Countering Terrorism
in the 21st Century
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
James JF Forest, Ph.D.
Director of Terrorism Studies
Agenda
• Understanding the Strategy of Terrorism
• U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy Post-9/11
• Interagency Coordination for Counterterrorism
Notes:
- This presentation is entirely at the unclassifed level.
- The views expressed herein are those of the author and do not
purport to reflect the position of the United States Military Academy,
the Department of the Army, or the Department of Defense.
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Understanding the
Strategy of Terrorism
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Terrorism as Strategy
• Terrorism as weapon in a strategy
• Terrorist attacks = form of strategic communication
• Terrorism is not new
• Terrorism is not merely religious: 1980 Bologna, Munich
attacks; LTTE (Sri Lanka)
“You have to be lucky everyday – We only have to be lucky once”
- IRA Bomber
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Some Strategic Objectives of Terrorism
• Recognition: Gaining national or international recognition for their
cause; recruiting new personnel; raising funds; demonstrating their
strength
• Coercion: Force a desired behavior of an individual or government
• Intimidation: Prevent individuals, groups, or governments from acting
• Provocation: Provoking overreaction by a government to the attack on
symbolic targets or personnel, thereby gaining sympathy for their
cause.
• Insurgency support: Forcing the government to overextend itself in
dealing with the threat, thereby allowing the insurgency to gain support
and commit further attacks against the government.
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Some Strategic Acts of Terrorism
The terrorist act is generally a symbolic gesture
against a group or national government. Tactics
include:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
armed attacks
arson
assassination
bombing
hijacking
hostage-taking
kidnapping, etc.
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Suicide bombings
Marine Barracks Beirut, Lebanon
23 October 1983
• 241 Dead
• 105 Injured
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Khobar Towers - Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
25 June 1996
• 19 Dead
• 240 Injured
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Murrah Federal Building
Oklahoma City
25 June 1994
• 168 Dead
• 490 Injured
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
American Embassy Bombings,
Kenya and Tanzania
August 1998
200 Americans, Kenyans, and Tanzanians dead
Over 5000 injured
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
USS Cole, Aden, Yemen
12 Oct 2000
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
17 Dead
39 Injured
Terrorism as Strategy
• Increasing interest in “soft targets” (economically
strategic impact, and less protected) such as:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
pubs in Northern Ireland & London UK
open markets & cafes in Israel
international airport, Sri Lanka
bus in Manila, the Philippines
shopping mall in southern Philippines
nightclub in Bali, Indonesia
banks in Istanbul, Turkey
hotel in Jakarta, Indonesia
nightclub in Berlin, Germany
commuter trains in Madrid, Spain
– and, of course . . .
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
September 11, 2001
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Terrorism as Strategy
• Terrorism as a means to achieve goals and objectives
• Strategic goals include:
–
–
–
–
Political change (e.g., overthrow govt.)
Social change (e.g., France headscarf ban)
Economic change (e.g., stop resource export)
Religious change (e.g., fundamentalism)
• Overall goal: create a “better” world
• Rationale for terrorism: perceived as only available
means by which to achieve strategic goal
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Significant militant Islamist attacks against Americans
Strategy and Recruitment
– Recruitment and propaganda efforts
• Video and audio tapes, CD-Roms, DVDs and the Internet
– Key themes of al Qaeda recruitment:
•
•
•
•
The West is implacably hostile to Islam
Only language the West understands is violence
Jihad is the only option
9/11 was a tremendous victory (U.S. economy was destroyed
and the course of history was changed)
• U.S. is a paper tiger on the verge of financial ruin and total
collapse
• “Patience and steadfastness” are required
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Strategy and Recruitment
• Terrorism is an individual’s strategic choice most often
driven by combination of:
– Intense grievances
– Sense of crisis
– Address a power imbalance - empower the disenfranchised
• The ties that bind: training camps, extended family, social
networks; trusted networks = key
• Combination of ideology and psychology
• No constraints re: geography, organizational
affiliation, etc.
