CHAPTER 7
IMMIGRANTS AND
URBANIZATION
&
CHAPTER 8
LIFE AT THE TURN OF THE 20TH
CENTURY
CHAPTER 7
IMMIGRANTION AND
URBANIZATION
Main Idea


Immigration from Europe, Asia, the
Caribbean, and Mexico reached a
new high in the late 19th and early
20th centuries
Why it Matters Now?
• This wave of immigration helped make
the U.S. the diverse society it is today.
Key Terms & Names for Section
1: Chapter 7 are:






Ellis Island
Angel Island
Melting Pot
Nativism
Chinese Exclusion Act
Gentlemen’s Agreement
.
.
.
The New Immigrants
Southern/Eastern Europe
 Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia
 Escape religious persecution & work
 East Coast (Ellis Island)
Asia
 China & Japan
 Gold & work
 West Coast (Angel Island)
Caribbean Islands and Central
America
 Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico
 Work
 East & Southeastern U.S.
Ellis Island



Immigration
station
New York Harbor
Mostly European
immigrants
passed through
Ellis Island
Name of Island in NY where European Immigrants
were processed??
Ellis Island
Angel Island



Immigration station
San Francisco Bay
Mostly Asian
immigrants passed
through inspection.
Images of Inspection Process
Asian Immigrants at Angel Island
Remember the 13
colonies….people
IMMIGRATED over
from Britain!!!!
Nativism




America the melting
pot??? (different
cultures & races
blending together)
Anti-immigrant
(prejudice)
Native-born
Americans
Blamed immigrants
for taking jobs
• Chinese were a
major target for
discrimination
• Wanted strict
immigration laws
Nativists
Immigration Laws



Chinese Exclusion
Act (1882)
Banned entry to all
Chinese
Except students,
teachers,
merchants,
tourists, gov’t
officials.
Not repealed until
1943.
Gentlemen’s
Agreement Act
(1907-1908)
 Limit immigration
of Japanese to U.S.
The Chinese Exclusion
Act (1882)
The Challenges of
Urbanization
Terms to Know






Urbanization
Americanization
Movement
Tenement
Social Gospel Movement
Settlement House
Jane Addams
Urbanization

The growth of
cities
Why were people moving to the
Northeast & Midwest
1.
Immigrants
 Cities = cheap &
convenient place to
live
2.
Farmers
 New inventions = less
work, needed jobs
3.
African-Americans
 Escape segregation &
discrimination
Streets of New York
The Growth of cities
Problems of Urbanization
1.
Lack of Safe and Efficient
Transportation

2.
Unsafe Drinking Water

3.
Sewer lines & sanitation
departments
Fire Hazards

5.
Water filtration & chlorination
Lack of Sanitation

4.
Mass Transit, electric subways,
street cars
1st paid fire department,
sprinklers, safer buildings
Crime

1st full time police force
Life in Cities
TENEMENT Housing: A multifamily dwelling , usually
overcrowded, unsanitary, and very cheap to live in
Tenement Housing
Video Clip: America the Story of Us



Clip 3.9 (start at 3:00minutes)
Tenement housing, poverty
Clip 4.9 (end at 3:00minutes)
Social Gospel Movement



Salvation through service to the
poor
People wanted to help the urban
poor
Mostly middle-class, white collegeeducated women
Settlement Houses/Jane Addams


Settlement House
Community centers
Educational,
cultural, social
services.

