Communication Skills Workshop
Preparing Effective Reports and Presentations
UNCW Cameron School of Business MBA Program
Learning Alliance – Growth and Profit Project
Joe Dougherty
July 16th, 2005
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
1
Today’s Agenda
1.
Introduction, Background and Workshop Objectives
2.
Overview of the Consulting Process
3.
Organizing and Writing Consulting Reports
4.
Making Effective Consulting Presentations
5.
Conclusion
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
2
Why Have this Workshop?
 Help strengthen your analytical and communication skills:
These skills are rare and thus a competitive advantage.
 Help ensure that you deliver a high quality product:
Doing so strengthens UNCW / Cameron MBA Program
relationship with the business community.
 Provide a forum to discuss issues and generate ideas related to
your Growth & Profitability projects.
 Offer an opportunity to practice communicating findings,
conclusions and recommendations.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
3
Why Me?
 Ten years post-MBA work in management consulting:
A.T. Kearney, Deloitte, Emerging Markets Group
 Received training on consulting skills, report writing,
presentation skills, project management, etc.
 Delivered training to Deloitte EMG, Kenan Institute Asia
(Thailand), Russia’s Center for Fiscal Policy, several banks, etc.
 I write a lot of consulting reports and do a lot of presentations!
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
4
Workshop Objectives
 Understand the basics of the consulting process and how
consultants ‘add value’ for their clients
 Learn (or re-learn) the principles of effective communications
 Learn specific techniques for preparing and delivering successful
reports and presentations
 Improve your ability to deliver a high quality product for your
Learning Alliance client
What, specifically, would you like to accomplish today?
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
5
Workshop Format
 Informal – Feel free to interrupt or interject
 Flexible – We can adapt as required to meet your objectives
 Interactive – Please question, challenge and probe
 Ambitious – We will introduce a lot of material in a short time
 Experimental – First rule of consulting = manage expectations!
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
6
Today’s Agenda
1.
Introduction, Background and Workshop Objectives
2.
Overview of the Consulting Process
3.
Organizing and Writing Consulting Reports
4.
Making Effective Consulting Presentations
5.
Conclusion
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
7
How Do (Good) Consultants Create Value?
 Identifying problems or opportunities
 Structuring approaches to problems or opportunities
 Developing solutions and (often) helping implement them
 Building support for action by:
- using fact-based analysis
- communicating effectively (listening and talking)
- demonstrating results (“quick hits”)
 Lending credibility / being a scapegoat
Success in Management Consulting:
Recommendations That Are Understood, Accepted and Implemented
…and Deliver Positive, Tangible Results.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
8
Alternative Management Consulting Models
Consulting Models
Description/Examples
Pros and Cons
Product Based




Narrow focus or separate lines/units
Often IT-related services/products
Standard engagements and procedures
IBM, EDS, most Big 4 firms




Simplest to manage
Best option for standard tasks
Commoditized / low rates
Frequently inflexible
Experience/
Knowledge Based




Narrow industry or function focus
Usually very senior consultants
Niche firms or individuals
Oliver Wyman, EMG, IESC, most
“development consulting” firms




“Instant” credibility
Built-in intellectual capital
Harder to manage - ego issues
Sometimes inflexible, more
‘experts’ than ‘Consultants’
Process Based




Broad range of services, industries
Larger teams, “leveraged” approach
Emphasis on problem-solving process
McKinsey, AT Kearney, Booz Allen,
other ‘strategy’ firms
 Flexible and responsive
 Can be highly profitable, but
hard to ‘prove’ value ex-ante
 Requires hard work and need
to establish credibility
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
9
The Core Of The Consulting Process
Step 1:
Plan the Engagement
Project
Management
Step 2:
Gather the Facts
Step 3:
Analyze the Problem
Constant
Communication
Step 4:
Recommend Solutions
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
10
Step 1: Plan The Engagement
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Plan the
Engagement
Gather the
Facts
Analyze the
Problem
Recommend
Solutions
Key Steps
1. Define objectives and
commitments
• Issue Diagram
2. Define the problem(s) and
structure the approach
• Data Framework
3. Prepare for fact gathering
“Building Blocks”
Outputs
• Hypotheses and Key Questions
• Data Source Matrix
• Project Workplan
• Agreed-upon, clear
objectives
• Top-down logic and
creative intuition
• Structured, organized
thinking and writing
• Interview Guides
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
11
Define the Project Objectives
Understanding the Client’s Situation
Current Situations
“Know we need to
change and know how,
but lack time/resources
to do so.”
“Don’t know
if we should
change.”
“Know we need
to change, but
don’t know how.”
Lack Insight
Have Insight
Have Plan
Want Insight
Want Plan
Want Plan
Implemented
Desired Results
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
12
Types of Consulting Engagements
Six Types of Consulting Projects
Number of Objectives
Insight
1
Planning
1
Insight & Planning
2
Implementation
1
Planning &
Implementation
2
Insight, Planning
& Implementation
3
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
13
Defining Project Objectives
The project objectives answer the question,
“ What does the client want to happen as a result of this engagement?”
 How many objectives?
 What are the key issues to be addressed?
 What specific products will be delivered?
Proper project objectives are...
 Concise and clearly stated
 Understood and agreed upon by clients and consultants
 Tangible and measurable
 Achievable within the given time frame
 Within the consultants’ ability to control
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
14
Sample Project Objectives
Think of the project objectives (in the proposal) as a legal commitment

Complete a study to determine whether to establish a branch office in China

Reduce non-personnel costs by at least 30% per year

Develop a plan for restructuring troubled state-owned banks

Review current MIS and recommend actions for meeting management data needs

Identify best practices in risk management, assist in determining how best to improve
risk management in our organization, and provide an action plan for improvement
Which Type of Consulting Engagement Does Each Represent?
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
15
Developing Hypotheses
Using a hypothesis-driven approach to problem solving focuses resources and
saves time, making the process more efficient
What is a hypothesis?
 An idea or suggestion used as a starting point for reasoning and/or investigation
 A proposition accepted as provisional explanation to guide investigation or accepted as
very likely in light of established facts
 A tentative conclusion as to problems or opportunities, based on partial data (and often
conditional on receipt and analysis of more data)
Hypotheses Are Not Conclusions, Nor Are They Deliverables!
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
16
Step 1: Plan The Engagement
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Plan the
Engagement
Gather the
Facts
Analyze the
Problem
Recommend
Solutions
Key Steps
1. Define objectives and
commitments
• Issue Diagram
2. Define the problem(s) and
structure the approach
• Data Framework
3. Prepare for fact gathering
“Building Blocks”
Outputs
• Hypotheses and Key Questions
• Data Source Matrix
• Project Workplan
• Agreed-upon, clear
objectives
• Top-down logic and
creative intuition
• Structured, organized
thinking and writing
• Interview Guides
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
17
Step 2: Gather the Facts
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Plan the
Engagement
Gather the
Facts
Analyze the
Problem
Recommend
Solutions
Key Steps
1. Gather Facts
2. Synthesize Findings
“Building Blocks”
Outputs
• Structured, efficient
approach
1. Notes
2. Charts and Graphs
3. Reasonable Assumptions
4. More Charts and Graphs
• Use of reasonable
assumptions
• Ability to differentiate key
findings from “noise”
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
18
Step 2: Sources of Information
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Plan the
Engagement
Gather the
Facts
Analyze the
Problem
Recommend
Solutions
Interviews
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Client managers
Client staff
Competitors
Customers
Suppliers
Industry analysts
Experts within your firm
Trade unions
Other stakeholders
Documents and Reports
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Financial statements and budgets
Policy and procedural manuals
Operational data
Personnel records
Organizational charts, job profiles
Market studies and data
Periodicals and books
Competitor annual reports
Industry studies
Personal Observations
• Client activities
• Employee attitudes
• Environment
• Procedures and results
• Same for competitors
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
19
Step 3: Analyze The Problem
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Plan the
Engagement
Gather the
Facts
Analyze the
Problem
Recommend
Solutions
Key Steps
1. Synthesize facts
2. Draw conclusions
3. Test conclusions
Outputs
“Building Blocks”
1. Findings
• Deductive logic
2. Conclusions
• Structure
3. Logic Diagram
• Intuition
• Discussion
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
20
Synthesizing Facts into Findings
Interviews
Documents
Notes
• Fact
• Fact
• Fact
• Reasonable
Assumptions
Observations
Finding
Finding
Synthesis
Finding
Finding
Finding
• Acceptable
Theories
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
21
How Is A Finding Different Than A Fact?
Findings answer the question, “So What?”
Facts:



