Object Oriented Programming:
Its Origins and Importance in
Computer Science
Prof. Jeffrey S. Rosenschein
School of Computer Science and Engineering
Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
Computer Programming

The history of computer
programming is a steady move
away from machine-oriented
views of programming towards
concepts and metaphors that
more closely reflect the way in
which we ourselves understand
the world
2
Programming progression…

Programming has progressed through:





machine code
assembly language
machine-independent programming
languages
procedures & functions
objects
3
Machine language – Mark I
4
Machine Language
0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 1000
1010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110
1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001
0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111
5
Assembly Language – PDP-11
6
Assembly Language – Macro-11
GCD:
SIMPLE:
TST
BEQ
MOV
SXT
DIV
MOV
MOV
CALL
RETURN
B
SIMPLE
A, R5
R4
B, R4
B, A
R5, B
GCD
7
Assembly Language – Macro-11
GCD:
SIMPLE:
TST
BEQ
MOV
SXT
DIV
MOV
MOV
CALL
RETURN
B
SIMPLE
A, R5
R4
B, R4
B, A
R5, B
GCD
8
Machine-Independent Programming Languages
– Fortran
! This example program solves for roots of the quadratic equation,
! ax^2 +bx +c =0,for given values of a, b and c.
!
PROGRAM bisection
IMPLICIT NONE
INTEGER :: iteration
DOUBLE PRECISION :: CC, Er, xl, x0, x0_old, xr
! Set convergence criterion and guess for xl, xr.
CC = 1.d-4
xl = 8.d-1
xr = 11.d-1
! Bisection method.
Er =CC +1
iteration = 0
DO WHILE (Er > CC)
iteration = iteration + 1
! Compute x0 and the error.
x0_old = x0
x0 = (xl + xr) / 2.d0
Er = DABS((x0 - x0_old)/x0)*100.d0
WRITE (*,10) iteration, x0_old, x0, Er
10 FORMAT (1X,I4,3(2X,E10.4))
this is partial…
9
Procedures & Functions – Pascal
program ValueArg(output);
{Shows how to arrange for a procedure to have arguments.}
procedure PrintInitials(First, Last : char);
{Within this procedure, the names First and Last represent the
argument values. We’ll call write to print them.}
begin
write(‘My initials are: ’);
write(First);
writeln(Last)
end; {PrintInitials}
begin
PrintInitials (‘D’, ‘C’); {Any two characters can be arguments.}
PrintInitials (‘Q’, ‘T’); {Like strings, characters are quoted.}
PrintInitials (‘&’, ‘#’)
end. {ValueArg}
10
Objects

(My examples will be from Java)
class Time {
private int hour, minute;
public Time (int h, int m) {
hour = h;
minute = m;
}
public void addMinutes (int m) {
int totalMinutes =
((60*hour) + minute + m) % (24*60);
if (totalMinutes<0)
totalMinutes = totalMinutes + (24*60);
hour = totalMinutes / 60;
minute = totalMinutes % 60;
}
}
this is partial…
11
“Intrinsic Power” vs. “Effective Power”



This progression is not a matter of “intrinsic power”
Anything you can do with a minimally capable
computer language, you can theoretically do with
any other minimally capable computer language
But that is like saying a shovel is theoretically as
capable as a tractor. In practice, using a shovel
might make things very hard…
12
Objects
class
Time
hour
minute
void addMinutes( int m )
inTime
Attributes:
hour = 8
minute = 30
Methods:
void addMinutes(int m)
outTime
Attributes:
hour = 17
minute = 35
Methods:
void addMinutes(int m)
objects
13
Classes and Objects



A class is a prototype for creating
objects
When we write a program in an
object-oriented language like Java,
we define classes, which in turn are
used to create objects
A class has a constructor for creating
objects
14
A Simple Class, called “Time” (partial)
class Time {
private int hour, minute;
constructor for Time
public Time (int h, int m) {
hour = h;
minute = m;
}
public void addMinutes (int m) {
int totalMinutes =
((60*hour) + minute + m) % (24*60);
if (totalMinutes<0)
totalMinutes = totalMinutes + (24*60);
hour = totalMinutes / 60;
minute = totalMinutes % 60;
}
}
15
Definition of an “Object”
An object is a computational entity that:

1.
2.
3.
Encapsulates some state
Is able to perform actions, or methods, on this
state
Communicates with other objects via message
passing
16
1) Encapsulates some state


Like a record in Pascal, it has a set of
variables (of possibly different types)
that describe an object’s state
These variables are sometimes called
an object’s attributes (or fields, or
instance variables, or datamembers,
or …)
17
Pascal Example: Represent a Time
type TimeTYPE = record
Hour: 1..23;
Minute: 0..59;
end;
var inToWork, outFromWork: TimeTYPE;
18
Java Example: Represent a Time
class Time {
attributes of Time
private int hour, minute;
public Time (int h, int m) {
hour = h;
minute = m;
}
…
}
constructor for Time
Time inToWork = new Time(8, 30);
Time outFromWork = new Time(17, 35);
19
Objects
class
Time
inToWork
hour
minute
void addMinutes( int m )
Attributes:
hour = 8
minute = 30
Methods:
void addMinutes(int m)
outFromWork
Attributes:
hour = 17
minute = 35
Methods:
void addMinutes(int m)
objects
20
2) Is able to perform actions, or methods,
on this state


More than a Pascal record!
An object can also include a group of procedures/functions
that carry out actions
class Time {
private int hour, minute;
public Time (int h, int m) {
hour = h;
minute = m;
}
a method of Time
public void addMinutes (int m) {
int totalMinutes =
((60*hour) + minute + m) % (24*60);
if (totalMinutes<0)
totalMinutes = totalMinutes + (24*60);
hour = totalMinutes / 60;
minute = totalMinutes % 60;
}
}
21
3) Communicates with other objects via
message passing

Sends messages to objects, triggering
methods in those objects
void
22
Example of Object Creation
and Message Passing
bill
Attributes:
…
Methods:
…
23
Example of Object Creation
and Message Passing
In one of bill’s methods, the following code appears:
Time inToWork = new Time(8, 30);
inToWork.addMinutes(15);
bill
Attributes:
…
Methods:
…
24
Example of Object Creation
and Message Passing
In one of bill’s methods, the following code appears:
Time inToWork = new Time(8, 30);
inToWork.addMinutes(15);
inToWork
Attributes:
hour = 8
minute = 30
Methods:
void addMinutes(int m)
bill
Attributes:
…
Methods:
…
25
Example of Object Creation
and Message Passing
In one of bill’s methods, the following code appears:
Time inToWork = new Time(8, 30);
inToWork.addMinutes(15);
inToWork.addMinutes(15)
inToWork
Attributes:
hour = 8
minute = 30
Methods:
void addMinutes(int m)
bill
Attributes:
…
Methods:
…
26
Example of Object Creation
and Message Passing
In one of bill’s methods, the following code appears:
Time inToWork = new Time(8, 30);
inToWork.addMinutes(15);
inToWork
Attributes:
hour = 8
minute = 45
Methods:
void addMinutes(int m)
bill
Attributes:
…
Methods:
…
27
Structure of a Class Definition
class name {
}
declarations
attributes and
symbolic constants
constructor definition(s)
how to create and
initialize objects
method definitions
how to manipulate
the state of objects
These parts of a class can
actually be in any order
28
History of Object-Oriented Programming


Started out for simulation of complex manmachine systems, but was soon realized that
it was suitable for all complex programming
projects
SIMULA I (1962-65) and Simula 67 (1967)
were the first two object-oriented languages


Developed at the Norwegian Computing Center,
Oslo, Norway by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen
Nygaard
Simula 67 introduced most of the key concepts of
object-oriented programming: objects and classes,
subclasses (“inheritance”), virtual procedures
29
The Ideas Spread

Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg and colleagues at
Xerox PARC extend the ideas of Simula in
developing Smalltalk (1970’s)





