By Mr. Gonzalez, Carlos ESOL and Language Arts Teacher DORAL MIDDLE SCHOOL What is an Essay? An essay is a composition that discusses, describes or explains one topic. It can be serious or funny. It can describe personal feelings or state your opinion, or it can just explain facts. TYPES OF ESSAYS An Expository Essay is one that explains, analyzes, or shares information. ☻ How-to essay ☻ Informative essay A Persuasive Essay is one where the writer presents his or her opinion and tries to convince the reader to agree. ☻ Opinion essay ☻ Problem-solution essay EXPOSITORY Explains something, or Provides information, or Clarifies a process, or Defines a concept Usually begins with a statement of purpose Develops with facts, reasons, incidents, examples, or statistics (FRIES) Enhances the reader’s understanding Objective, not dependent on emotion VS PERSUASIVE *Convinces the reader to accept a particular point of view, or * Convinces the reader to take a a particular action * Often about a controversial issue * Usually begins by stating the believe or the action the reader is to accept * Supports the argument with FRIES * States logical reasons to support the writer’s point of view * Recognizes/refutes an opposing argument * Usually concludes with the strongest argument * Often plays on the emotion of the reader The BASIC Structure of an Essay Paragraph 1: Introduction - General Statement (Attention Getter) - Thesis or topic sentence - 3 Reasons - Concluding sentence Paragraphs 2, 3, and 4: Body - Reason 1(topic sentence) + at least 3 supporting details) - Reason 2(topic sentence) + at least 3 supporting details) - Reason 3(topic sentence + at least 3 supporting details) Paragraph 5: Conclusion - Statement reflecting back on thesis - Restatement of key points - Concluding Statements MAKE YOUR ESSAY LIKE A HAMBURGER WITH LARGE FRIES S (The Top Bun) Topic Sentence (meat), Detail 1 (lettuce), Detail 2 (tomato), Detail 3 (cheese) F A C T S R E A S O N S I N C I D E N T S E X A M P L E S Topic Sentence (meat), Detail 1 (lettuce), Detail 2 (tomato), Detail 3 (cheese) Topic Sentence (meat), Detail 1 (lettuce), Detail 2 (tomato), Detail 3 (cheese) FRIES (The Bottom Bun) T A T I S T I C S The Introduction (The Top Bun) I. Introduction Introductory statement (Attention Getter): -Question, Quotation, Anecdote, Interesting Fact Thesis statement Three Reasons Concluding Sentence The Body First Reason Paragraph Transition topic sentence (MEAT) Three Supporting Details (Lettuce, tomato, cheese) Remember to add FRIES: -Facts, Reasons, Incidents, Examples, and/or Statistics Second Reason Paragraph Transition topic sentence (MEAT) Three Supporting Details (Lettuce, tomato, cheese) Remember to add FRIES: -Facts, Reasons, Incidents, Examples, Statistics Third Reason Paragraph Transition topic sentence (MEAT) Three Supporting Details (Lettuce, tomato, cheese) Remember to add FRIES: -Facts, Reasons, Incidents, Examples, Statistics The Conclusion (The Bottom Bun) III. Conclusion Transition Statement reflecting back on thesis Restatement of key points Concluding Statements Sample Essay: The Hazards of Moviegoing Introduction: I am a movie fanatic. When friends want to know what picture won the Oscar in 1980 or who played the police chief in Jaws, they ask me. My friends, though, have stopped asking me if I want to go out to the movies. Going to the movies has become a hazardous activity for me. The problems in getting to the theater, the theater itself, and the behavior of some patrons are all reasons why I often wait for a movie to show up on TV. I think it is better to stay home. ► General Statements ► Thesis Statement ► Reasons ► Concluding Sentence Sample Essay: The Hazards of Moviegoing Cont. Body: Supporting Paragraph # 1 First of all, just getting to the theater presents difficulties. Leaving a home equipped with a TV and a video recorder isn't an attractive idea on a humid, cold, or rainy night. Even if the weather cooperates, there is still a thirty-minute drive to the theater down a congested highway, followed by the hassle of looking for a parking space. And then there are the lines. After hooking yourself to the end of a human chain, you worry about whether there will be enough tickets, whether you will get seats together, and whether many people will sneak into the line ahead of you. ► Transitional Words ► Topic Sentence (Reason 1) ► Supporting Detail # 1 ► Supporting Detail # 2 ► Supporting Detail # 3 Sample Essay: The Hazards of Moviegoing Cont. Body: Supporting Paragraph # 2 Furthermore, once you have made it to the box office and gotten your tickets, you are confronted with the problems of the theater itself. If you are in one of the run-down older theaters, you must adjust to the musty smell of seldom-cleaned carpets. Escaped springs lurk in the faded plush or cracked leather seats, and half the seats you sit in seem loose or tilted so that you sit at a strange angle. Even, the newer twin and quad theaters offer their own problems. Sitting in an area only one-quarter the size of a regular theater, moviegoers often have to put up with the sound of the movie next door. This is especially jarring when the other movie involves racing cars or a karate war and you are trying to enjoy a quiet love story. But, whether the theater is old or new, it will have floors that seem to be coated with rubber cement. By the end of a