Operating a branch office in China would cost at least $5 million per year
The client has set a minimum ROI for new branches of 20%
The market for the product in China is $20 million per year
Question:

So What?
Finding:

The branch office would need to achieve 25% market share to break even, and 30%
market share to achieve the hurdle rate
What Is The Next Question You Would Ask?
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
22
Drawing Conclusions
Research
Fact
Fact
Fact
Fact
Fact
Fact
Synthesize
Finding
Finding
Diagnose
Prescribe
Conclusions
Recommendations
• Problems
– …..
– …..
• Actions
• Opportunities
– …..
– …..
• Risks
• Benefits
• Costs
Finding
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
23
Drawing Conclusions (continued)
Review
Findings
• We have the
facts - so what?
Test
Hypothesis
• Do the finding
support the
hypothesis?
Modify
Hypothesis
Draw
Conclusions
• How do the
findings add
detail to the
hypothesis?
• What is the
problem to be
addressed or
opportunity to
be pursued?
A Conclusion Is A Hypothesis That Has Been Tested And Proven By Findings
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
24
Preparing A Logic Diagram - Example
Facts
Findings
102o F/39o C
Temperature
Elevated
temperature
Red Spots
Abnormal
skin rash
Susan had
measles two
weeks ago
Conclusion
Charlie has
the measles
Exposure two
weeks ago
Charlie plays
with Susan
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
25
Step 4: Recommend Solutions
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Plan the
Engagement
Gather the
Facts
Analyze the
Problem
Recommend
Solutions
Key Steps
“Building Blocks”
Outputs
1. Brainstorm
1. Ideas
2. Prepare draft
recommendations
2. Options
• Creativity
• Listening
• Adaptability
3. Client Buy-In
• Practicality
3. Test recommendations
4. Implemented Improvement Actions
4. Present recommendations
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
26
What Is A Recommendation?
Facts
Findings
102o F/39o C
Temp
Elevated
temperature
Red Spots
Susan had
measles two
weeks ago
Charlie plays
with Susan
Abnormal skin
rash
Conclusion
Recommendation
Charlie has
the measles
Treat for
Measles
Rest in Bed
Take Aspirins
Drink Fluids
Exposure two
weeks ago
A Recommendation Describes Specific Actions The Client Should Take
To Solve A Problem Or Take Advantage Of An Opportunity
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
27
Developing Recommendations - Guiding Principles
Following these guiding principles will help ensure the client takes action

Develop alternative recommendations for each conclusion, test the alternatives then
arrive at the best possible solution

Make sure recommendations always describe specific actions to be taken

Identify (and try to quantify) the results that will occur if the action is taken (benefits)

Ask yourself, “Will this recommendation help meet the project objectives?”