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Strategy and Recruitment
• Recruit individuals with differing talents or
attributes to offer
–
–
–
–
Locals with knowledge of customs, culture
Foreigners with passports, language skills
Sleepers or operationalists who can “fit in”
Individuals who can serve as critical functionaries
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Terrorists as Strategic Actors
Even though it’s a decentralized network, there are still critical
functions that enable the network to operate
• Critical functionary roles – can become a hub of multiple networks
–
–
–
–
weapons procurement
financier (funder or banker) (particularly in Halawa system)
document forgerer
human traffickers
• Support individuals (trusted contacts) can and sometimes do
support multiple networks; can provide supplies/facilitate trafficking
of weapons & funds to multiple networks
• Example: 60% of day spent moving legitimate charity money
around; 20% of day on Hamas transactions, other activity on side
• Some may get profit for doing these support/function roles
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Different members
of the network
play support and
action roles
Strategy and Training
Bomb-making, assault tactics, etc.
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Strategy and Training
• Psychological dimensions
• Moral disengagement
–
–
–
–
Displacement of responsibility
Disregard for/distortion of consequences
Dehumanization
Moral justification
• Group power over behavior, personal decisions
• Preparation for martyrdom
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Strategy and Training
Establish training camps – developing the will to kill and the skill to kill
• Operational space: Geographic isolation
• Teachers: Experts in relevant knowledge, e.g., military combat experience
• Committed learners
• Time, money, and basic necessities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Afghanistan
Algeria
Bosnia
Chechnya
Colombia
Egypt
Indonesia
Japan
Kashmir
Lebanon
Libya
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Northern Ireland
Peru
The Philippines
Somalia
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Syria
Turkey
United States
Uzbekistan
Think back to your basic training or basic officer courses...
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Strategy and Training
Lessons for new recruits include:
• education in explosives and detonators: how to assemble bombs (e.g.,
TNT, C4), mines and grenades, pressure and trip wire booby traps, and
the basic knowledge of electrical engineering
• how to mount rocket launchers in the beds of pickup trucks
• how and where to launder money
• how to successfully conduct a kidnapping
• how to conduct target identification, surveillance and reconnaissance
• how and where to build camouflage-covered trenches
• how to covertly communicate with other members of a group or
network
• how to fire handguns, machine guns and rocket propelled grenade
launchers
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Strategy and Training
Lessons for new recruits include:
• the rudiments of chemical and biological warfare
• field command and escape tactics
• marksmanship and camouflage
• the use and employment of Soviet rocket-propelled grenades and
shoulder borne STRELA missiles
• sniper rifle skills; how to fine-tune a rifle sight at short range to ensure
accuracy at longer distances
• how to direct weapon fire at targets on the ground and in the air
• training in four-man unit deployments and formations—including wedges,
columns, echelons and lines—techniques similar to those used by
U.S. Marines and Army Rangers
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Strategy and Training
•
These are Learning Organizations = committed to capturing knowledge,
analyzing it, forming new doctrine and tactics which are informed by lessons
from the past
–
–
–
–
Learn from each other
Learn from trial and error (IRA example)
Media showcasing ‘best practices’ to others
Managing public image (PR)
(becoming more sophisticated)
• Terrorists are learning many things in Iraq, like:
–
–
–
–
–
•
Manufacturing and concealing IEDs
Urban warfare
Sniper and ambush techniques
Hostage taking
Media manipulation
OVERALL: How to recruit, fund, and execute assymetric warfare
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Suicide Terrorism as Assymetric Warfare
• Unique tool in the implementation of a terrorist strategy
• More common in democracies than non-democracies
• Democratic leaders have publicly confirmed suicide attacks pushed
them to make concessions
• Example: United States left Lebanon in 1983 because of suicide
attacks
“We couldn’t stay there and run the risk of another suicide attack
on the Marines.”
-- Ronald Reagan, An American Life
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Suicide Terrorism: Who?
Perception:
Reality
• Generalized profile of suicide
terrorists, including:
• The “profile” is wrong
• Terrorists are:
–
–
–
–
–
Young
Single
Male
Uneducated
Religious fanatics
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
–
–
–
–
–
–
Preteen - mid-sixties
Both single and married with families
Both male and female
Both educated and uneducated
Not motivated by religious fanaticism
World’s leader in suicide terror are
Hindu; Tamil Tigers who are
conducting insurgency against Sri
Lanka
Suicide Terrorism: Why?
Perception:
Reality
• Seemingly irrational act
• Part of a strategy that is:
– Well planned
– Logical
– Designed to achieve specific
political objectives
• Suicide attacks have increased
over the past two decades
• Why?
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
• Does two things:
– Inflicts immediate punishment
against target society
– Threatens more punishment in the
future
Suicide Terror Attacks are . . .