Kay coins the term “object oriented”
Smalltalk is first fully object oriented language
Grasps that this is a new programming paradigm
Integration of graphical user interfaces and
interactive program execution
Bjarne Stroustrup develops C++ (1980’s)

Brings object oriented concepts into the C
programming language
30
Other Object Oriented Languages







Eiffel (B. Meyer)
CLOS (D. Bobrow, G. Kiczales)
SELF (D. Ungar et al.)
Java (J. Gosling et al.)
BETA (B. Bruun-Kristensen, O. Lehrmann
Madsen, B. Møller-Pedersen, K. Nygaard)
Other languages add object dialects, such as
TurboPascal
…
31
REVIEW: Definition of an “Object”

An object is a computational entity that:



Encapsulates some state
Is able to perform actions, or methods, on this
state
Communicates with other objects via message
passing
32
Encapsulation




The main point is that by thinking of the
system as composed of independent objects,
we keep sub-parts really independent
They communicate only through well-defined
message passing
Different groups of programmers can work on
different parts of the project, just making sure
they comply with an interface
It is possible to build larger systems with less
effort
33
Advantages
Building the system as a group of interacting
objects:
 Allows extreme modularity between
pieces of the system
 May better match the way we (humans)
think about the problem
 Avoids recoding, increases code-reuse
34
But there’s more…




Classes can be arranged in a hierarchy
Subclasses inherit attributes and
methods from their parent classes
This allows us to organize classes, and
to avoid rewriting code – new classes
extend old classes, with little extra work!
Allows for large, structured definitions
35
Example of Class Inheritance
Object
toString( )
equals( Object obj )
getClass( )
Objects made from this
class, for example, have
all the attributes and
methods of the classes
above them, all the way
up the tree
extends
Rectangle
length
width
int computeArea( )
Shape
extends
extends
Time
color
borderWidth
hour
minute
Color getColor( )
void setBorderWidth( int m )
void addMinutes( int m )
extends
Circle
radius
int computeArea( )
extends
Triangle
base
height
int computeArea( )
36
Java Class Hierarchy
37
Java Class Hierarchy, another view
38
Polymorphism


An object has “multiple identities”, based on
its class inheritance tree
It can be used in different ways
39
Polymorphism



An object has “multiple identities”, based on
its class inheritance tree
It can be used in different ways
A Circle is-a Shape is-a Object
O b ject
to S trin g ( )
e q u a ls ( O b je c t o b j )
g e tC la s s ( )
e xte n d s
S h ap e
c o lo r
b o rd e rW id th
C o lo r g e tC o lo r( )
v o id s e tB o rd e rW id th ( in t m )
e xte n d s
C ircle
ra d iu s
in t c o m p u te A re a ( )
40
Polymorphism



An object has “multiple identities”, based on
its class inheritance tree
It can be used in different ways
A Circle is-a Shape is-a Object
O b ject
to S trin g ( )
e q u a ls ( O b je c t o b j )
g e tC la s s ( )
e xte n d s
S h ap e
c o lo r
b o rd e rW id th
C o lo r g e tC o lo r( )
v o id s e tB o rd e rW id th ( in t m )
e xte n d s
C ircle
Object
Shape
Circle
A Circle object really has 3 parts
ra d iu s
in t c o m p u te A re a ( )
41
How Objects are Created
Circle c = new Circle( );
42
How Objects are Created
Circle c = new Circle( );
1.
Object
Shape
c
Circle
Execution Time
43
How Objects are Created
Circle c = new Circle( );
1.
c
2.
Object
Object
Shape
Shape
Circle
c
Circle
Execution Time
44
How Objects are Created
Circle c = new Circle( );
1.
c
2.
3.
Object
Object
Object
Shape
Shape
Shape
Circle
c
Circle
c
Circle
Execution Time
45
Three Common Uses for Polymorphism
1.
2.
3.
Using Polymorphism in Arrays
Using Polymorphism for Method
Arguments
Using Polymorphism for Method
Return Type
46
1) Using Polymorphism in Arrays