Make sure your recommendations cover all the issues and agreed-upon outputs

Make sure the recommendations are feasible and acceptable in the client’s specific
circumstances (constraints)
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
28
Developing Recommendations - Key Steps
Key Steps
1. Brainstorm
2. Prepare draft
recommendations
3. Test recommendations
4. Present
recommendations
•
•
•
•
List and explore all ideas first, then judge
Come at the problem from different angles
Include clients, if appropriate
Think through implications to eliminate options
•
•
•
•
List steps needed for implementation
Try to quantify likely benefits
Describe how it addresses the problem
Think through risks and cost implications
•
•
•
•
Model impact under various scenarios
See it from the perspective of the implementers
How will change-resistors respond?
Discuss informally with the client / project sponsor
•
•
•
•
Confirm problem or opportunity
Present options for action (often useful)
Indicate best option and why
Demonstrate benefits and identify requirements
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
29
Today’s Agenda
1.
Introduction, Background and Workshop Objectives
2.
Overview of the Consulting Process
3.
Organizing and Writing Consulting Reports
4.
Making Effective Consulting Presentations
5.
Conclusion
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
30
Three Basic Premises of Writing Reports
Premise #1
Three Types of Writing
Report Sections
 Statement of Management Problem
1. Creative
 Relevant Background Information
2. Informative
Match the Type
to the Section
 Alternative Approaches to Problem
 Supported Recommendation
3. Persuasive
 Implementation Process
HINT: This is a trick question!
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
31
Three Basic Premises of Writing Reports (continued)
Premise #2
Barriers to Acceptance
A Great Report
with All the Right
Answers
•
Short Attention Spans
•
Limited Understanding of the
Relevant Issues
•
Personal Biases and Agendas
•
Political or Financial Interests
•
Limited Intelligence
Even “getting it right” does not always ensure success. Examples?
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
32
Three Basic Premises of Writing Reports (continued)
Premise #3
Logic
Psychologic
• What we know
• How they feel
about the issues
A Great Report
with All the Right
Answers
Clients make decisions based on both logical and psychological reasons.
Breaking through the barriers requires a careful balance of both elements.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
33
Three Basic Premises of Writing Proposals (continued)
Premise #3 (continued)
Using Logic
“Reason is a whore” – Martin Luther
Logic
Psychologic
• What we know
• How they feel
about the issues
•
Consider Xeno’s Paradox
Using Psychology
“Give the people what they want”
– Jimmy Cliff
•
Consider ego and need for security
Consider the psychological aspect first – what will the client see as a winner?
Then use logic to challenge (or justify) the client’s vision or bias.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
34
The Communication Process
Develop
Communication
Strategy
Structure Story Write Document
To Fit
That Tells
The Strategy
The Story
Client-Focused,
Effective
Reports and
Presentations
All of what follows applies equally to text reports and graphical presentations.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
35
Developing A Communication Strategy
Develop
Communication
Strategy
Structure Story Write Document
To Fit
That Tells
The Strategy
The Story
Client-Focused,
Effective
Reports and
Presentations
1. Set a meaningful objective
2. Determine how to meet the objective with this audience
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
36
Setting Communication Objectives
Wrong
Objective Focused On Content
Right
Objective Focused On Desired Outcome
• Provide background information on the
client’s industry
• Get the client to understand the key success factors in
the industry
• Explore the nature of the client’s
problem
• Make sure the client knows where he meets and falls
short of these factors
• Take the client through the market
segmentation
• Convince the client that we should focus future
analysis on the high end of the market
• Describe our action plan
• Get the client to agree to start implementing our plan
next week
• Describe the risks of rushing
implementation
• Get the client to delay implementation until plan can
be revised to address risks
What is the objective of your G&P report and presentation?
What is the objective of each section of the report?
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
37
Understanding The Audience
Typical Roles On A Project Steering Committee
Typical Characteristics
• Decision Maker
(e.g. CEO, Department Head)
• Interested in “looking good” and
usually has strong biases
Project Sponsor
• Ratifier
(e.g. Advisor, Dep’t Head)
• Interested in “big picture” and
usually has implicit veto power
(can play any of 3
roles at various
times)
• User
(e.g. Line Manager)
• Interested in how the project will
affect his career – often subjective
• Gatekeeper
(e.g. CFO, Logistics Manager)
• Interested in cost / benefit details
and compliance – can’t say yes
but can say no
What are the implications of this for supporting your recommendations?
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
38
Understanding The Audience (continued)
The REACH Model: Readers’ Characteristics
Role
• How will the key individuals act on the communication?
Expectations
• What does the audience expect form the communication?
Attitudes
• Will they tend to agree, disagree, object emotionally or be
neutral? What is their level of knowledge?
Communication Style
• Do they prefer formal/informal, concepts/facts,
analysis/action; verbal/graphical communication
Hook
• What is the single issue that will grab and keep their attention?
Tailor The Report To The Audience- Refer To The “Hook” Early And Often
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
39
Creating A Winning Story
Develop
Communication
Strategy
Structure Story Write Document
To Fit
That Tells
The Strategy
The Story
Client-Focused,
Effective
Reports and
Presentations
1. Raise the right question to meet the objective
2. Use the question to focus the introduction
3. Answer the question with the main message
4. Build logical “pyramid” to support the main message
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
40
Beginning The Story - The S-C-Q Model
Communication Objectives
1. Create common ground with
the audience – let them know
we understand their problem
2. Show (rather than tell) the
purpose and importance of the
presentation by raising (not
usually stating) the central
question
3. Summarize the main message
The S-C-Q Model
Starting Point
Catalyst
(Question)
Main Message
(Top of Pyramid)
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
41
The S-C-Q Model – Example 1
I.
Tanzania Postal Bank has operated profitably for seven of the last ten years and it plays an important
role in the country’s economic development, by providing basic services in remote areas.
II. However, achieving even modest profits might be more difficult than it has in the past
•
•
•
•
New, more efficient competitors are entering the market, with more capital
Yields on ‘safe’ investments are declining, while deposit rates are rising
Staying competitive will require investments in IT, HR and bricks-and-mortar presence
Staying competitive will require taking on more risk (i.e. expanding loan portfolio)
III. As a state-owned bank, TPB cannot access the capital and expertise that are available to its private
competitors. Also, governance and internal controls are relatively weak, which makes lending riskier.
There is a substantial risk that TPB will cause losses for its shareholders within the next three years.
IV. We therefore suggest that the Government consider privatizing TPB as soon as possible, by selling a
majority share to a qualified strategic investor. In the interim, the bank should restrict new lending,
complete the automation process, and concentrate on collecting past due loans.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
42
The S-C-Q Model – Example 1
I.
Tanzania Postal Bank has operated profitably for seven of the last ten years and it plays an important
Starting Point
role in the country’s economic development, by providing basic services in remote areas.
II. However, achieving even modest profits might be more difficult than it has in the past
•
•
•
•
New, more efficient competitors are entering the market, with more capital
Yields on ‘safe’ investments are declining, while deposit rates are rising
Staying competitive will require investments in IT, HR and bricks-and-mortar presence
Staying competitive will require taking on more risk (i.e. expanding loan portfolio)
Catalyst
III. As a state-owned bank, TPB cannot access the capital and expertise that are available to its private
competitors. Also, governance and internal controls are relatively weak, which makes lending riskier.
There is a substantial risk that TPB will cause losses for its shareholders within the next three years.
IV. We therefore suggest that the Government consider privatizing TPB as soon as possible, by selling a
majority share to a qualified strategic investor. In the interim, the bank shouldMain
restrictMessage
new lending,
complete the automation process, and concentrate on collecting past due loans.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
43
The S-C-Q Model – Example 1
I.
Tanzania Postal Bank has operated profitably for seven of the last ten years and it plays an important
role in the country’s economic development, by providing basic services in remote areas.
II. However, achieving even modest profits might be more difficult than it has in the past
•
•
•
•
New, more efficient competitors are entering the market, with more capital
Yields on ‘safe’ investments are declining, while deposit rates are rising Findings
Staying competitive will require investments in IT, HR and bricks-and-mortar presence
Staying competitive will require taking on more risk (i.e. expanding loan portfolio)
III. As a state-owned bank, TPB cannot access the capital and expertise that are available to its private
competitors. Also, governance and internal controls are relatively weak, which Conclusion
makes lending riskier.
There is a substantial risk that TPB will cause losses for its shareholders within the next three years.
IV. We therefore suggest that the Government consider privatizing TPB as soon as possible, by selling a
majority share to a qualified strategic investor. In the interim, the bank shouldRecommendation
restrict new lending,
complete the automation process, and concentrate on collecting past due loans.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
44
The S-C-Q Model –Example 2
1.
Wrightsville Fish Merchants have a strong local brand, and sales volume has expanded steadily
over the past five years. However, overall profitability has declined over the same period.
2.
Our cost-of-sales analysis indicates that profitability varies widely by product and customer. The
largest variable determining customer profitability was delivery cost – in general, more distant
customers are less profitable.
3.
However, several of the largest customer accounts are also the most distant delivery locations and
are therefore less profitable than other accounts. Simply raising prices, or charging these
customers for delivery costs, might be a risky approach.
4.
We therefore recommend that Wrightsville Fish Merchants consider 1) gradually reducing the
volume discount that it offers to customers X, Y and Z, and 2) aggressively pursuing cross-sell
opportunities with these customers, in order to spread delivery costs across more products. Doing
so can increase profitability by up to X%.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
45
The S-C-Q Model – Exercise
1. Break into your LA teams
2. Come up with a ‘message’ based on the S-C-(Q)-M model…what
would you tell the owner of your client company if you had one
minute of her time?
3. If you don’t know what your recommendation will be, make one
up… i.e. develop an informed hypothesis
4. Elect one team member as spokesperson. Be prepared to tell the
class the message in one minute or less.
5. Let’s take 10 minutes to do this.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
46
The Main Message
The Main Message can be a conclusion or a recommendation - depending on the
status of the project. In either case, the Main Message should be...
 A synthesis, not a list
 Action-oriented, not static
 Targeted to the audience “hook”
 Written and described in plain English!
The Main Message Answers The Key Question
To Meet Your Communication Objective
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
47
The Main Message - Examples
 The middle-income and eastern region customer segments have the largest potential
revenue contribution
 Bank AAA could lower its cost of funds by targeting a greater proportion of its funds
from low interest products
 Company X is significantly less efficient than its competitors
 Bank AAA should focus more on cheap sources of funds, like savings and current
accounts versus term deposits and higher interest-bearing funds in order to decrease the
overall cost of customer deposits
 The Government should consider raising the retirement age to 60
Which Ones Are Conclusions And Which Ones Are Recommendations?
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
48
Building Logical Structure - The Pyramid
Main Message
State a
Synthesized,
Audience-Focused
Theme
Key Line
Rigorously Choose the
Main Ideas and the
Right Logical
Relationship
Support Each
Main Idea With a
Cogent Story Line
First Support Line
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
49
Arranging Ideas
You have five choices for each idea, finding or conclusion...
1. Find a single place where it fits in the pyramid structure
2. Place it in the introduction if it is the starting point or catalyst of the story
3. Put it in an appendix if it can be described as any of these
• Purely informational
• Educational
• Microscopic in detail
• Proof of how much work we did
4. Put it into another communication if
• It does not help meet the objective for this communication
• It is too important not to tell the client
5. Leave it out if it is of interest to you but of no value to the client
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
50
Developing The Key Line