Jane Addams
Founded Hull
House in Chicago
(1889)
Hull House in Chicago
Why is this significant?
Connection to today
Between 1870 and 1920, about 20 million Europeans
immigrated to the United States. Many of them came
from eastern and southern Europe. Some
immigrants came to escape religious persecution.
Many others were poor and looking to improve their
economic situation. About 200,000 Chinese
immigrants came between 1851 to 1883. Many
Chinese immigrants helped build the nation’s first
transcontinental railroad. When the United States
annexed Hawaii in 1898, several thousand Japanese
immigrants came to the United States. Europeans
had to pass through an immigration station located
on Ellis Island in New York Harbor. Asians arriving
on the West Coast went through Angel Island in San
Francisco. The inspection process on Angel Island
was more difficult than on Ellis Island.
Island in NY where European
Immigrants were processed.
Ans—Ellis Island
By the turn of the century, some observers
called America a melting pot. This term
referred to the fact that many different
cultures and races had blended in the United
States. Some Americans also preferred not
to live in a melting pot. They did not like the
idea of so many immigrants living in their
country. The arrival of so many immigrants
led to the growth of nativism. Nativism is an
obvious preference for nativeborn
Americans. Nativism gave rise to anti
immigrant groups. It also led to a demand
for immigration restrictions.
People who favored the interest of
native-born Americans.
Ans--Nativists
On the West Coast, prejudice against Asians was
first directed at the Chinese. During the depression
of the 1870s, many Chinese immigrants agreed to
work for low wages. Many American workers feared
they would lose their jobs to the Chinese. As a
result, labor groups pressured politicians to restrict
Asian immigration. In 1882, Congress passed the
Chinese Exclusion Act. In San Francisco, the local
school board put all Chinese, Japanese, and Korean
children in special Asian schools. This led to antiAmerican riots in Japan. President Theodore
Roosevelt persuaded San Francisco officials to stop
their separation policy. In exchange, Japan agreed
to limit emigration to the United States under the
Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1907–1908.
Law
enacted
the
prohibited
all Chinese
from
entering
the US as
immigrants
Ans—
Chinese
Exclusion
Act
Many of the nation’s new immigrants settled in the
cities in the early 1900s. They came there to find
jobs in the cities’ and businesses. Immigrants
settled mainly in cities in the Northeast and
Midwest. The result was rapid urbanization, or
growth of cities, in those regions. Many
immigrants settled in neighborhoods with others
from the same country or even from the same
village. Newcomers to the United States learned
about their new country through an education
program known as the Americanization
movement. Under this program, schools taught
immigrants English, and American history and
government. These subjects helped immigrants
become citizens.
The Growth of cities
Ans--urbanization
City populations grew rapidly. This
created many problems. One major
problem was a shortage in housing. New
types of housing allowed many people
to live in a small amount of space. One
type was the row house. This was a
single-family dwelling that shared side
walls with other similar houses. Another
type was tenements, multifamily urban
houses that were often overcrowded and
unsanitary.
A multifamily dwelling , usually
overcrowded, unsanitary, and
very cheap to live in.
Ans-tenement
(&row house)
A number of social reformers worked to improve
life in the cities. One early reform program was the
Social Gospel movement. Leaders of this
movement preached that people reached salvation
by helping the poor. Many reformers responded to
the movement’s call. They established settlement
houses. These were community centers located in
slum areas. Many of these houses were run by
middle-class, college-educated women. The
settlement houses also offered schooling, nursing
and other kinds of help to those in need. One of
the more well-known social reformers of this time
was Jane Addams. She helped establish Hull
House. This was a settlement house that helped
the poor of Chicago.
A community center designed to
help urban immigrants.
Ans--Settlement House
Created Hull House, a
settlement house in Chicago.
Ans—Jane Addams
During the late 1800s, many cities were run by a
political machine. This was an organized group,
headed by a city boss, that controlled the activities
of a political party in a city. The machine offered
services to voters and businesses in exchange for
their vote or financial support. The boss controlled
city government, as well as jobs in the police, fire,
and sanitation departments. Bosses also controlled
city agencies that granted licenses to businesses,
and funded construction projects. By controlling the
cities’ finances, and by solving problems for voters,
bosses won loyalty and influence. Bosses were
immigrants who had worked their way up in politics
They could speak to the immigrants in their own
language, helping them to find jobs and housing. In
Organized group that controls a
political group in a city and offers
service to voters, usually
immigrants, in exchange for votes.
Ans—Political Machine
Political machines provided city dwellers with
vital services. But as they gained power, many
bosses became corrupt. They became rich
through graft, or the illegal use of political
influence for personal gain. To win elections,
some bosses filled the list of eligible voters with
the names of dogs, children, and people who had
died. They then used those names to cast votes
for themselves. Another illegal practice was the
kickback. Workers on city construction projects
would charge a higher price for their service and
then “kick back” part of the fee to the bosses,
who were also taking bribes from businesses in
return for allowing illegal or unsafe activities.
Illegal use of political influence
for personal gain.
Ans--Graft
One of the most powerful
political bosses was William
Marcy Tweed, known as Boss
Tweed. He became the head of
Tammany Hall, New York City’s
most powerful Democratic
political machine. The Tweed
Ring was a group of corrupt
politicians led by Boss Tweed.
Political Boss of
Tammany Hall in NY City.
Ans—Boss Tweed
For many decades, presidents had
complained about the problem of
patronage. This is the giving of
government jobs to people of the same
party who had helped a candidate get
elected. As a result, many unqualified
and corrupt workers were hired.
Reformers wanted to end the patronage
system. They called for a merit system,
in which jobs in civil service—
government administration—would go to
the most qualified people, regardless of
An officeholder appointing
people to government jobs as a
reward for their helping him get
elected.
Ans--Patronage
President Rutherford B. Hayes attempted to
reform civil service, but when some members of
the Republican party objected, Hayes decided
not to run for reelection in 1880. The party
eventually settled on an independent candidate,
James A. Garfield, who won the presidential
election but turned out to have ties to the
reformers. Shortly after being elected he was
assassinated. Garfield’s vice-president, Chester
A. Arthur, succeeded him. He pushed through a
civil service reform bill known as the Pendleton
Civil Service Act of 1883. This act created a civil
service commission to give government jobs
based on merit, not politics. It helped reform the
civil service.
A law enacted that made people
take test and the highest scoring
people got government jobs.
Ans—Pendleton Civil Service
Act
Chapter 7
Visual Reflection
Visual Reflection Ch 7