• inexpensive and effective; extremely favorable per-casualty cost
benefits for the terrorists
• less complicated and compromising – no escape plan needed, and
success means no assailant to capture and interrogate
• perhaps the ultimate “smart bomb” – this “weapon” can cleverly
disguise itself, use various modes of deception, and effect last minute
changes in timing, access, and target
• a strategic communication device – successful attacks are virtually
assured media coverage
• effective because the weaker opponent acts as coercer and the
stronger actor is the target
• Key difference from other attacks: The target of suicide campaign
cannot easily adjust to minimize future damage
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Suicide Terrorism: Where?
Three types of attacks are most likely to occur:
• High value, symbolic targets involving mass casualties
– Important government buildings, installations, or landmarks
– Major means of personal or commercial transportation
• High value, symbolic targets against specific persons
– Political assassinations (e.g., head of state, regional governor, etc.)
• Deliberately lethal attacks targeting the public
– Bus, train, subway bombings; attacks on shopping malls, cinemas,
sports stadiums, public gathering spaces
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Counterterrorism
Strategy post-9/11
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
If the Terrorists have a Strategy,
We Must Also Have a Strategy
• GWOT is considered by an increasing number of
observers as a global counter-insurgency
struggle
• To fight it, we need to use all 7 major elements
of national power (note: some scholars prefer to
discuss the 4-element DIME construct)
• These 7 are:
–
–
–
–
Diplomatic
Information/Intelligence
Military/Law Enforcement
Economics/Finance
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
National Security Strategy
Guides Policy (Theory for the U.S.)
S E CR E T
S E N S IT IV E
NSDD 75
U .S . R e la tio n s w ith
th e U S S R
M ilita ry (F o rc e /
V io le n c e )
In fo rm a tio n a l
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
J a n u a ry 1 7 , 1 9 8 3
D ip lo m a tic
E c o n o m ic
U.S. National Security Strategy,
September 2002 (Replaces 2000 Clinton Edition)
Table of Contents
Introduction
I.
Overview of America's International Strategy
II.
Champion Aspirations for Human Dignity
III.
Strengthen Alliances to Defeat Global Terrorism and Work to
Prevent Attacks Against Us and Our Friends
IV.
Work with Others to Defuse Regional Conflicts
V.
Prevent Our Enemies from Threatening Us, Our Allies, and
Our Friends with Weapons of Mass Destruction
VI.
Ignite a New Era of Global Economic Growth through Free
Markets and Free Trade
VII.
Expand the Circle of Development by Opening Societies and
Building the Infrastructure of Democracy
VIII.
Develop Agendas for Cooperative Action with the Other
Main Centers of Global Power
IX.
Transform America's National Security Institutions to Meet
the Challenges and Opportunities of the Twenty-First
Century
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
National Security Strategy
Structure
U.S. National Security Strategy is Unique to the U.S.

Based Upon:





Founding Principles of the Republic (U.S. Constitution, Declaration of
Independence, Federalist Papers, Major Presidential Addresses)
Historical National Precedents
Current Security Concerns
Current Political Realities
Reflects: Global Capabilities / Responsibilities
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
National Security Strategy Informs
National Security Policy (Reality for U.S.)
Congress’
N.S.S. (535)
President’s
National
Security
Strategy
DOD, State, NSC
other U.S. Gov't.
Executive Branch
Input
POLICY
PROCESS
ARENA
(The “Real
World”)
National
Security
Policy
Statements
and Actions
of Government
Other Gov’ts. N.S.S.
Military Strategy
and Foreign Policy
NGOs, Think Tanks, Lobbyists,
International Agencies, Media N.S.S.
National Strategy for Combating Terrorism
- Released February, 2003
- Complements/Supplements the National Security Strategy
Table of Contents
–
–
–
–
Introduction
The Nature of the Terrorist Threat Today
Strategic Intent
Goals and Objectives
•
•
•
•
–
Defeat terrorists and their organizations
Deny sponsorship, support, and sanctuary to terrorists
Diminish the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit
Defend U.S. citizens and interests at home and abroad
Conclusion
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
National Strategic Framework for the GWOT
Ends
Overall Goal: Preserve and promote the way of life of free and open societies
based on the rule of law, defeat terrorist extremism as a threat to that way of life, and
create a global environment inhospitable to terrorist extremists.