Key line is usually 3 or 4 boxes
- Never less than 2
- Never more than 5

Each key line point corresponds to a main division of your communication

Each key line point is essential to the story
-

New to this audience
So-whats rather than mere information
Big-picture ideas rather than low-level details
Test: story badly weakened if idea left out
Each key line point is either
- A premise in a deductive argument, or
- An item in an inductive grouping
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
51
Inductive vs. Deductive Logic
 Grouping: a set of 2 - 5 like ideas
that all support a message in the
same way
Message
Inductive: Top-Down
 Argument: a set of (usually) 3 ideas that
build on each other to prove a point
Message
Deductive: Bottom-Up
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
52
Deductive Argument
Summary
of third point and
reasoning behind it
Deductive
Conclusion
Statement
Powerful
observation about
the world
Comment
Therefore
Point
Comment on the
first point
Therefore point,
stating the
implications of the
first two points
existing at the same
time
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
53
Deductive Argument - Example
Starting point:
Catalyst:
(Question:
Entered new market 2 years ago
Sales and profits are disappointing
How to improve performance?)
To meet targets, adopt a more marketfocused approach
Success in this market
depends on 3 factors
• Attractive product features
• Low price and cost
• Effective promotions
Company is not
currently meeting the
success factors
• Products less attractive
than competitors’
• Production costs too high
• Promotions show low
return
Therefore, company
should take steps to tailor
approach to market
requirements
• Tailor product line
• Reduce production costs
• Redesign promotions for
greater impact
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
54
Typical Lines of Deductive Argument
Statement about Situation
Specific Comment
on Situation
Conclusion
Success requires X
You’re not equipped to do X
Therefore, develop capability for X
You are focusing on X
Y would be better
Therefore, change direction to Y
You thought X was the problem
Further investigation shows it’s Y
Therefore, shift focus to Y
Performance is not as expected
Underlying cause is X
Therefore, take steps to fix X
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
55
Inductive Argument
Summary of
Recommendation
Inductive
Inference
Item
Item
Item
• Ideas are all of same kind
• All can be described by the same plural noun (factors,
reasons, steps, actions, benefits, etc)
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
56
Inductive Argument - Example
To meet targets, adopt a more marketfocused approach
Tailor product line to
unique needs of this
market
This market has
unique
requirements
Reduce production costs
for reasonable margin
despite price
competition
Current product
line does
not meet
requirements
Therefore, need
to tailor products
Redesign promotions for
greater impact with
these customers
Deductive lead-in
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
57
Inductive Argument – Proposal Example
Deloitte offer the right mix of
strengths to fix RBB
An approach that
combines rigor and
responsiveness
RBB has
potential, but is
in very bad
shape
A senior team with
experience on similar
projects
Fixing it is not
easy, but must be
done to reform
the economy
Therefore, need
a really good
management
team
A firm with strong
capabilities and deep
understanding of
banking best practices
Deductive lead-in
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
58
When To Use Each Approach
Use Deductive Argument …
• To give comprehensive view of
analyses or our perspective
• To prove point to resistant audience
• To educate an uninitiated audience
Use Inductive Grouping
for Most Communication …
• To focus a situation analysis
• To convince decision makers
• To guide implementers
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
59
Summary - Introduction And Pyramid
Introduction
Main Message
Key Line
Pyramid
First
Support
Line
Starting
Point
Describe a situation with which the
audience is already familiar
Catalyst
Describe a complication, change,
or problem …
(Question)
… that implicitly raises the central
question
State the answer to the question,
tailored to meet your
communication objective with this
audience
Rigorously choose the main ideas
and the right logical relationship
among them
Support each main idea with a
cogent story line
Keep going until the story is told
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
60
The Pyramid Model – Exercise
1. Describe a project, using S-C-(Q)-M model.
2. State and defend the recommendation. List benefits, reasons or
other key ‘selling points’
3. Organize into pyramid with key lines and, if possible, sub lines
4. Troubleshoot / identify counterarguments
5. Do this in 10 minutes, then elect a (different) spokesperson
6. Others – take the role of client. Critique and/or question.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
61
Writing Reports and Presentations
Develop
Communication
Strategy
Structure Story Write Document
To Fit
That Tells
The Strategy
The Story
Client-Focused,
Effective
Reports and
Presentations
1. Build logical structure into the document
2.
Draft clear, logical pages or sections
3.
Use “psychologic” bells and whistles
“Whoever Tells The Best Story Wins”
- John Quincy Adams (as portrayed in Amistad)
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
62
Three Elements Of Effective Documents
Format
Structure
The
Message
Structure
• The message must be clearly
worded and convincingly
presented
• The logical and graphical
structure of the document
supports the message
• The format of the document
reinforces the logical structure
and conveys professionalism
Format
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
63
Drafting The Document
• Use short, clear sentences - one sentence per idea
• Favor active rather than passive tense
• Avoid consulting (and MBA) jargon
Format
Structure
The
Message
Structure
Format
• Tailor the language to the client’s sensitivities and
the status of the project:
– problem / “improvement opportunity”
– you should / the Company might consider
– is / seems, appears
• Use “action words”
• Pick up and incorporate the client’s language:
– department / unit / division
– IT / systems / technology
– human resources / personnel
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
64
Maximizing Obfuscatory Verbiage: Let’s Not*
Part of the consultant’s job is to make complex problems simple. Always state messages in the most
straightforward way possible. Using jargon, unnecessary “big words” or complicated sentences
doesn’t make you appear more professional - it makes you a bureaucrat. Don’t Be Sesquipedalian!
Wrong
Right
• Operating expenses can be substantially
reduced by merging existing processing
centers and centralizing these in one location
• Company X can reduce costs by centralizing
its processing function
• “Notwithstanding the inabstrusity of the
foregoing passage…”
• “Even though this seems clear…”
• Embarking upon a merger can be a difficult
process, and many risks will be faced along
the way...
• Mergers are difficult and fraught with risks
Keep in mind the audience’s limited time and attention span.
* Barbara Meacham, A. T. Kearney
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
65
Choosing the Right Words
•
Adjectives and adverbs are like swear words – use them sparingly for maximum impact. Be conservative with
“very”, “extremely”, “critical”, “highly”, etc. Very few things are “critically important” and very few people are
“extremely experienced”.
•
Be consistent in your use of nouns to avoid confusion and keep the reader on track.. Example – is it a program, a
project or an initiative? Is it a workstream, a task area or an initiative? A unit, department or business line?
•
Switch up commonly-used verbs to avoid boredom and bring it down to earth. “Implement” = “carry out”,
“conduct”, “perform”, or even sometimes “do”. “Evaluate” = “assess” or “review” – keep a thesaurus handy.
•
But, use verbs consistently when they are the name of phases or specific recommendations. If Phase 1 is “Evaluate
Current Market”, it must always be referred to in exactly the same words.
•
Avoid slashed words except in rare circumstances. In almost every case, you should either choose one word or put
an “and” or an “or” in between them. Example: “What domestic/foreign markets…” should be “domestic or
foreign”. Instead of “government officials/policymakers”, pick one word or the other.
•
Don’t use words you don’t need. USAID says that “AMAP is designed to provide services to male and female
microentrepreneurs in urban, peri-urban and rural areas.” Which microentrepreneurs does it not serve?
•
Favor Anglo-Saxon words over Latin ones sometimes – depending on the reader and the situation. Consider:
“initiate” v. “start” or “launch”, “conduct” v. “drive”, “manage” v. “run”. Would you rather have a “hearty
welcome” or a “cordial reception”?
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
66
Say What You Mean & Mean What You Say
Decipher, deconstruct and re-phrase the following passages:
•
“The consultation between the contractor and the Bank to agree with the workplan shall be processed.”
•
“The program will develop the process of how to measure the risk of business assets resulting from the adverse
