By
Mr. Gonzalez, Carlos
ESOL and Language Arts Teacher
DORAL MIDDLE SCHOOL
What is an Essay?
An essay is a composition that
discusses, describes or explains
one topic. It can be serious or
funny. It can describe personal
feelings or state your opinion, or it
can just explain facts.
TYPES OF ESSAYS
An Expository Essay is one that
explains, analyzes, or shares
information.
☻ How-to essay
☻ Informative essay
A Persuasive Essay is one where the
writer presents his or her opinion and
tries to convince the reader to agree.
☻ Opinion essay
☻ Problem-solution essay
EXPOSITORY
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Explains something, or
Provides information, or
Clarifies a process, or
Defines a concept
Usually begins with a
statement of purpose
Develops with facts, reasons,
incidents, examples, or
statistics (FRIES)
Enhances the reader’s
understanding
Objective, not dependent on
emotion
VS
PERSUASIVE
*Convinces the reader to accept
a particular point of view, or
* Convinces the reader to take a
a particular action
* Often about a controversial issue
* Usually begins by stating the
believe or the action the reader
is to accept
* Supports the argument with FRIES
* States logical reasons to support
the writer’s point of view
* Recognizes/refutes an opposing
argument
* Usually concludes with the strongest
argument
* Often plays on the emotion of the
reader
The BASIC Structure of an Essay
Paragraph 1: Introduction
- General Statement (Attention Getter)
- Thesis or topic sentence
- 3 Reasons
- Concluding sentence
Paragraphs 2, 3, and 4: Body
- Reason 1(topic sentence) + at least 3 supporting details)
- Reason 2(topic sentence) + at least 3 supporting details)
- Reason 3(topic sentence + at least 3 supporting details)
Paragraph 5: Conclusion
- Statement reflecting back on thesis
- Restatement of key points
- Concluding Statements
MAKE YOUR ESSAY LIKE A HAMBURGER
WITH LARGE FRIES
S
(The Top Bun)
Topic Sentence (meat), Detail 1 (lettuce),
Detail 2 (tomato), Detail 3 (cheese)
F
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E
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Topic Sentence (meat), Detail 1 (lettuce),
Detail 2 (tomato), Detail 3 (cheese)
Topic Sentence (meat), Detail 1 (lettuce),
Detail 2 (tomato), Detail 3 (cheese)
FRIES
(The Bottom Bun)
T
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The Introduction (The Top Bun)
I. Introduction
Introductory statement (Attention Getter):
-Question, Quotation, Anecdote, Interesting Fact
Thesis statement
Three Reasons
Concluding Sentence
The Body
First Reason Paragraph
Transition
topic sentence (MEAT)
Three Supporting Details (Lettuce, tomato, cheese)
Remember to add FRIES:
-Facts, Reasons, Incidents, Examples, and/or Statistics
Second Reason Paragraph
Transition
topic sentence (MEAT)
Three Supporting Details (Lettuce, tomato, cheese)
Remember to add FRIES:
-Facts, Reasons, Incidents, Examples, Statistics
Third Reason Paragraph
Transition
topic sentence (MEAT)
Three Supporting Details (Lettuce, tomato, cheese)
Remember to add FRIES:
-Facts, Reasons, Incidents, Examples, Statistics
The Conclusion (The Bottom Bun)
III. Conclusion
Transition
Statement reflecting back on thesis
Restatement of key points
Concluding Statements
Sample Essay: The Hazards of Moviegoing
Introduction:
I am a movie fanatic. When friends want to
know what picture won the Oscar in 1980 or who
played the police chief in Jaws, they ask me. My
friends, though, have stopped asking me if I want
to go out to the movies. Going to the movies has
become a hazardous activity for me. The
problems in getting to the theater, the theater
itself, and the behavior of some patrons are all
reasons why I often wait for a movie to show up
on TV. I think it is better to stay home.
