The history of the
Indo-Europeans
Tandy Warnow
The University of Texas at Austin
Questions about
Indo-European (IE)
• How did the IE family of languages evolve?
• Where is the IE homeland?
• When did Proto-IE “end”?
• What was life like for the speakers of protoIndo-European (PIE)?
The Kurgan Expansion
• Date of PIE ~4000 BCE.
• Map of Indo-European migrations from ca. 4000 to 1000 BC
according to the Kurgan model
• From http://indo-european.eu/wiki
The Anatolian hypothesis
(from wikipedia.org)
Date for PIE ~7000 BCE
Estimating the date and homeland of the
proto-Indo-Europeans
• Step 1: Estimate the phylogeny
• Step 2: Reconstruct words for protoIndo-European (and for intermediate
proto-languages)
• Step 3: Use archaeological evidence to
constrain dates and geographic
locations of the proto-languages
DNA Sequence Evolution
-3 mil yrs
AAGACTT
AAGGCCT
AGGGCAT
AGGGCAT
TAGCCCT
TAGCCCA
-2 mil yrs
TGGACTT
TAGACTT
AGCACTT
AGCACAA
AGCGCTT
-1 mil yrs
today
U
AGGGCAT
V
W
TAGCCCA
X
TAGACTT
Y
TGCACAA
X
U
Y
V
W
TGCGCTT
Standard Markov models of
biomolecular sequence evolution
• Sequences evolve just with substitutions
• There are a finite number of states (four for DNA and
RNA, 20 for aminoacids)
• Sites (i.e., positions) evolve identically and
independently, and have “rates of evolution” that are
drawn from a common distribution (typically gamma)
• Numerical parameters describe the probability of
substitutions of each type on each edge of the tree
Rates-across-sites
B
D
A
C
B
A
D
C
• Dates at nodes are only identifiable under ratesacross-sites models with simple distributions, and
also requires an approximate lexical clock.
Violating the rates-across-sites
assumption
• The tree is fixed, but do not just scale up and down.
• Dates are not identifiable.
C
A
B
D
A
B
C
D
Linguistic character evolution
• Homoplasy is much less frequent: most changes result in a new
state (and hence there is an unbounded number of possible
states).
• The rates-across-sites assumption is unrealistic
• The lexical clock is known to be false
• Borrowing between languages occurs, but can often be
detected.
These properties are very different from models for molecular
sequence evolution. Phylogeny estimation requires different
techniques.
Dating nodes requires both an approximate lexical clock and also
the rates-across-sites assumption. Neither is likely to be true.
Historical Linguistic Data
• A character is a function that maps a set
of languages, L, to a set of states.
• Three kinds of characters:
– Phonological (sound changes)
– Lexical (meanings based on a wordlist)
– Morphological (especially inflectional)
Sound changes
•
•
Many sound changes are natural, and should not be used for
phylogenetic reconstruction.
Others are bizarre, or are composed of a sequence of simple
sound changes. These are useful for subgrouping purposes.
Example: Grimm’s Law.
1.
2.
3.
Proto-Indo-European voiceless stops change into voiceless
fricatives.
Proto-Indo-European voiced stops become voiceless stops.
Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirated stops become voiced
fricatives.
Homoplasy-free evolution
• When a character changes
state, it changes to a new
state not in the tree
• In other words, there is no
homoplasy (character
reversal or parallel evolution)
• First inferred for weird
innovations in phonological
characters and
morphological characters in
the 19th century, and used to
establish all the major
subgroups within IndoEuropean.
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
Lexical characters can also
evolve without homoplasy
• For every cognate
class, the nodes of the
tree in that class should
form a connected
subset - as long as
there is no undetected
borrowing nor parallel
semantic shift.