Directions: As you view each power
point slide (while listening to music
in background), describe each
image. Ask yourself, what do I see,
what do I already know about this
particular image, what kind of
prediction can I make using this
image. Each image will correspond
with the number on your sheet.
#1
#2
#3
#4
#5
#6
#7
#8
#9
#10
Chapter 8:
Life at the Turn of the
th
20 Century
Section 1: Science & Urban Life

Main Idea?
• Advances in science
and technology
helped solve urban
problems, including
overcrowding.

Why It Matters
Now?
• American Cities
Continue to depend
on the results of
scientific and
technological
research.
City Design
1.
2.
3.
Skyscrapers
Bridges
Recreational
areas/landscaping
(parks)
Communication
1.
2.
3.
4.
Cheap paper
Improved
printing press
1st
transcontinental
airmail service
Photography
(Kodak Camera
1888)
Transportation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Streetcars
Elevated trains “el
trains”
Railroad Lines
Subways
Airplane/Wright
Brothers (1903)
Who were the first to fly airplane?
Answer—Orville/Wilbur Wright
Expansion in Education,
Segregation & Discrimination
Expanding Public Education
1.
2.
3.
4.
States passed laws requiring
kids to attend school
 Attendance increased
Curriculum expanded
science, civics, and social
studies
 Better prepared for jobs
Immigrants attended school
 To be “Americanized”
(learn English/become
citizens)
Enrollment in Universities
increased
 More courses, entrance
exams
W.E.B. DuBois & Booker T. Washington



W.E.B. DuBois
1st AfricanAmerican to get
PhD from Harvard
Blacks should get
education to
become future
leaders
Racial equality
Booker T. Washington
 Blacks should acquire
labor skills to
become valued in
society.
 Tuskegee Institute
Both
wanted
Civil
Rights for
African= creates
American
leaders to fight
s
=
Equality
Jim Crow Laws:
Laws that kept
African-Americans
and whites
separate
Segregation and Discrimination

Main Idea
African Americans
led the fight
against voting
restrictions and Jim
Crow laws.

Why It
Matters Today?
Today, AfricanAmericans have the
legacy of a centurylong battle for civil
rights.
Segregation & Discrimination




Ida B. Wells
• Fought for racial justice
Poll Tax
• Pay tax to vote
• Hurt AA and poor whites
Grandfather Clause
• If your grandfather/father
could vote before Jan 1,
1867, you could too.
Literacy Tests
• Required voters to read
• AA had more difficult tests
What is it called when there is the
separation of people on
the basis of race??
Answer--segregation
Which laws kept African-Americans and
whites legally separated?
Answer—Jim Crow Laws
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
SC case that ruled
“separate but equal”
facilities was legal
(would not be
reversed until
1954!!!!!!!)