► General Statements
► Thesis Statement
► Reasons
► Concluding Sentence
Sample Essay: The Hazards of Moviegoing
Cont.
Body: Supporting Paragraph # 1
First of all, just getting to the theater presents
difficulties. Leaving a home equipped with a TV and a
video recorder isn't an attractive idea on a humid, cold, or
rainy night. Even if the weather cooperates, there is still a
thirty-minute drive to the theater down a congested
highway, followed by the hassle of looking for a parking
space. And then there are the lines. After hooking
yourself to the end of a human chain, you worry about
whether there will be enough tickets, whether you will get
seats together, and whether many people will sneak into
the line ahead of you.
► Transitional Words
► Topic Sentence (Reason 1)
► Supporting Detail # 1
► Supporting Detail # 2
► Supporting Detail # 3
Sample Essay: The Hazards of Moviegoing
Cont.
Body: Supporting Paragraph # 2
Furthermore, once you have made it to the box office and
gotten your tickets, you are confronted with the problems of the
theater itself. If you are in one of the run-down older theaters,
you must adjust to the musty smell of seldom-cleaned carpets.
Escaped springs lurk in the faded plush or cracked leather seats,
and half the seats you sit in seem loose or tilted so that you sit at
a strange angle. Even, the newer twin and quad theaters offer
their own problems. Sitting in an area only one-quarter the size
of a regular theater, moviegoers often have to put up with the
sound of the movie next door. This is especially jarring when the
other movie involves racing cars or a karate war and you are
trying to enjoy a quiet love story. But, whether the theater is old
or new, it will have floors that seem to be coated with rubber
cement. By the end of a movie, shoes almost have to be pried off
the floor because they have become sealed to a deadly
compound of spilled soda, hardening bubble gum, and crushed
Jujubes.
► Transitions ►Topic Sentence ►Supporting Detail # 1
► Supporting Detail # 2 ►Supporting Detail # 3
Sample Essay: The Hazards of Moviegoing
Cont.
Body: Supporting Paragraph # 3
Finally, some of the patrons are even more of a
problem than the theater itself. Little kids race up and
down the aisles, usually in giggling packs. Teenagers try
to impress their friends by talking back to the screen,
whistling, and making what they consider to be hilarious
noises. Adults act as if they were at home in their own
living rooms and comment loudly on the ages of the stars
or why movies aren't as good anymore. And people of all
ages crinkle candy wrappers, stick gum on their seats, and
drop popcorn tubs or cups of crushed ice and soda on the
floor. Also, they cough and burp, squirm endlessly in their
seats, file out for repeated trips to the rest rooms or
concession stand, and elbow you out of the armrest on
either side of your seat.
►Transitions
►Topic Sentence ►Supporting Detail # 1
►Supporting Detail # 2 ►Supporting Detail # 3
Sample Essay: The Hazards of Moviegoing
Cont.
Conclusion:
All in all, after arriving home from the movies one
night, I decided that I was not going to be a moviegoer
anymore. I was tired of the problems involved in getting to
the movies , dealing with the theater itself, and some of the
patrons. Because of that, I arranged to have cable TV
service installed in my home. I may now see movies a bit
later than other people, but I'll be more relaxed watching
box office hits in the comfort of my own living room.
►Transitions
►Statement reflecting back on thesis
►Restatement of key point # 1
►Restatement of key point # 2
►Restatement of key point # 3
►Concluding statements
ARE YOU READY TO WRITE
YOUR OWN ESSAY?
BEFORE YOU WRITE YOUR ESSAY,
YOU NEED TO READ AND
UNDERSTAND THE PROMPT
YOU ARE GIVEN.
THERE ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF
PROMPTS, BUT WE WILL ONLY DISCUSS
TWO OF THEM.
EXPOSITORY
PROMPTS
AND
PERSUASIVE
PROMPTS
A PROMPT HAS TWO PARTS:
The Writing Situation:
Introduces the topic
The Directions For
Writing: Helps you to
think of a main idea for
your essay and directs
you to write about it.
