Systems Analysis and Design in a
Changing World, Fourth Edition
Today’s Schedule
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Assignment #1 Posted
Overview of Course
System Analyst Skills and Roles
Identifying Information Systems
Analyst as a System Developer
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Part 1: The systems analyst
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Chapter 1: The world of the information systems
analyst (this chapter)
Chapter 2: Approaches to system development
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Predictive and adaptive SDLCs
Traditional approach
Object-oriented approach
Chapter 3: The analyst as a project manager
Analyst as a System Developer
(continued)
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Part 2: Systems analysis tasks
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Chapter 4: Beginning the analysis: Investigating
system requirements
Chapter 5: Modeling system requirements
Chapter 6: Traditional approach to requirements
Chapter 7: Object-oriented approach to requirements
Chapter 8: Evaluating alternatives for requirements,
environment, and implementation
Analyst as a System Developer
(continued)
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Part 3: Systems design tasks
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Chapter 9: Moving to design
Chapter 10: Traditional approach to design
Chapter 11: Object-oriented approach to design
Chapter 12: Designing databases
Chapter 13: Designing the user interface
Chapter 14: Designing system interfaces, controls,
and security
Learning Objectives
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Explain the key role of a systems analyst in
business
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Explain the importance of technical, people, and
business skills for an analyst
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Describe the various types of systems an analyst
might work on
Explain information systems and their roles
Skills and Roles of System Analyst
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What did “Mary” have to say about her job?
The Analyst as a Business
Problem Solver
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Has computer technology knowledge and
programming expertise
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Understands business problems
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Uses logical methods for solving problems
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Has fundamental curiosity
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Wants to make things better
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Is more of a business problem solver than a
technical programmer
Analyst’s Approach to Problem
Solving
Research and understand the problem
Verify benefits of solving problem outweigh the costs
Define the requirements for solving the problem
Develop a set of possible solutions (alternatives)
Decide which solution is best and recommend
Define the details of the chosen solution
Implement the solution
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Monitor to ensure desired results
Required Skills of the Systems
Analyst
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Technical Knowledge and Skills
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An analyst should have fundamental
technology knowledge of
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Computers / peripheral devices (hardware)
Communication networks and connectivity
Database and database management systems
(DBMS)
Programming languages (for example, VB.NET or
Java)
Operating systems and utilities
Technical Knowledge and Skills
(continued)
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Analyst uses tools
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Analyst understands SDLC techniques
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Software productivity packages
Integrated development environments (IDEs) for programming
languages
CASE tools, testing, documentation support, reverse engineering,
configuration management
Project planning, systems analysis
Systems design, database design, network design
Construction, implementation, systems support
Business Knowledge and Skills
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Analyst must understand
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Business functions performed by organization
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Strategies, plans, traditions, and values of the organization
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Organizational structure
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Organization management techniques
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Functional work processes
Systems analysts typically study business
administration/management in college with a major
in CIS or MIS
People Knowledge and Skills
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Systems analysts need to understand how
people
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Think
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Learn
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React to change
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Communicate
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Work (in a variety of jobs and levels)
People Knowledge and Skills
(continued)
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Interpersonal and communication skills are
crucial to
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Obtaining information
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Motivating people
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Getting cooperation
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Understanding the complexity and workings of an
organization in order to provide necessary
support
Integrity and Ethics
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Analyst has access to confidential
information, such as salary, an organization’s
planned projects, security systems, and so
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Must keep information private
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Any impropriety can ruin an analyst’s career
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Analyst plans security in systems to protect
confidential information
Information Systems and
Subsystems
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Systems That Solve Business
Problems
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System – interrelated components functioning
together to achieve an outcome
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Information systems – collection of interrelated
components that collect, process, store, and
provide as output information needed to
complete tasks
Subsystem – part of a larger system
Supersystem – larger system that contains
subsystems
Functional decomposition – dividing a system
into smaller subsystems and components
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Information Systems and
Component Parts
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System Boundary vs. Automation
Boundary
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Types of Information Systems
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Types of Information Systems
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Transaction processing systems (TPS)
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Management information systems (MIS)
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Take information captured by TPS
Produce reports for planning and control
Decision support / knowledge-based systems
(DSS/KBS)
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Capture and record information about organization’s transactions
Explore impact of available options or decisions (what-if scenarios)
Automate routine decision making
Types of Information Systems
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Enterprise applications
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Highly integrated systems that support company-wide
operations and data
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Often combine aspects of TPS, MIS, DSS/KBS
Communication support systems
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Facilitate communication internally and with customers and
suppliers
Office support systems
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Help employees create and share documents
Your Information System
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Draw your system as a set of subsystems by
decomposing it by function. Your components
should be labeled with an action or verb.
What are the System Boundaries?
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What are the Automation Boundaries?
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Inputs
Outputs
Computed
Manual
What type(s) of IS may be involved?
Introduction to Rocky Mountain
Outfitters (RMO) Business
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Began in Park City, Utah supplying winter sports
clothes to local ski shops
Expanded into direct mail-order sales with small
catalog—as catalog interest increased, opened retail
store in Park City
Became large, regional sports clothing distributor by
early 2000s in Rocky Mountain and Western states
Currently $150 million in annual sales and 600
employees and two retail stores
Mail-order revenue is $90 million; phone-order
revenue is $50 million
Early RMO Catalog Cover (Fall
1978)
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Current RMO Catalog Cover (Fall
2007)
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Summary
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A systems analyst solves business problems
using information systems technology
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Problem solving means looking into business
problem in great detail, completely
understanding problem, and choosing best
solution
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Information system development is much
more than writing programs
Summary (continued)
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System – collection of interrelated
components that function together to achieve
some outcome
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Information systems outcome – solution to a
business problem
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Information systems, subsystems, and
components interact with and include
hardware, software, inputs, outputs, data,
Summary (continued)
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Systems analyst has broad knowledge and
variety of skills, including technical, business,
and people
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Integrity and ethical behavior are crucial to
success for the analyst
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Systems analyst encounters a variety of
rapidly changing technologies
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Systems analyst works on strategic plans
For Tuesday, January 16
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Bring any questions from Assignment #1
Complete reading Chapter #1
Read first part of Chapter 2, pages 35-50
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Chapter 1