By 1900, millions of Americans had settled in the
nation’s cities. To accommodate their growing
populations, cities had to rely on technology. One
example of this was the development of the skyscraper.
Skyscrapers are tall buildings that allow people to live
many floors above ground. Changes in transportation
helped cities spread outward. In 1888, Richmond,
Virginia, became the first American city to use electricpowered streetcars. Two brothers, Orville and Wilbur
Wright, built the first airplane. Their first successful
flight occurred in 1903 at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In
1888, George Eastman invented his Kodak camera. The
camera also changed news reporting. Reporters could
now photograph events as they occurred, and this
helped create the field of photojournalism. When the
Wright brothers made their first successful flight at Kitty
Hawk, an amateur photographer caught the event on
First to fly airplane
Ans—Orville/Wilbur Wright
During the late 1800s, reformers tried to
improve public education. At that time, most
children in the United States received little
education. Many children did not even attend
school. Those who did left after only four
years. By the turn of the century, the number
of schools had increased greatly. The highschool curriculum also expanded. It included
courses in science, civics, home economics,
history, and literature. Many people realized
that the new industrial age needed people
who had technical and managerial skills.
In 1900, only about 4 percent of all African
Americans were in attendance at colleges or
professional schools. Booker T. Washington
founded the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial
Institute. Washington believed that racism
would end when blacks acquired useful labor
skills and were valuable to society. Washington
taught those skills at Tuskegee. W. E. B. Du
Bois was a black educator who disagreed with
Washington. Du Bois had been the first black
to get a doctorate from Harvard. Du Bois
founded the N.A.A.C.P. National Association
for the Advancement of Colored People. which
insisted that blacks should seek a liberal arts
Believed racism would end once
blacks acquired useful labor
skills.
Ans—Booker T. Washington
Believed blacks should receive
college degrees so they could
be well educated leaders.
Ans--W.E.B DuBois
After Reconstruction, African Americans were
kept from voting in the South. For example,
some states required voters to be able to
read. To determine this, officials gave each
voter a literacy test. They often gave African
Americans more difficult tests. The officials
giving the test could pass or fail people as
they wished. Another voting requirement was
the poll tax. This was a tax that one had to be
pay to enter a voting booth. African
Americans and poor whites often did not have
the money to pay the tax. So they were unable
to vote.
Tax paid in the south by people
who wanted to vote.
Ans—Poll Tax
Several Southern states wanted to make
sure that whites who could not read or
pay a poll tax still could vote. So they
added a grandfather clause to their
constitutions. This clause stated that
any person could vote if their father or
grandfather was qualified to vote before
January 1, 1867. This date was important
because before that time, freed slaves
did not have the right to vote. Therefore,
the grandfather clause did not allow
African Americans to vote.
Laws stating a person could vote
if their grandfathers were eligible
to do so in 1867.
Ans—Grandfather Clause.
Separating people on the basis of race
became known as segregation. Racial
segregation developed in such places as
schools, hospitals, and transportation
systems throughout the South. The
Southern states also passed Jim Crow laws.
These laws separated whites and blacks in
private and public places. Eventually a legal
challenge to segregation reached the U.S.
Supreme Court. However, in the case
Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court
ruled that separating the races in public
places was legal, “separate but equal”.
The Separation of people on the basis
of race.
Ans--segregation
Laws enacted in south the segregated
public facilities.
Ans—Jim Crow Laws
Supreme Court case that
legalized segregation. Coined
phrase “separate but equal”.
Ans-Plessy v. Ferguson
The use of machines allowed workers at the turn of the
century to do their jobs faster. This led to a shorter
workweek. As a result, Americans had more leisure time.
Newspapers entertained Americans. Many publishers
changed their newspapers in order to attract more readers.
They filled their pages with sensational headlines. Some
publishers used other techniques. Joseph Pulitzer, the
owner of the New York World, introduced a large Sunday
edition. It included comics, sports coverage, and women’s
news. Pulitzer presented news in a sensational way to beat
his main competitor, William Randolph Hearst. Hearst owned
the New York Morning Journal and the San Francisco
Examiner. Hearst tried to outdo Pulitzer by publishing
exaggerated and even made-up stories, (Yellow Journalism).
Light fiction such as “dime novels” was popular as more
people read books. Mark Twain, the pen name of the novelis
Samuel Langhorne Clemens, wrote realistic portrayals of
American life that became popular. His novel The Adventure
Mr. Parsley
giving
advice to
Mark Twain
in his
Virginia City,
Nevada
newspaper
office.
Chapter 8
Visual Reflection
Visual Reflection

Directions: As you view each
power point slide (while
listening to music in
background), describe each
image. Ask yourself, what do
I see, what do I already
know about this particular
image, what kind of
prediction can I make using
this image. Each image will
correspond with the number
on your sheet.
Chapter 8 Visual
Reflection
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
#1
#2
#3
#4
#5
#6
#7
#8
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CHAPTER 7 IMMIGRANTS AND URBANIZATION & …