SAMPLE PROMPT:
Writing Situation:
The principal at your school wants to plan an
activity to welcome students back to school
at the beginning of next school year.
Directions For Writing:
Think about a welcoming activity that would
be fun for the students.
Now write to convince your principal to
choose your idea for a welcoming activity.
WHAT IS THE GENERAL TOPIC OF THE
ESSAY?
- A welcoming activity that would be
fun for the students.
WHAT TYPE OF ESSAY WILL YOU WRITE?
- Persuasive
REMEMBER
IN A PERSUASIVE PROMPT, YOU WILL FIND THE
WORDS PERSUADE, CONVINCE OR TELL WHY
SOMEONE SHOULD DO SOMETHING.
SAMPLE PROMPT:
Writing Situation:
Everyone has something valuable that he or she would like to put
in a trunk for the future.
Directions for Writing:
Think about something valuable that you would like to put in a
trunk for the future.
Now write to explain to your readers why you would like to put that
in a trunk for the future.
WHAT IS THE GENERAL TOPIC OF THE ESSAY?
-Something valuable that you would like to put in a trunk for the
future.
WHAT TYPE OF ESSAY WILL YOU WRITE?
-Expository.
REMEMBER
IN AN EXPOSITORY PROMPT, YOU WILL FIND THE WORDS
EXPLAIN, TELL HOW, OR TELL WHY.
A GOOD ESSAY SHOULD HAVE:
FOCUS: An essay is focused if the writer maintains the main idea
throughout the writing piece.
HOW DO YOU ACHIEVE FOCUS?
•Write a topic sentence that is about the prompt.
•Repeat key words and phrases related to the topic sentence.
•Do not include information that does not belong.
ORGANIZATION: An essay is organized if it has the appropriate
structure-beginning, middle, and end.
HOW DO YOU ACHIEVE ORGANIZATION?
•Write an introduction (beginning), a body (middle), and a
conclusion (end).
•Use transitional words to show a flow of ideas between sentences
and paragraphs.
A GOOD ESSAY SHOULD HAVE:
Cont.
SUPPORT: An essay has support if the writer uses different
details to explain, expand, or develop the main idea.
HOW CAN YOU ACHIEVE THIS?
•Use FRIES (Facts, Reasons, Incidents, Examples, Statistics).
•Use vivid verbs and adjectives.
•Use dialogue.
•Use comparisons.
CONVENTIONS: An essay that has good conventions is one that
demonstrates correct use of grammar and spelling.
•Use varied sentences.
•Use standard Written English.
•Pay attention to your spelling.
•Pay attention to punctuation and capitalization.
•Pay attention to usage.
SAMPLE EXPOSITORY ESSAY
TITLE: The 1950s
If I were given the privilege to travel through time, I would choose to go back to
the 1950s. This was a relatively peaceful time in American history. The quality of
entertainment 43 years ago was immensely higher than it is now. Living costs during the
1950s were considerably lower than they currently are. America and the rest of the world
were much safer and better places to live. It is for these reasons why I would return to
this point in history.
During the 1950s, many wonderful movies and music were introduced to the
public. Entertainment back then was pure and fun, and did not have the violence or
vulgar language that rules television, movies, and songs today. In the 1950s, I would
have liked watching the “I Love Lucy” show every week, and to see the emerging
popularity of rock and roll music. At the movie theaters, I would have liked to see well
made movies like “A Streetcar Named Desire”, “Ben Hur”, and “There ‘s No Business
Like Show Business.” In the 1950s, every movie was good enough for parents to take
their children to see.
The cost of living in the 1950s was very reasonable. A person could purchase a
Buick for under 7, 000 dollars. Large homes would only cost 30, 000 dollars, and a bottle
of coca-cola was only a dime. During that era, a family did not have to be rich in order to
give their children the necessities of life. Good clothing cost a few dollars, and healthy
food, like vegetables was under a dollar!