effects of defaults from the financial and exchange markets and credit risk and other types of risk facing a bank”
•
“We apprehended the alleged perpetrator while surreptitiously entering the premises”
•
“Proposals should not exceed 25 pages in length, single spaced, to include pagination, and table of contents. Items
such as graphs, charts, cover pages, dividers, table of contents, attachments, and other items specified below are not
included in this document length.” (No items specified below)
•
“The Management Team for Rastriya Banijya Bank will be appointed by Nepal Rastra Bank and will report directly
to the Governor of the Central Bank and the Secretary for Finance through the Board.”
•
“The Palestinian National Authority (PNA) in West Bank & Gaza (WB&G) in an effort to encourage private sector
development includes the development of a regional and domestic regulated capital market. The PA has initiated the
capital market effort in 1995 by granting a license, under a letter agreement MOU, to a private joint stock company,
the Palestine Development & Investment Company (PADICO) to operate a stock exchange headquartered in the
West Bank city of Nablus”
Say it first…then write it…then read it out loud.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
67
Structuring The Document
Format
Structure
The
Message
Structure
• Keep ideas separate and organized hierarchically
• Use consistent sentence / phrase structure
• Maintain consistent level of detail
• Use text or graphical guides to remind the
audience where they are in the story
Format
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
68
Organizing Lists and Concepts - MECE
Mutually Exclusive, Collectively Exhaustive
• Organize questions, issues, findings, conclusions and recommendations
around units, functions, channels, products, cost/revenue sources, or processes
• Introduce the organizational framework early on and refer to it in
communications throughout the project
• Make sure every unit, function, etc. is covered (not necessarily in detail)
• Place each issue, finding or conclusion in one, and only one, “box”
Designing The Framework Is One Of The First Steps In The Writing Process
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
69
MECE Example #1
Hallmarks Of World Class Credit Risk Management
Credit Organization and Culture
• Clear accountability for credit quality
• Supported by appropriate incentives/evaluation structure
• Top down communication of credit philosophy, policies, guidelines and
approach, as well as individual responsibilities and expectations
1
2
Policies and
Guidelines
3
Analysis and
Approval
4
Measurement and
Monitoring
Recovery and
Workout
• Comprehensive, detailed
• Standard analysis guidelines • Timely payment performance • Consistent treatment of past
policy covering entire credit
and clear approval criteria
tracking
due payments
process
• Emphasis on individual
• Consistent frequent loan
• Early warning systems and
• Guidelines revised based on
accountability
review
focus on immediate action
portfolio analysis
• High skills levels achieved • Ongoing portfolio-level
• Prioritization of cases based
• Policies well-understood and
through ongoing training
monitoring and analysis
on expected recovery value
consistently applied
Credit Administration and
Operations
• Clear segregation of approval, disbursement and control duties
• Effective leveraging of information technology
• Streamlined, clear procedures and short turnaround times
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
70
MECE Example #2
Framework Chart from Proposal to Develop ‘Enabling Environment’ for
Small Business Development in Africa
1. Macro Environment
• Price stability
• Economic policy
• Political stability • Market structure
2. Regulatory Framework
•
•
•
•
•
Labor laws and wage requirements
Licensing requirements and zoning laws
Tax regimes and business registration
Import / export restrictions and tariffs
Regulation of microfinance institutions
3. Incentive Programs
Microenterprises and
MED Support Programs
4. Infrastructure
• Technology • Communications
• Transport • Energy and water
•
•
•
•
•
SME and other set aside programs
Free trade and enterprise zones
Tax breaks and indirect subsidies
Export / import incentives
Direct subsidies and support programs
5. Human Capital
• Education • Safety nets
• Health care • Culture & society
Which issues are of most concern to microenterprises in each country?
In which areas can USAID assistance have the greatest impact?
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
71
MECE Example #3
Conceptual Framework for Real Estate Cost Reduction Project
(
Total SQF
Owned
or Rented
x
• Increase usage
‘density’
• Sell or sublet
unused space
• Consolidate
locations
Direct Costs
per SQF
)+
• Shift to less
expensive
space
• Reduce cost of
existing space
• Reduce
maintenance
or utility costs
Total
Allocated
O/H Costs
+
Total
Unallocated
O/H Costs
=
• Review own /
rent strategy
• Downsize HQ
real estate unit
• Renegotiate
central
support
contracts
• Outsource key
functions
Total
Real Estate
Expenses
• Reduce nonpersonnel
expenses
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
72
Maintaining Consistency
Bullet-pointed lists are often more effective than prose.
Points should be worded consistently and one list should describe one concept
Wrong
Right
Key Success Requirements
• Streamline existing procedures
• Developing human resources
• Focused marketing strategy
Key Actions Required
•
•
•
•
•
OR…
• Operating costs reduced substantially
• Need to provide better service
Streamline procedures
Develop human resources
Focus marketing strategy
Reduce operating costs
Provide better service
•
•
•
•
Key Success Requirements
Efficient procedures
Strong human resources
Focused marketing strategy
Low operating costs
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
73
Organizing Details Hierarchically
Wrong
• Overall costs are higher than industry
average
• Personnel costs are $15,000 per staff, other
firms average $10,000 per staff
• Service quality is below standard
• Turnaround time for claims processing is 35
days
• Average cost per claims transaction is $140,
75% above benchmark
Right
Key Findings To Date
• Above-average cost structure...
– driven mostly by personnel costs, 50%
above industry average
• And inefficient procedures...
– Long turnaround time of 35 days
(industry standard is 15 days)
• Lead to high costs per transaction
– $140 - 75% above benchmark
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
74
Using Clear Sentence Structure
•
Favor the active over the passive voice. Which sounds better – “the consultation between the contractor and the
bank to agree on the workplan shall be processed”, or “the contractor and the bank will consult with each other to
agree on the workplan”?
•
But use the passive voice if the object is more important than the subject.. Example: “Reengineering, however,
cannot be done by consultants alone” v. “Consultants alone, however, cannot do reengineering”. Don’t always trust
Microsoft’s rules of grammar!
•
Keep your sentences short and sweet. Example: “Romania’s capital markets, confronted with numerous difficulties,
are in need of reform and therefore USAID’s proposed assistance program will have significant impact if it is
implemented by a competent team like Deloitte.” versus “Romania’s capital markets face a number of difficulties
and are in need of reform. USAID’s program will have great impact if Deloitte is selected to carry it out.”
•
Know where to break the sentences. Words like “nevertheless”, “however”, “therefore”, “in addition” generally
should be at the beginning of a sentence rather than in the middle.
•
Replace “lawyerish” sentence-starters with common ones sometimes. Instead of “Moreover” or “In addition”, try
“Also”. Instead of “aforementioned”, say “as mentioned earlier”. Instead of inter alia, how about “among others”?
Develop a personal “voice” and use it consistently.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
75
Formatting The Document
Format
Structure
The
Message
• Use one idea per page (presentations) or
paragraph (text reports)
• Keep font sizes and types, numbering, and page
structure consistent to reinforce structure
• Use the “30-second” test for charts and graphs
Structure
• Use tables rather than prose wherever possible
Format
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
76
Consistent Headings And Titles
 Every proposal, report or presentation done by your team / firm / organization
should conform to a broad set of graphic and structural guidelines (logo, font
sizes/types, etc.) – this builds brand awareness.
 Use descending font size or bold/italics to mark major and minor headings
 Usually no more than three levels of headings are required - if you end up with
more, either a minor heading should become a major or you need an Appendix
 Major and minor section headings can be phrases or sentences, but never both at
the same level - maintain consistent phrase structure
 A reader should be able to perceive the logical flow of the document by
reading only the section headings
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
77
Tips for Formatting Text Reports
•
Use underlying logic to link sections, not the obvious. Instead of “In this section we will describe our technical
approach”, try “This complex problems demands a rigorous and structured approach, as described below.”
•
Never have more than two pages of unbroken text, if possible. Read through and see whether you can add minor