movie, shoes almost have to be pried off the floor because they have become sealed to a deadly compound of spilled soda, hardening bubble gum, and crushed Jujubes. ► Transitions ►Topic Sentence ►Supporting Detail # 1 ► Supporting Detail # 2 ►Supporting Detail # 3 Sample Essay: The Hazards of Moviegoing Cont. Body: Supporting Paragraph # 3 Finally, some of the patrons are even more of a problem than the theater itself. Little kids race up and down the aisles, usually in giggling packs. Teenagers try to impress their friends by talking back to the screen, whistling, and making what they consider to be hilarious noises. Adults act as if they were at home in their own living rooms and comment loudly on the ages of the stars or why movies aren't as good anymore. And people of all ages crinkle candy wrappers, stick gum on their seats, and drop popcorn tubs or cups of crushed ice and soda on the floor. Also, they cough and burp, squirm endlessly in their seats, file out for repeated trips to the rest rooms or concession stand, and elbow you out of the armrest on either side of your seat. ►Transitions ►Topic Sentence ►Supporting Detail # 1 ►Supporting Detail # 2 ►Supporting Detail # 3 Sample Essay: The Hazards of Moviegoing Cont. Conclusion: All in all, after arriving home from the movies one night, I decided that I was not going to be a moviegoer anymore. I was tired of the problems involved in getting to the movies , dealing with the theater itself, and some of the patrons. Because of that, I arranged to have cable TV service installed in my home. I may now see movies a bit later than other people, but I'll be more relaxed watching box office hits in the comfort of my own living room. ►Transitions ►Statement reflecting back on thesis ►Restatement of key point # 1 ►Restatement of key point # 2 ►Restatement of key point # 3 ►Concluding statements ARE YOU READY TO WRITE YOUR OWN ESSAY? BEFORE YOU WRITE YOUR ESSAY, YOU NEED TO READ AND UNDERSTAND THE PROMPT YOU ARE GIVEN. THERE ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF PROMPTS, BUT WE WILL ONLY DISCUSS TWO OF THEM. EXPOSITORY PROMPTS AND PERSUASIVE PROMPTS A PROMPT HAS TWO PARTS: The Writing Situation: Introduces the topic The Directions For Writing: Helps you to think of a main idea for your essay and directs you to write about it. SAMPLE PROMPT: Writing Situation: The principal at your school wants to plan an activity to welcome students back to school at the beginning of next school year. Directions For Writing: Think about a welcoming activity that would be fun for the students. Now write to convince your principal to choose your idea for a welcoming activity. WHAT IS THE GENERAL TOPIC OF THE ESSAY? - A welcoming activity that would be fun for the students. WHAT TYPE OF ESSAY WILL YOU WRITE? - Persuasive REMEMBER IN A PERSUASIVE PROMPT, YOU WILL FIND THE WORDS PERSUADE, CONVINCE OR TELL WHY SOMEONE SHOULD DO SOMETHING. SAMPLE PROMPT: Writing Situation: Everyone has something valuable that he or she would like to put in a trunk for the future. Directions for Writing: Think about something valuable that you would like to put in a trunk for the future. Now write to explain to your readers why you would like to put that in a trunk for the future. WHAT IS THE GENERAL TOPIC OF THE ESSAY? -Something valuable that you would like to put in a trunk for the future. WHAT TYPE OF ESSAY WILL YOU WRITE? -Expository. REMEMBER IN AN EXPOSITORY PROMPT, YOU WILL FIND THE WORDS EXPLAIN, TELL HOW, OR TELL WHY. A GOOD ESSAY SHOULD HAVE: FOCUS: An essay is focused if the writer maintains the main idea throughout the writing piece. HOW DO YOU ACHIEVE FOCUS? •Write a topic sentence that is about the prompt. •Repeat key words and phrases related to the topic sentence. •Do not include information that does not belong. ORGANIZATION: An essay is organized if it has the appropriate structure-beginning, middle, and end. HOW DO YOU ACHIEVE ORGANIZATION? •Write an introduction (beginning), a body (middle), and a conclusion (end). •Use transitional words to show a flow of ideas between sentences and paragraphs. A GOOD ESSAY SHOULD HAVE: Cont. SUPPORT: An essay has support if the writer uses different details to explain, expand, or develop the main idea. HOW CAN YOU ACHIEVE THIS? •Use FRIES (Facts, Reasons, Incidents, Examples, Statistics). •Use vivid verbs and adjectives. •Use dialogue. •Use comparisons. CONVENTIONS: An essay that has good conventions is one that demonstrates correct use of grammar and spelling. •Use varied sentences. •Use standard Written English. •Pay attention to your spelling. •Pay attention to punctuation and capitalization. •Pay attention to usage. SAMPLE EXPOSITORY ESSAY TITLE: The 1950s If I were given the privilege to travel through time, I would choose to go back to the 1950s. This was a relatively peaceful time in American history. The quality of entertainment 43 years ago was immensely higher than it is now. Living costs during the 1950s were considerably lower than they currently are. America and the rest of the world were much safer and better places to live. It is for these reasons why I would return to this point in history. During the 1950s, many wonderful movies and music were introduced to the public. Entertainment back then was pure and fun, and did not have the violence or vulgar language that rules television, movies, and songs today. In the 1950s, I