The most important reason why I would enjoy returning to the 1950s is because
the world was not riddled with crime and violence like it is in 1998. I have to lock and bolt
my doors every time I leave the house, but if I lived 40 years ago that would not be the
case. Children that were only six or seven years old could go to the woods and build a
tree house without fear of somebody murdering or kidnapping them. If I lived during the
1950s, I would be allowed to go into town by myself, or sleepover at a friend’s house
without my mother asking a dozen questions.
In conclusion, I would greatly appreciate having the opportunity to travel back to
the 1950s. There, I could enjoy exciting, wholesome entertainment from television,
movies, and music. Living costs would be low enough that I could enjoy being in a
country with less homeless and starving people. The world would be a much safer place
and my life would not be endangered if I walked my dog alone at night. The 1950s was a
special time in American history, and I would have liked to be a part of it.
SAMPLE EXPOSITORY ESSAY
Title: Growing Up With rules.
It is said that for every action, there is a reaction. That saying is
perfectly illustrated by the way that my parents disciplined my
brothers and sisters and me. To me, it was an ordinary family, but I
later learned that having ten children was anything but ordinary. It
required a certain number of rules, and my parents were not shy
about making those rules. The rules in our house were strict and had
both short-term and long-term effects. My siblings and I were
responsible for keeping our rooms neat and clean, doing well in
school, and maintaining good relationships to each other. These are
some of the rules we had to face at home.
First of all, from the time we were very young, we were
responsible for keeping our rooms neat and clean. Our parents did a
daily “inspection” of our rooms that could occur at any time. If our
beds were not made, our clothes were not hung up, or our toys were
left out, we were immediately taken to our rooms when we got home
from school and told to correct the situation. When we did not keep
our rooms clean, we had to help my mom for the rest of the afternoon
instead of going out and playing with friends. Therefore, we kept our
rooms fairly tidy, and we got to like them like that. As adults, I think
we all can now appreciate this discipline of tidying up before leaving
our rooms, apartments, or houses.
SAMPLE EXPOSITORY ESSAY-CONT.
Title: Growing Up With Rules
In addition, doing as well as possible in school was also very
important in our family. Homework time began right after dinner, and
each child was required to explain to one or both parents what she or
he was doing. Asking for help was permitted, but being lazy was not.
When we were caught daydreaming instead of doing our homework,
the punishment was quick and certain: no TV for a week. Good grades
were not necessarily expected, but making a good effort was. If one of
our teachers contacted my parents with a discipline problem or with a
simple comment that one of us was not working up to our abilities, we
all got a lecture from my parents about what our responsibilities as
children were. Today, my parents can boast that all ten of their
children are college graduates and that among them are two doctors
and college professors.
Finally, our parents always made sure that we understood how
important our relationships to each other were. We were taught to love
and respect our siblings because they were the only people that we
would always be able to count on. From a very early age, we learned to
share what we had with each other. Later, we learned to support each
other through hard times at school or around the neighborhood. We
would stick together like glue if one of us were in trouble or
threatened. In my family, the result of our not caring for each other
was the look of such profound disappointment in my parents’ eyes
that would break our hearts. Our parents always forgave us in the end;
nevertheless, it was a terrible feeling. The long-term result of this is
that we are all very close today.
SAMPLE EXPOSITORY ESSAY-CONT.
Title: Growing Up With Rules
All in all, some people think that my upbringing was
rather strict and even cruel, but I do not. As an adult now, I am
aware of the benefits all that discipline brought about.
Because of that, I live in an orderly home, am very happy
working in my chosen profession as a college professor, and I
have no better friends than my brothers and sisters. I believe
that I owe my parents and their rules for the stability and
contentment I have in my life.
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Writing 5-Paragraph Essays