headings, convert prose into bulletpoints, or use a chart or graph. Remember, readers get bored quickly.
•
A numbered outline reinforces the logical structure for both the reader and the writer. Rather than relying on font
size or type to convey the structure, use numbers (2, 2.1, 2.1.1, 2.2) to reinforce the hierarchy of the pyramid. Never
more than three levels.
•
Try not to use more than three colors, and use them consistently. This reinforces our “brand” and our
professionalism. Too many colors can be distracting.
•
Don’t put in anything that is too small to read – unless it is purely an illustration.
•
Use the same basic format for all charts and illustrations. They should either be embedded or offset, either titled or
not titled, they should all use the same font and color scheme, and should be roughly the same size.
Format is often overlooked, but is critical. Format is a “branding” mechanism.
It also supports the logical structure of the report.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
78
The 30-Second Test
Senior managers seldom have the time or patience to wade through complex data or
charts - one should be able to grasp the message of a chart or illustration immediately.
 Use graphical charts instead of numerical tables whenever you can
 Keep to one finding, one message per chart or graph
 Pick the chart type that best highlights the message
- pie chart or waterfall chart for breakdown of a total
- waterfall charts for cumulative effects (e.g. improving performance)
- bar charts for simple comparisons
- line charts for time series or trend comparisons
 Illustrate only the bottom line, not the supporting analysis
 Use charts only to illustrate relevant findings that support the message, never simple facts
 Use labels where possible instead of multiple colors and patterns
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
79
The 30-Second Test - Example
Which page passes the test? This one…
Implementation Sequencing
High
2
Gap 8
Size of bubble
represents
required capital
expenditure of
project
Impact of Closing Gap
Gap 1
Sample Task 3
Deliverable:
Gap-closing
initiative
prioritization
1
Gap 3
Gap 2
Gap 4
Gap 9
4
Gap 5
Gap 7
3
Low
Easy
Ease of Implementation
Quadrant 2 : Initiatives that are difficult to
implement, but will have a high
impact on GSB, will be prioritized
next.
Quadrant 3 : Thirdly, the initiatives which are
easiest to implement, but will have
a low impact on the bank will be
approached.
Gap 6
Difficult
Quadrant 1: The gap-closing initiatives that
will have the highest impact
on GSB and are the easiest to
implement will be completed first.
Quadrant 4 : The gap-closing initiatives that will
be given the lowest priority are
those that are both difficult to
implement and have a low impact
on GSB.
Finally, the prioritization of gapclosing initiatives will produce the
Enterprise-Wide Risk
Management Roadmap
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
80
The 30-Second Test – Example (continued)
…Or this one? Was any important information lost?
Action Prioritization Matrix
Easy
Quick Hits
Relative Difficulty
Urgent Actions
• Pursue selectively
• Use to build momentum
• Time and effort
• Complexity and risk
• Expense required
• Implement now
• Publicize results
Low Priority
High Priority
• Ignore for now
• Consider for later
• Begin planning now
• Implement in phases
Prioritized,
High
Impact
Action Plan
Hard
Low
Expected Impact
High
• Better earnings potential
• Improved investor confidence
• Less volatility
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
81
Tables, Not Text - Example
Qualifications in Pension Reform
Thailand Pension and Provident Funds Reform
The purpose of the project was to conduct a comprehensive and detailed assessment of all of Thailand’s
current public and private sector pension programs, including the Government Provident Fund (GPF),
the Social Security Office’s (SSO) Old Age Pension Fund, and private provident funds. The Deloitte
team, working closely with the Ministry of Finance, SSO, GFP, the SEC, and the Association of
Provident Fund Managers and other stakeholders, developed a series of specific recommendations for
reform. We also studied the operational, organizational, and regulatory issues for systemic pension
reform and presented several different options for transition from the current Tier 1 defined benefit
(partially funded) system to a fully funded system, addressing critical issues related to financing
operation, investment regulatory, and institutional arrangements, as well as the economic and social
justification for a pension system that includes a mandatory fully funded Tier 2 component.
Indonesia Reform of Pension and Provident Funds
The purpose of this recently completed ADB funded project was to prepare feasibility studies and draft
investment guidelines and a blueprint of the legal, regulatory, and institutional framework for the fully
or partially funded public and private pension plans of Indonesia, which would mobilize larger flows of
savings and provide adequate social security coverage to a larger segment of the population…
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
82
Tables, Not Text - Example (continued)
Qualifications in Pension Reform
Client
Work Performed by Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
Ministry of Finance,
Thailand
• Performed detailed assessment of current pension programs
• Recommended comprehensive new multi-pillar pension system
• Developed detailed, action-oriented implementation plan
Government of
Indonesia
• Designed robust new legal and regulatory framework for pension programs
• Employed rigorous actuarial analyses to determine program sustainability
• Recommended action steps to expand coverage and mobilize savings
United States
Government
Accounting Office
• Performed comprehensive audit of the Pension Benefits Guarantee
Corporation, the US provident fund regulator
• Recommended improvements to actuarial and accounting standards
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
83
The Communication Process - Review
Develop
Communication
Strategy
Structure Story
To Fit
The Strategy
Write Document
That Tells
The Story
• Set communication objective
• Outline to fit the strategy
• Write out the message
• Figure out readers’ interests
• Build logical argument
• Structure the document
• Develop strategy (i.e. proposal
themes and content)
• Use S-Q-C model to start, then
build inductive pyramids
• Format the document to
support the message
Persuasion + REACH
S-Q-C + Pyramid
MECE + Consistency
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
84
Today’s Agenda
1.
Introduction, Background and Workshop Objectives
2.
Overview of the Consulting Process
3.
Organizing and Writing Consulting Reports
4.
Making Effective Consulting Presentations
5.
Conclusion
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
85
Elements of An Effective Presentation
1. CONTENT: Relevant, useful, understandable and interesting
content that supports the communication objective.
2. FORMAT: Clear, efficient slides that are visually attractive,
informative but not distracting, and arranged in a clear logical
order.
3. DELIVERY: Confident, engaging, active but not distracting,
and in control of the situation at all times.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
86
Content: Supporting Your Communication Objective
Report / Presentation Sections
Content
1. Statement of Management Problem
 Deductive lead-in to main message
(S-C-(Q)-M)
2. Relevant Background Information
 Inductive ‘pyramid’ supporting main
conclusion – i.e. results of your
analytical work (findings)
3. Alternative Approaches to Problem
 List of potential approaches, pros and
cons of each, supporting your choice
4. Supported Recommendation
 Clear description of recommendation
and (ideally) quantified benefits
5. Implementation Process
 Potential obstacles, how to address
them, and immediate next steps
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
87
Content: Organizing the Presentation
1.
Wrightsville Fish Merchants have a strong local brand, and sales volume has expanded steadily
over the past five years. However, overall profitability has declined over the same period.
(Statement of Management Problem)
2.
Our cost-of-sales analysis indicates that profitability varies widely by product and customer. The
largest variable determining customer profitability was delivery cost – in general, more distant
customers are less profitable. (Relevant Background Information)
3.
However, several of the largest customer accounts are also the most distant delivery locations and
are therefore less profitable than other accounts. Simply raising prices, or charging these
customers for delivery costs, might be a risky approach. (Alternative Approaches to Problem)
4.
We therefore recommend that Wrightsville Fish Merchants consider 1) gradually reducing the
volume discount that it offers to customers X, Y and Z, and 2) aggressively pursuing cross-sell
opportunities with these customers, in order to spread delivery costs across more products. This
approach can increase profitability by up to X%. (Supported Recommendation)
5.
Implementing this approach will require short-term investment in marketing and sales. Next steps
include the following… (Implementation Process)
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
88
Content: ‘Storyboarding’ the Presentation