would have liked watching the “I Love Lucy” show every week, and to see the emerging popularity of rock and roll music. At the movie theaters, I would have liked to see well made movies like “A Streetcar Named Desire”, “Ben Hur”, and “There ‘s No Business Like Show Business.” In the 1950s, every movie was good enough for parents to take their children to see. The cost of living in the 1950s was very reasonable. A person could purchase a Buick for under 7, 000 dollars. Large homes would only cost 30, 000 dollars, and a bottle of coca-cola was only a dime. During that era, a family did not have to be rich in order to give their children the necessities of life. Good clothing cost a few dollars, and healthy food, like vegetables was under a dollar! The most important reason why I would enjoy returning to the 1950s is because the world was not riddled with crime and violence like it is in 1998. I have to lock and bolt my doors every time I leave the house, but if I lived 40 years ago that would not be the case. Children that were only six or seven years old could go to the woods and build a tree house without fear of somebody murdering or kidnapping them. If I lived during the 1950s, I would be allowed to go into town by myself, or sleepover at a friend’s house without my mother asking a dozen questions. In conclusion, I would greatly appreciate having the opportunity to travel back to the 1950s. There, I could enjoy exciting, wholesome entertainment from television, movies, and music. Living costs would be low enough that I could enjoy being in a country with less homeless and starving people. The world would be a much safer place and my life would not be endangered if I walked my dog alone at night. The 1950s was a special time in American history, and I would have liked to be a part of it. SAMPLE EXPOSITORY ESSAY Title: Growing Up With rules. It is said that for every action, there is a reaction. That saying is perfectly illustrated by the way that my parents disciplined my brothers and sisters and me. To me, it was an ordinary family, but I later learned that having ten children was anything but ordinary. It required a certain number of rules, and my parents were not shy about making those rules. The rules in our house were strict and had both short-term and long-term effects. My siblings and I were responsible for keeping our rooms neat and clean, doing well in school, and maintaining good relationships to each other. These are some of the rules we had to face at home. First of all, from the time we were very young, we were responsible for keeping our rooms neat and clean. Our parents did a daily “inspection” of our rooms that could occur at any time. If our beds were not made, our clothes were not hung up, or our toys were left out, we were immediately taken to our rooms when we got home from school and told to correct the situation. When we did not keep our rooms clean, we had to help my mom for the rest of the afternoon instead of going out and playing with friends. Therefore, we kept our rooms fairly tidy, and we got to like them like that. As adults, I think we all can now appreciate this discipline of tidying up before leaving our rooms, apartments, or houses. SAMPLE EXPOSITORY ESSAY-CONT. Title: Growing Up With Rules In addition, doing as well as possible in school was also very important in our family. Homework time began right after dinner, and each child was required to explain to one or both parents what she or he was doing. Asking for help was permitted, but being lazy was not. When we were caught daydreaming instead of doing our homework, the punishment was quick and certain: no TV for a week. Good grades were not necessarily expected, but making a good effort was. If one of our teachers contacted my parents with a discipline problem or with a simple comment that one of us was not working up to our abilities, we all got a lecture from my parents about what our responsibilities as children were. Today, my parents can boast that all ten of their children are college graduates and that among them are two doctors and college professors. Finally, our parents always made sure that we understood how important our relationships to each other were. We were taught to love and respect our siblings because they were the only people that we would always be able to count on. From a very early age, we learned to share what we had with each other. Later, we learned to support each other through hard times at school or around the neighborhood. We would stick together like glue if one of us were in trouble or threatened. In my family, the result of our not caring for each other was the look of such profound disappointment in my parents’ eyes that would break our hearts. Our parents always forgave us in the end; nevertheless, it was a terrible feeling. The long-term result of this is that we are all very close today. SAMPLE EXPOSITORY ESSAY-CONT. Title: Growing Up With Rules All in all, some people think that my upbringing was rather strict and even cruel, but I do not. As an adult now, I am aware of the benefits all that discipline brought about. Because of that, I live in an orderly home, am very happy working in my chosen profession as a college professor, and I have no better friends than my brothers and sisters. I believe that I owe my parents and their rules for the stability and contentment I have in my life.