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
2
Phylogeny estimation
• Linguists estimate the phylogeny through intensive
analysis of a relatively small amount of data
– a few hundred lexical items, plus
– a small number of morphological, grammatical,
and phonological features
• All data preprocessed for homology assessment and
cognate judgments
• All “homoplasy” (parallel evolution, back mutation, or
borrowing) must be explained and linguistically
believable
Our (RWT) Data
• Ringe & Taylor (2002)
– 259 lexical
– 13 morphological
– 22 phonological
• These data have cognate judgments estimated by
Ringe and Taylor, and vetted by other IndoEuropeanists. (Alternate encodings were tested, and
mostly did not change the reconstruction.)
• Polymorphic characters, and characters known to
evolve in parallel, were removed.
Our methods/models
• Ringe & Warnow “Almost Perfect Phylogeny”: most characters
evolve without homoplasy under a no-common-mechanism
assumption (various publications since 1995)
• Ringe, Warnow, & Nakhleh “Perfect Phylogenetic Network”:
extends APP model to allow for borrowing, but assumes
homoplasy-free evolution for all characters (Language, 2005)
• Warnow, Evans, Ringe & Nakhleh “Extended Markov model”:
parameterizes PPN and allows for homoplasy provided that
homoplastic states can be identified from the data. Under this
model, trees and some networks are identifiable, and likelihood
on a tree can be calculated in linear time (Cambridge University
Press, 2006)
• Ongoing work: incorporating unidentified homoplasy and
polymorphism (two or more words for a single meaning)
First analysis:
“Weighted Maximum Compatibility”
• Input: set L of languages described by
characters
• Output: Tree with leaves labelled by L, such
that the number of homoplasy-free
(compatible) characters is maximized (while
requiring that certain of the morphological
and phonological characters be compatible).
• NP-hard.
The WMC Tree
dates are approximate
95% of the characters are compatible
Modelling borrowing:
Networks and Trees within
Networks
“Perfect Phylogenetic Network”
(all characters compatible)
What about PIE homeland
and date?
• Linguists have “reconstructed” words for ‘wool’, ‘horse’, ‘thill’
(harness pole), and ‘yoke’, for Proto-Indo-European, and for
‘wheel’ for the ancestor of the “core” (IE minus Anatolian and
Tocharian).
• Archaeological evidence (positive and negative) for these
objects used to constrain the date and location for proto-IE to be
after the “secondary products revolution”, and somewhere with
horses (wild or domesticated).
• Combination of evidence supports the date for PIE within 30005500 BCE (some would say 3500-4500 BCE), and location not
Anatolia, thus ruling out the Anatolian hypothesis.
Acknowledgements
• Financial Support: The David and Lucile Packard Foundation,
the National Science Foundation, The Program for Evolutionary
Dynamics at Harvard, The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced
Studies, and the Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology at
UT-Austin.
• Collaborators: Don Ringe (Penn), Steve Evans (Berkeley), and
Luay Nakhleh (Rice)
• Thanks also to Don Ringe (Penn), Craig Melchert (UCLA), and
Johanna Nichols (Berkeley) for discussions related to the date
and homeland for PIE
• Please see http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/CPHL for papers
and data
For more information
• Please see
http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/CPHL
(the Computational Phylogenetics for
Historical Linguistics web site) for data and
papers
How old is PIE?
(1) Words for 'yoke' and 'draw, pull (on sledge)' reconstruct to PIE,
hence PIE dispersed after the development of animal traction.
(2) Words for 'wool' reconstruct to PIE, hence PIE dispersed after
the development of woolly sheep. (Ancestral sheep and goats
have short hair -- unspinnable, unfeltable.)
(3) A verb for 'milk (an animal)' reconstructs to PIE, hence PIE
dispersed after the "secondary products revolution".
(4) Words for 'wheel', 'thill' (harness pole), and 'convey (in a
vehicle) reconstruct to at least core IE and maybe all PIE, hence
PIE dispersed after (or not too long before) the development of
wheeled transport.
How old is PIE?
(1)
Words for 'yoke' and 'draw, pull (on sledge)' reconstruct to
PIE, hence PIE dispersed after the development of animal
traction.
northern Mesopotamia, c. 4000 BCE
spread from Mesopotamia c. 3000 BCE
Darden, Bill J. 2001. On the question of the Anatolian origin of Indo-Hittite. In Robert Drews, ed., Greater
Anatolia and The Indo-Hittite Language Family, 184-228. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of
Man.