Ideological support
Comms & Movement
Protect the
Homeland
Ways
Funds
Safe havens
Enemy
Leadership
Weapons
Foot soldiers
Access to Targets
Disrupt and Attack
Terrorist Networks
Counter Ideological
Support for Terrorism
Help create and lead a broad international effort to
deny terrorist networks the resources they need to
operate and survive.
COMBATING TERRORISM
CENTER partner and international instruments of power
National,
at West Point
Means
Military Strategic Framework for the GWOT
Ends
Strategic Goal: Preserve and promote the way of life of free and open societies based on the
rule of law, defeat terrorist extremism as a threat to our way of life, and create a global
environment inhospitable to terrorist extremists.
END-STATE Termination Objectives from the Contingency Planning Guidance (Classified)
Ideological support
Comms & Movement
Ways
Military Strategic Objectives
Protect the
Homeland
Funds
Safe havens
Enemy
Leadership
Weapons
Foot soldiers
Access to Targets
Disrupt and Attack
Terrorist Networks
Counter Ideological
Support for Terrorism
Deny terrorists the resources they need to operate and survive.
Enable partner nations to counter terrorism.
Deny WMD/E proliferation, recover and eliminate uncontrolled
materials, and maintain capacity for consequence mgmt.
Defeat terrorists and their organizations.
Persuade, coerce, and when necessary, compel states and non-states to
cease support for terrorists.
Establish conditions that counter ideological support for terrorism.
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Means
Combatant Commands, Services, and Combat Support Agencies
War Against Terrorism
War Against Terrorism
• Our strategy must involve denying terrorists sanctuary;
separating terrorists from the population
• Must isolate them, take away their support, force them to
continually be on the run
• Organizing for force protection based on battle line
mentality won’t work
• UAV’s aren’t as useful as you might think; over-reliance
on technical wizardry has been a problem in the field
• Attrition – we must keep after them, never give up, while
making sure they don’t recruit new members
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
War Against Terrorism
• Human intelligence networks are critical (although nonefficient use of manpower)
• Must have continual presence – cannot go into a village
“looking for the terrorists”
• “Know yourself; know your enemy (Sun Tzu)”
– Must know strategic & tactics of enemy before CT can be
successful
– so, what do we know about our enemy’s strategy & tactics?
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
The Terrorists’ Perspective
• For one thing, al Qaeda’s leaders believes that they
have been tested by two superpowers (Soviets and
Americans); they defeated the first, and survived the
second despite overwhelming military force – thus, both
are considered victories
• Our enemy believes this is an epic struggle that will likely
take place beyond the current generation of fighters
• In Iraq, terrorists are developing a new “cult of the
insurgent” by demonstrating how they, not the oncefeared Saddam Hussein’s military, can inflict pain and
suffering on the mighty U.S. (and coalition) forces
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
War Against Terrorism
• Focus on the enemy’s ideology, not their tactics
• This is a War of Ideas: We need to convince them (potential
supporters and recruits) that we (liberal democracies) offer a
better way than separatist Islamic Jihad (but without
attempting to convert them to our way of life)
• We must work to bolster the image of American morals and
values being compatible with those of the Arab and Islamic
world, where we are too often portrayed as greedy, selfish
hedonists
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
War Against Terrorism
• Information warfare - We must develop an
effective counterideological message
• How well do we invest in and support the
“extremists whom we like” (a.k.a., “moderates”)
and support ways to amplify their voices?
• We must invest in educational & social
institutions; media organizations
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
War Against Terrorism
• Critical components of a successful
counterterrorism effort include:
– Multinational partnerships
– Interagency coordination
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Interagency Coordination
for Counterterrorism
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
U.S. Government Policy Making Responsibilities:
Separate Branches with Overlapping Power to “Check & Balance”
Legislative Branch
Executive Branch
Judicial Branch
• Declare War
• Commander-in-Chief
• Review Legislation
• Advice/Consent (Ratify Treaties)
• Treaty-Making
• Review Legal Issues
• Confirmation
• Nominate Officials
• Impeach President/Judges
• Fire Executive Officials
• Pass Legislation/Veto Override
• Sign/Veto Legislation
• Execute Laws
• Oversight of Laws/Policies:
Investigations, Hearings, Reports
• Appropriate Federal Budget
• Suggest the Budget
• Influence the Agenda
• Set the Agenda
• Reflect Public Opinion
• Shape Public Opinion
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
U.S. Government Today
(109th Congress, 2005-2006)
U .S . C O N S T IT U T IO N
(7 A rtic le s , 2 7 A m e n d m e n ts )
L e g is la tiv e B ra n ch
• SENATE
(100 – 2 per 50 states,
elected to 6-Year Terms)
• HOUSE of
REPRESENTATIVES
(435 – 1 per 700,000
Constituency, elected
to 2-Year Terms)
E x e c u tiv e B ra n ch
J u d ic ia l B ra n ch
• THE PRESIDENT
• VICE PRESIDENT
• SUPREME COURT
• LOWER COURTS
(Both Elected 4-Year Terms
but Limited to Two Terms)
(Appointed for Life)
• Executive Office
of the President
• 15 Departments
• 60+ Agencies and Gov’t. Corporations
• 2.4 Million Full-Time Civil Servants
• 1.4 Million Active Duty Soldiers
U.S. Population: 280,000,000
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
The National Security Council
NSC Staff
DOS
Nat’l Security
Advisor
DOD
POTUS
JCS
INTEL
Community
Sec of
Home. Sec.