Equivalent of outlining text documents… lays out logical flow and main points

Lay out the slides according to main message for each slide

Divide a piece of paper into quarters or sixths, each segment is one slide

Figure 1 to 2 minutes per slide, depending on density (not including
discussion)… For a 30 minutes presentation, probably use about 20 slides

Conceptualize charts, use ‘placeholder’ bullet points

Check flow against text report, logical pyramid
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
89
Content: ‘Storyboarding’ Example
Today’s Discussion
Intro / Problem
Key Findings
1. Intro / Problem
• Strong regional presence and
good market share
Variance in Profits by Customer
2. Key Findings
• Steady growth in sales volume
3. Conclusion / Options
• Wider variety of customers
4. Recommendation / Benefits
5. Next Steps
1
Slow decline in profitability –
rationale for this project.
2
3
Key Findings (continued)
Conclusion / Options
Recommendation / Benefits
Correlation b/w Distance and Profit
1. Raise price to account for higher
delivery costs
Potential Increase in Total Profits
• reduce
discount
2. Reduce volume discount
gradually
• cross sell
3. Cross-sell other products
4
5
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
6
90
Format: Labeling Sections – Option 1
Today’s Discussion
1. Statement of Management Problem
2. Relevant Background Information
3. Alternative Approaches to Problem
4. Supported Recommendation
5. Implementation Process
Original Report Sections
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
91
Format: Labeling Sections – Option 2
Today’s Discussion
1. Introduction: Key Issue (or Opportunity or Challenge)
2. Results of Our Analysis (or Key Findings)
3. Potential Solutions (or Approaches)
4. Recommended Solution (or Approach)
5. Next Steps
Nouns – Topic-Based
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
92
Format: Labeling Sections – Option 3
Today’s Discussion
1. Clarify key issue and project objective
2. Discuss key findings and implications
3. Identify and evaluate potential solutions (or approaches)
4. Explain benefits of our recommended approach
Verbs – Objective-Based
5. Identify implementation issues and agree on next steps
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
93
Format: Labeling Sections – Option 4
Today’s Discussion
1.
Wrightsville Fish Merchants have a strong local brand, and sales volume has expanded steadily over the past five
years. However, overall profitability has declined over the same period.
2.
Our analysis indicates that profitability varies widely by product and customer. The largest variable determining
customer profitability was delivery cost – in general, more distant customers are less profitable.
3.
However, several of the largest customer accounts are also the most distant delivery locations and are therefore
less profitable than other accounts. Simply raising prices, or charging these customers for delivery costs, might
be a risky approach.
4.
We therefore recommend that Wrightsville Fish Merchants consider 1) gradually reducing the volume discount
that it offers to customers X, Y and Z, and 2) aggressively pursuing cross-sell opportunities with these customers,
in order to spread delivery costs across more products. This approach can increase profitability by up to X%.
5.
– steps
Message-Based
Implementing this approach will require short-term investment in marketingSentences
and sales. Next
include…
Here, the contents slide doubles as an executive summary.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
94
Format: Separating Sections – Option 1
Today’s Discussion
1. Clarify key issue and project objective
2. Discuss key findings and implications
3. Identify and evaluate potential solutions (or approaches)
4. Explain benefits of our recommended approach
Repeat page and highlight
coming section
5. Identify implementation issues and agree on next steps
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
95
Format: Separating Sections – Option 2
Discuss Key Findings and Implications
Finding #1: Wide variance in customer costs
67
42
34
21
10
A
8
B
C
D
E
F
Put section heading at top
of first page of each
section….
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
96
Format: Separating Sections – Option 2 (continued)
Finding #2: Correlation of cost with distance
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0 miles
10 miles
20 miles
30 miles
…And use only subtitles
for subsequent pages in
each section.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
97
Format: Labeling Slides – Option 1
Variance in Profitability
Cost-of-Sales per Customer, ($ 000s)
67
42
34
21
10
A
Short phrases for both
main title and sub-title…
8
B
C
D
E
F
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
98
Format: Labeling Slides – Option 1 (continued)
Variance in Profitability (continued)
Cost-of-Sales and Delivery Distance by Customer
120
100
80
60
40
…continuing main title on
subsequent pages
20
0
0 miles
10 miles
20 miles
30 miles
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
99
Format: Labeling Slides – Option 2
Our analysis indicates that profitability varies widely by
product and customer.
Cost-of-Sales per Customer, ($ 000s)
67
42
34
21
10
A
8
B
C
D
E
F
Main titles replaced by
sentences from agenda
page (in smaller font)
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
100
Format: Labeling Slides – Option 2 (continued)
The largest variable determining customer profitability was
delivery cost – in general, more distant customers are less
profitable.
Cost-of-Sales and Delivery Distance by Customer
120
100
80
60
40
One lead sentence and one
idea or finding per slide.
20
0
0 miles
10 miles
20 miles
30 miles
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
101
Format: Using ‘Tombstones’
What Is A Recommendation?
Facts
Findings
102o F/39o C
Temp
Elevated
temperature
Red Spots
Susan had
measles two
weeks ago
Charlie plays
with Susan
Abnormal skin
rash
Conclusion
Recommendation
Charlie has
the measles
Treat for
Measles
Rest in Bed
Take Aspirins
Drink Fluids
• Tombstones
highlight the main
point of the slide…
• Or make an
additional, but
closely related point,
• Or ask a question.
Exposure two
weeks ago
A Recommendation Describes Specific Actions The Client Should Take
To Solve A Problem Or Take Advantage Of An Opportunity
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
45
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
102
Format: Combining Charts and Text
2) Oferta Actual
Oferta Actual de Microcédito por Tipo de Institución ($ millones)
• Text box within
chart makes key
point…
Observaciones
363
Más que la mitad del mercado actual viable
(en términos de cartera) ya está cubierto
189
97.5
• Los ONGs solo tienen 13%
del mercado actualmente
24.1
Oferta
Actual
Cooperativas
• Text box on side
makes other relevant
points,
• Banco Solidario, Credife y
SFE comparten 36% de la
oferta actual
67.4
Demanda
Total
• 116 cooperativas tienen el
52% market share – usando
estimaciones conservadoras
Bancos
(1)
(1) “Bancos” incluye Sociedad Financiera Ecuatoriana
ONGs
• Or draws out key
implications.
• Esta cobertura actual es más
que los entrevistados
suponen.
9
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
103
Format: Organizing Findings into Text Boxes
Rising Income Needs and Declining Traditional Support Sources
Rising Income Needs
• Each text box
represents a key
‘catalyst’ or trend
Declining Traditional Sources
• Consumption rising faster than disposable
income since 1989
• Family support likely declining - fewer
intergenerational transfers
• Urbanization continuing, raising lifestyle
and income expectations
• More elderly to support, less workers to
provide support
• Medical expenses likely to increase with
life expectancy
• Declining opportunities for continued
employment after retirement
• Numbers of “very old” tripling by 2020
(persons over 75)
• Less accumulated savings - savings
falling as percent of disposable income
• Points within the
box are findings that
‘prove’ the trend
• Tombstone
highlights the
implication of the
trends for the client.
The Government will be increasingly called upon to fill the gaps
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
Pension and Provident Funds Reform
11
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
104
Format: Using Text Tables
Key Objectives of a National Pension System
Objective
Income
Coverage
• First column lists
main objectives
(could be other
categories)
How Pension Systems Can Achieve Objective
• Achieve a target average wage replacement rate (50% to 60%)
• Ensure a minimum income level for retired workers (20% to 25% NAW)
• Second column lists
means of achieving
(could be other
characteristics)
• Enforce compliance through legal means and effective monitoring
• Promote participation by making the plan attractive to workers
• Strengthen programs targeted to elderly poor (esp. in rural areas)
Sustainability • Ensure target benefits are linked to contributions
• Minimize the risk of loss to the Government and plan participants
• Keep operating costs as low as possible relative to plan size
Growth
• Table is ‘MECE’
• Promote (and not distort) proper labor market incentives
• Mobilize personal savings to fund investment in the economy
• Support the development of efficient capital markets
• Tombstone wraps it
all together
All of these objectives support the goal of pension provision - to avoid future social costs
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
Pension and Provident Funds Reform
16
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
105
Format: Illustrating Processes
Phase 1:
Phase 2:
Phase 3:
Launch Project
Conduct Assessment
Finalize Assessment
• Conduct interviews with
USAID/India and other
stakeholders
• Conduct further analysis and
testing of options
• Confirm project scope and
objectives
• Finalize work plan
• Review relevant info
• Meet with USAID, World
Bank and others
• Set up India meetings
• Conduct analyses
• Develop and test preliminary
options
• Incorporate comments from
USAID/India
• Refine recommendations
• Deliver Final Assessment
• Deliver oral debrief and draft
Assessment to USAID/India
1 week
5 weeks
2 weeks
• Chevrons show major steps or phases (phrased here as verbs – action-oriented)
• Bullet points show specific action steps within each phase. Timing noted at bottom
• Conveys a lot of information efficiently.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
106
Delivery: Preparing for the Presentation
Good preparation raises your confidence, which comes through in the presentation!

