
Portuguese buyers.
1836- empire is captured by Fulani Muslims
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1901-Yorubaland was officially colonized by the British
1923 – Nigeria's first political party is formed, the
Nigerian National Democratic Party. It is a single group
which combined various Yoruba interest groups.
October of 1960- Nigeria was granted full
independence from the British
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Islam is the predominant religion of the West African
interior and the far west coast of the continent
Christianity is the predominant religion in coastal regions
of Nigeria, Ghana, and Cote d'Ivoire
There are some Jewish populations in Ghana, Nigeria and
Mali
Throughout West Africa there are numerous indigenous
religions practiced such as the Yoruba religion
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Is possibly the largest African born
religion in the world.
Has given birth to several Afro-American
religions such as Santería in Cuba and
Candomblé in Brazil
There are many variations of the religion
They have between 400-700 gods
Many of the Yoruba people today have
converted to Christianity or Islam
Yoruba religious beliefs are part of itan
(A complex mix of songs, histories,
stories which make up the Yoruba
religion and society)
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There are an estimated 2000 languages
spoken in Africa
All African languages are considered
official languages of the African Union
(AU)
Most west African languages belong to
the Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, and
Niger-Congo families
Most predominant languages in
western Africa are English, Arabic,
Portuguese, and French
The Yoruba people have their own
language called the Yoruba language
which is comprised of over 22 million
speakers
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Dance - important mode of communication
 Yoruba have many dance they do during
ceremonies such as the dance for the god
Shango
Music – focus on the creation of complex and
subtle rhythmic patterns.
 The Yoruba are known to give birth to music
variety such as highlife, Juju, Fuji, and Afrobeat
Art & Craft – themes such as a couple, a woman
and child, a male with a weapon or animal, or an
outsider or stranger are reoccurring in African art
 The Yoruba depict twins a lot in their art and are
revered because of their sign of fidelity. When
twins die a carving of them are formed called ere
ibeji.
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Boubou- a flowing wide sleeved
robe. Its origin lies with the
clothing worn by the Islamized
peoples of the historic Ghana and
Mali Empire who had in turn
adopted the clothing of the nobility
of the early Islamic Empire
Dashiki- colorful men's garment
that covers the top half of the body
Kaftan – a woman's garment that is
a loose-fitting pullover with an
ornate V-shaped collar and tailored
and embroidered neck and sleeve
lines.
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Most African societies have some sort
of rite of passage that they value. Some
of these include:
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Birth
Names
Puberty
Marriage
Death
For the Yoruba people the naming
ceremony is an important part of their
society. This is because they believe
that a name is so powerful it can
influence the rest of the child’s life.
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Seen as a union of families and sometimes tribes
Many of the marriages are arranged marriages
Polygyny is often very common
Often a pride-price is made before marriage (often
involving livestock)
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Africans value strong family ties
and traditions
Elders are considered the
guardians of the family and are
valued and respected due to their
wisdom and knowledge.
Family members are addressed
according to social status out of
respect
A household consists of extended
family (i.e.- aunts, uncles, cousins,
and grandparents)
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Rite of Passage and the importance
of names
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African American names hold strong
African ties
 Moesha- meaning drawn out of the water
 Niesha- meaning pure
 Tamika- meaning people
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Marriage- Usually mutual consent
Families- Still have strong family
ties to all family members including
extended family
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Involves scratching, etching, or
cutting in order to leave permanent
designs, pictures, or words into the
skin.
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Ink rubbing – the process of
rubbing ink into a fresh cut
Skin removal/skinning - outlines are
made and then the skin in between
is removed creating a inconsistent
texture.
Packing - A cut is made diagonally
and an inert material is packed into
the wound causing massive keloids
to form during the healing process
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Performed by tribal members who
specifically perform scarification
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Both healers as well as artists
Watch the wounds as they heal to
prevent infection
Certain instruments are used in
order to create various patterns and
designs
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knife, glass, stone, or coconut
shell are some examples of
the instruments used
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Tattoos are harder to see on
darker colored skin than scars.
Used to decorate and beautify the
body
Used as group/ tribe identity
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Used a lot during slave trade so
that they could identify someone
from their tribe even if they come
across them in another region.
Social Status
Protection from death
Mark a persons stage of life
Coming of age
 Fertility
 Marriage
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The idea of body modification
and scarification intrigues people
of all races and cultures around
the world.
Unlike tattoos scarification is a
product of ones own body and
the final product varies from
person to person.
Is used for aesthetic and spiritual
reasons.
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VarietyMore complex patterns due to precise instruments
 A wide range of colors that can be applied
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Less painful- no more painful then tattooing with better
anesthetics
Less likely to endure an infection due to better
antibiotics
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Target market
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African Americans, both men and
women, aged 18-30 with a strong
connection to Africa.
Americas youth, both men and
women, aged 18-25 with a desire to
find a way of expressing themselves
that is new and different from the
tattooing world.
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Product –Permanent and temporary scarification
Place –Los Angeles, California and our website
www.skinned.com
Price – approx $80 an hour with a minimum price
of $100.
Promotion –
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African Americans- art shows and sites with a
profit going to fight Aids in Africa
Youth- Scar Wars, online at body modification
sites, and body modification magazines such as
Pain.
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Brand Name – Skinned
Product – Permanent and temporary scarification
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Packaging for temporary scarification- Red box with name and
logo on the lid.
Slogan – “If you decorate me, then I will be beautiful.” An
African Probverb, “Ukinipamba nitapendeza.”
Logo – West African symbol “Gye Nyame.” This symbol
represents the supremacy of God and his omnipotence and
immortality.
Skinned
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http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Africa/
Benin/photo455708.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Africa
http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/world/A
0856492.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Africa
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoruba_peopl
e
http://www.mythicjourneys.org/bigmyth/m
yths/english/2_yoruba_full.htm
http://www.mythome.org/creatafr.html
http://www.uga.edu/aflang/YORUBA/ODUD
UWA.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ife
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benin_Empir
e
http://www.nmafa.si.edu/exhibits/benin.ht
m
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oranmiya
n
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oyo_empi
re
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoruba_r
eligion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language
s_of_Africa
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shango
http://www.africaguide.com/culture/ar
tcraft.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scarificat
ion
http://www.ezakwantu.com/Gallery%2
0Scarifacatoin.htm
http://www.prm.ox.ac.uk/pdf/scarificat
ion_web.pdf
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http://www.randafricanart.com/Scarifi
cation_and_Cicatrisation_among_African
_cultures.html
http://www.med.uottawa.ca/medweb/h
etenyi/ayeni.htm
http://www.associatedcontent.com/arti
cle/31975/tattoo_statistics.html
http://www.vanishingtattoo.com/tattoo
_facts.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_o
f_Africa
http://www.view-ofafrica.net/VOA02.htm
http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmc
ensus1.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoruba_t
wins
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http://www.grainsofafrica.com/catalog
/article.php?id=9
http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/a
rthistory/AfricanBodyArts/webpages/Y
oruba.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boubou_(
clothing)
http://www.yorubanation.org/yoruba/
Culture.htm
http://family.jrank.org/pages/1774/Yo
ruba-Families-Steps-That-LeadMarriage.html
http://kamalkapoor.com/namemeanings/African-American-baby-girlnames.asp
http://www.culturalexpressions.com/ifa/ifahistory.htm
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