Sherratt, Andrew. 1981. Plough and pastoralism: Aspects of the secondary product revolution. In I. Hodder, G.
Isaac and G. Hammond, eds., Pattern of the Past: Studies in Honour of David Clarke, 261-205.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
How old is PIE?
(2) Words for 'wool' reconstruct to PIE, hence PIE dispersed after
the development of woolly sheep.
(Ancestral sheep and goats have short hair -- unspinnable, unfeltable.)
woolly sheep: eastern Iran, after 7000 BCE (maybe)
wool: Sumeria, North Caucasus steppe after 4000 BCE
Barber, E. J. W. 1991. Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Darden, Bill J. 2001. On the question of the Anatolian origin of Indo-Hittite. In Robert Drews, ed., Greater
Anatolia and The Indo-Hittite Language Family, 184-228. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man.
Shishlina, N. I., O. V. Orfinskaja and V. P. Golikov. 2003. Bronze Age textiles from the North Caucasus: New
evidence of fourth millennium BC fibres and fabrics. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 22.331-344.
How old is PIE?
(3) A verb for 'milk (an animal)' reconstructs to PIE, hence PIE
dispersed after the "secondary products revolution".
Darden, Bill J. 2001. On the question of the Anatolian origin of Indo-Hittite. In Robert Drews, ed., Greater
Anatolia and The Indo-Hittite Language Family, 184-228. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man.
Sherratt, Andrew. 1981. Plough and pastoralism: Aspects of the secondary product revolution. In I. Hodder, G.
Isaac and G. Hammond, eds., Pattern of the Past: Studies in Honour of David Clarke, 261-205. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
How old is PIE?
(4) Words for 'wheel', 'thill' (harness pole), and 'convey (in a vehicle)'
reconstruct to at least core IE and maybe all PIE, hence PIE dispersed
after (or not long before) the development of wheeled transport.
c. 4000-3500 BCE in or near today's Ukraine, Romania
Anthony, David W. 2007. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze Age Riders From the Eurasian
Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Darden, Bill J. 2001. On the question of the Anatolian origin of Indo-Hittite. In Robert Drews, ed., Greater
Anatolia and The Indo-Hittite Language Family, 184-228. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man.
Parpola, Asko. Proto-Indo-European speakers of the Late Tripolye culture as the inventors of wheeled vehicles:
Linguistic and archaeological considerations of the PIE homeland problem. In Karlene Jones-Bley, Martin E.
Huld, Angela Della Volpe and Miriam Robbins Dexter, eds., Proceedings of the 19th Annual UCLA IndoEuropean Conference, 1-59. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man.
How old is PIE?
Couldn't these words have been borrowed into the IE daughter
branches millennia after the PIE dispersal?
NO! Words borrowed separately into distant languages would
look very different, as with medieval Arabic loans into European
languages:
Spanish
algodon *
química (reshaped!) *
French
coton *
chemie *
English
cotton (< French!) †
chemistry (reshaped!) †
German
Baumwolle (coinage!) †
Chemie (from French!) †
Russian
xlopok (lit. 'fluff': coinage!)
ximija (via Greek!)
* Can't even reconstruct Proto-Romance!
† Can't even reconstruct Proto-Germanic!
Extended Markov model
• Each character evolves down the tree.
• There are two types of states: those that can arise
more than once, and those that can only arise once.
We also know which type each state is.
• Characters evolve independently but not identically,
nor in a rates-across-sites fashion.
• Essentially this is a linguistic version of the nocommon-mechanism model, but allowing for an
infinite number of states.
Initial results
• Under very mild conditions (substitution
probabilities bounded away from 1 and 0), the
model tree is identifiable - even without
identically distributed sites.
• Fast, statistically consistent, methods exist for
reconstructing the tree (and the network,
under some conditions).
• Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses
are also feasible, since likelihood calculations
can be done in linear time.
Descargar

The history of the Indo-Europeans