Decide in advance who will present which slides. Don’t switch up too often.

Practice delivering the presentation, especially the hand-offs. Learn your personal
foibles and consciously correct them

Know the content so you won’t have to read the slides aloud during the presentation.
Write notes, but then try to memorize them.

Decide in advance whether you will take questions during or after the presentation.

Time the practice runs, and then add about 20% to your expected time.

Have team member(s) or others act as devil’s advocate or troubleshooter – identify
weak spots and practice responses to aggressive, difficult or probing questions

Know in advance how many will attend, who they are, and what the lay-out will be.

Arrive early and test equipment, get comfortable with venue. Good idea to have a
whiteboard for tracking discussion, recording issues or agreements, etc.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
107
Delivery: Basic Presentation Techniques
Confidence…. Control…. Connection…

Move at your own pace – refuse to be rushed. No one ever presents too slowly.

Don’t be afraid of silence - it makes you look thoughtful and lets ideas sink in.

Finish thoughts and sections cleanly – don’t trail off or leave it hanging.

Look at the audience – lock eyes and move on – not at the screen or podium.

Move within the ‘triangle’…and use your hands – be active but not distracting.

Pause regularly to remind audience where we are in the story.

Avoid ‘question tone’ and (obviously) filler words, e.g. “like”, “whatever”. Try using
‘well’ or ‘and so forth’ if you struggle with this.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
108
Delivery: Advanced Presentation Techniques
You have the floor… You are in charge of the discussion.

Use numbered lists to signal important information and help audience follow.

Use movement and eye contact to re-gain attention.

Use movement and eye contact to re-gain control from a questioner or commenter.

Use questions, if necessary and appropriate, to steer discussion. (Last resort)

Listen to questions and do not interrupt. Let the discussion flow a bit.

Acknowledge, rephrase, but don’t agree just to be polite, and don’t judge questions.

Always end (if possible) with agreement on next steps.
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
109
Today’s Agenda
1.
Introduction, Background and Workshop Objectives
2.
Overview of the Consulting Process
3.
Organizing and Writing Consulting Reports
4.
Making Effective Consulting Presentations
5.
Conclusion
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
110
Workshop Objectives
 Understand the basics of the consulting process and how
consultants ‘add value’ for their clients
 Learn (or re-learn) the principles of effective communications
 Learn specific techniques for preparing and delivering successful
reports and presentations
 Improve your ability to deliver a high quality product for your
Learning Alliance client
Is there anything we haven’t covered today
that you would like to discuss?
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
111
Parting Thoughts: Elements of Good Consulting
Creativity
Common Sense
Confidence
Credibility
Communication
Clarity
Good Management Consulting is Hard Work!
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
112
The 30-Second Test - Example
Which page passes the test? This one…
Implementation Sequencing
High
2
Gap 8
Size of bubble
represents
required capital
expenditure of
project
Impact of Closing Gap
Gap 1
Sample Task 3
Deliverable:
Gap-closing
initiative
prioritization
1
Gap 3
Gap 2
Gap 4
Gap 9
4
Gap 5
Gap 7
3
Low
Easy
Ease of Implementation
Quadrant 2 : Initiatives that are difficult to
implement, but will have a high
impact on GSB, will be prioritized
next.
Quadrant 3 : Thirdly, the initiatives which are
easiest to implement, but will have
a low impact on the bank will be
approached.
Gap 6
Difficult
Quadrant 1: The gap-closing initiatives that
will have the highest impact
on GSB and are the easiest to
implement will be completed first.
Quadrant 4 : The gap-closing initiatives that will
be given the lowest priority are
those that are both difficult to
implement and have a low impact
on GSB.
Finally, the prioritization of gapclosing initiatives will produce the
Enterprise-Wide Risk
Management Roadmap
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
113
The 30-Second Test – Example (continued)
…Or this one? Was any important information lost?
Action Prioritization Matrix
Easy
Quick Hits
Relative Difficulty
Urgent Actions
• Pursue selectively
• Use to build momentum
• Time and effort
• Complexity and risk
• Expense required
• Implement now
• Publicize results
Low Priority
High Priority
• Ignore for now
• Consider for later
• Begin planning now
• Implement in phases
Prioritized,
High
Impact
Action Plan
Hard
Low
Expected Impact
High
• Better earnings potential
• Improved investor confidence
• Less volatility
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
114
Parting Thoughts: Elements of Good Consulting
Creativity
Common Sense
Confidence
Credibility
Communication
Clarity
Good Management Consulting is Hard Work!
Joe Dougherty – Presentation to UNCW MBA Program, July 16 2005
115
Descargar

Today’s Agenda