DOHS
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
NSC
National Counterterrorism Center
Vision
To become the nationally recognized center that empowers
the Counterterrorism Community to shape the national and
international counterterrorism effort, thereby eliminating
the terrorist threat to U.S. interests, at home and abroad.
Mission
To inform, empower, and help shape the national and
international counterterrorism effort, thereby diminishing
the ranks, capabilities, and activities of current and future
terrorists.
Values
To ensure precision, objectivity, integrity, and timeliness in
everything we do; to develop expertise of NCTC
employees, and to ensure their professional development
and growth.
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
National Counterterrorism Center
NCTC is a mission-oriented center – located within the Office of the Director of
National Intelligence – established to integrate terrorism information and
coordinate counterterrorism activities across the U.S. Government and beyond
• NCTC currently has assignees (USG staff) from:
• Federal Bureau of Investigation
• Department of Defense
• Central Intelligence Agency
• Department of Homeland Security
• Department of State
• Others – DOE, NRC, HHS, USDA, USCHP
• Assignees to NCTC retain authorities of parent entities
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Terrorism Information Access and Integration
In NCTC, key organizations involved in the fight against terrorism are collectively
fulfilling shared responsibilities
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Terrorism Information Access and Integration
• Many U.S. Government networks are available in NCTC
• Integrated architecture will enable a simultaneous,
federated search capability against the terabytes of data
available to the U.S. government
• Advanced analytic tools are facilitating the
automated sourcing and tailoring multi-use products;
enhancing data exploitation and integration
• “Terrorism information” covers an exceptionally broad array of data
• Active information acquisition effort underway
• Seeking awareness and integration of non-obvious terrorism information
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Terrorism Analysis and CT Requirements
• Providing daily terrorism analysis for the President,
senior policymakers, and the U.S. Government
• NCTC produces integrated and coordinated analysis – if there are
analytic differences on the nature or seriousness of a particular threat
or issue, they are incorporated into the analysis
• Producing special analysis and other in-depth, strategic, and alternative
analyses
• Counterterrorism Requirements - Identifying gaps in
knowledge; prioritizing transnational terrorism information
needs
The integration of perspectives from multiple departments and
agencies is serving as a force multiplier in the fight against terrorism
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Toward a Counterterrorism “System”
• Beyond implementing Center responsibilities, the greater goal
is facilitating a counterterrorism “system” as part of a greater
U.S. Government (USG) system-of-systems
• All USG elements need not be centralized; however, a distributed but
integrated framework must be consciously agreed upon and orchestrated
• Roles and responsibilities of USG CT elements must be as unambiguous and
straightforward as possible; intentional rather than haphazard redundancy
• Need to orchestrate the various components of the nation’s counterterrorism
effort; greater efficiency and effective optimization of resources and activities
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Questions?
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Backup slides
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Global Terrorism Networks
Interconnected terrorist groups,
criminal organizations,
individuals, etc. around the
world.
Shared strategies,
doctrine, tactics, training
Cross-fertilization, interorganizational learning
Shared profits from
trafficking in drugs, arms,
other contraband
Increasingly connected
via technologies/Internet
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Example: How does the LTTE Sustain its Operation Financially?