We can declare an array to be filled with “Shape”
objects, then put in Rectangles, Circles, or
Triangles
O b ject
to S trin g ( )
e q u a ls ( O b je c t o b j )
g e tC la s s ( )
e xte n d s
S h ap e
c o lo r
b o rd e rW id th
C o lo r g e tC o lo r( )
v o id s e tB o rd e rW id th ( in t m )
e xte n d s
R e cta n g le
le n g th
w id th
in t c o m p u te A re a ( )
e xte n d s
C ircle
ra d iu s
in t c o m p u te A re a ( )
e xte n d s
T ria n g le
base
h e ig h t
in t c o m p u te A re a ( )
47
1) Using Polymorphism in Arrays

We can declare an array to be filled with “Shape”
objects, then put in Rectangles, Circles, or
Triangles
samples
(an array
of Shape
objects)
[0]
[1]
[2]
48
1) Using Polymorphism in Arrays

We can declare an array to be filled with “Shape”
objects, then put in Rectangles, Circles, or
Triangles
firstShape
secondShape
Attributes:
Attributes:
length
radius = 11
[2]= 17
samples width = 35
Methods:
Methods:
(an array
int computeArea( )
int computeArea( )
of Shape
objects)
[0]
[1]
thirdShape
Attributes:
base = 15
height = 7
Methods:
int computeArea( )
[2]
49
1) Using Polymorphism in Arrays

We can declare an array to be filled with “Shape”
objects, then put in Rectangles, Circles, or
Triangles
firstShape
secondShape
Attributes:
Attributes:
length
radius = 11
[2]= 17
samples width = 35
Methods:
Methods:
(an array
int computeArea( )
int computeArea( )
of Shape
objects)
[0]
[1]
thirdShape
Attributes:
base = 15
height = 7
Methods:
int computeArea( )
[2]
50
2) Using Polymorphism for Method
Arguments

We can create a procedure that has Shape as
the type of its argument, then use it for objects
of type Rectangle, Circle, and Triangle
public int calculatePaint (Shape myFigure) {
final int PRICE = 5;
int totalCost = PRICE * myFigure.computeArea( );
return totalCost;
}
The actual definition of computeArea( ) is known only at
runtime, not compile time – this is “dynamic binding”
51
2) Using Polymorphism for Method
Arguments

Polymorphism give us a powerful way of
writing code that can handle multiple types
of objects, in a unified way
public int calculatePaint (Shape myFigure) {
final int PRICE = 5;
int totalCost = PRICE * myFigure.computeArea( );
return totalCost;
}
To do this, we need to declare in Shape’s class definition
that its subclasses will define the method computeArea( )
52
3) Using Polymorphism for Method
Return Type

We can write general code, leaving the type
of object to be decided at runtime
public Shape createPicture ( ) {
/* Read in choice from user */
System.out.println(“1 for rectangle, ” +
“2 for circle, 3 for triangle:”);
SimpleInput sp = new SimpleInput(System.in);
int i = sp.readInt( );
if ( i == 1 ) return new Rectangle(17, 35);
if ( i == 2 ) return new Circle(11);
if ( i == 3 ) return new Triangle(15, 7);
}
53
Java Convinced Me to Start Teaching
Object-Oriented in Intro to CS






Java is Object-Oriented from the Ground Up
Java has the elegance that comes from being
designed after other OO languages had been in use
for many years
Java has strong type checking
Java handles its own memory allocation
Java’s syntax is “standard” (similar to C and C++)
Java is a good teaching language, but it (or
something close) will also be seen by students in
industry
54
Object-Oriented Programming in Industry



Large projects are routinely programmed
using object-oriented languages
nowadays
MS-Windows and applications in MSOffice – all developed using objectoriented languages
This is the world into which our students
are graduating…
55
Conclusions

Object-oriented programming provides a superior
way of organizing programming projects



It encourages a high degree of modularity in
programming, making large projects easier to
implement
It provides powerful techniques like inheritance and
polymorphism to help organize and reuse code
Object-oriented languages like Java both provide
a good environment for beginning students to
learn programming, and match real-world
developments in computer programming
56
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Object Oriented Programming: Its Origins and …