In Areas heavily dominated by Tamils
Local Enterprises
Taxes from local Population
Taxes from Business
Robbery
Blackmail & Ransom
Taxes from Fishermen
LOCAL
Tax on Liquor
Drugs/ Crime
Investing/ running Local
Business Ventures
Fund raising Projects
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Taxes from Visitors
Taxes on Goods
Playing the Stock Market
INTERNATIONAL FUNDING
Funding from state Parties
Aiding International Criminals
Donations from Supporters
(Tamil Diaspora)
Terrorist training
Credit card Fraud
Foreign residence Tax
International
Propaganda/ Fund raising projects
Asylum Seekers tax
Money laundering/ Forgery
Foreign Investments/Business
Shipping/Gunrunning
Human
Trafficking
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Drug Smuggling
US Counterterrorism Strategy
• Helped Sri Lankan military develop 4 key
capabilities
–
–
–
–
Operate behind enemy lines
Engage in night fighting
SEAL, special boat operations
Psyops capabilities
• Helped Sri Lankan banking and commerce
tracking systems locate & disrupt money
laundering networks
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Orchestration of Terrorism Analysis
• Orchestrating integrated analysis and the presentation of alternative
views through institutionalized mechanisms
• Interagency Intelligence Committee on Terrorism (IICT) – meets at least
twice monthly, with regular, virtual coordination on community products;
produces Community-coordinated analytic assessments, warnings, alerts, advisories
• Terrorism Production Planning Board (TPPB) – meets five days a week
• Red Cell – independent and interagency conferences and publications
• Working with Intelligence Community members to design an
efficient, distributed U.S. Government terrorism analysis framework
• Goal is comprehensive coverage with planned redundancy and alternative analysis
• Seeking to achieve a rational allocation of scarce analytic resources
This integrated business model capitalizes on our respective expertise,
optimizing analytic resources
to enable more effective and comprehensive analytic coverage
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Strategic Operational Planning (SOP)
• The SOP function was established to provide a
full-time interagency forum to align plans, identify and
address gaps and overlaps, and realize interagency synergies
• Coordinates the review, integration, development, and evaluation of interagency
operational plans
• Facilitates the implementation of the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism,
specifying tasks, assigning lead responsibilities, and monitoring progress
• Based on interagency discussions, SOP includes:
• Standing Plans, Dynamic Plans, and Evaluation Groups as well
as a Senior Interagency Strategy Team
• Members from across the Intelligence, Law Enforcement,
Homeland Security, Military, and Diplomatic elements of the U.S. Government
Facilitating a synchronization and transparency of effort
to ensure that all instruments of national power are brought to bear
against the scourge of international terrorism
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Facilitating Information Sharing
• NCTC sponsors multiple forums and mechanisms for the
exchange of terrorism information
• NCTC Online
• Videoteleconferences
• 24/7 NCTC Operations Center
• Information Sharing Program Office
• NCTC is responsible for sharing terrorism information
within the Federal family
• Supports Federal agencies and departments with statutory responsibility to provide
terrorism-related information to state, local, and private officials
Facilitating the exchange and rapid dissemination of terrorism information
and analysis to those responsible for detecting, disrupting, and defending
against terrorist attacks at home and abroad
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Transnational Terrorist Identities Information
• NCTC maintains a database of
all U.S. Government information on
international terrorist identities
• Supports a streamlined system for “watchlisting” and terrorist screening activities
• Provides terrorist identities information and watchlist nominations to the FBIadministered Terrorist Screening Center
• Improving internal and interagency processes to integrate terrorist
identities information into terrorism analysis and CT operations
Supporting a government-wide system that ensures front line law enforcement
officers, consular officials, and immigration and border personnel have the
capability to identify and screen terrorists before they enter the U.S.
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
National Counterterrorism Center
Intelligence Reform & Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA) of 2004 :
•
•
•
•
Effective by 17 June 2005
Most functions assigned to NCTC by E.O. 13354 are now rooted in statute & in
some cases augmented
Report to the President on plans and progress of joint CT operations (other than
intelligence operations)
New functions assigned to NCTC by the Act include:
•
•
•
“Advise the Director of National Intelligence on the extent to which the counterterrorism program
recommendations and budget proposals of the departments, agencies, and elements of the USG
conform to the priorities established by the President”
“…primary responsibility in the USG for conducting net assessments of terrorist threats”
“Develop a strategy for combining terrorist travel intelligence operations and law enforcement
planning & operations into a cohesive effort to intercept terrorists, find terrorist travel facilitators, and
constrain terrorist mobility”
The implementation of NCTC responsibilities is tied to the creation and
authorities of the Office of the DNI.
COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER
at West Point
Descargar

Slide 1