Cultural Diversity and its
Effects on Learning and
Teaching
Monica A. Devanas
Teaching Excellence Center
Rutgers University
Diverse Students
• motivational and learning characteristics
of students different from white, middle
class males
• interplay of social and cultural diversity
and learning style, curriculum content
and instructional style
Diverse Students
• Social relational skills, values, characteristics
• Information processing orientations and skills
• Communication patterns
• Learning styles and strategies
• Motivational styles
• Psychological characteristics
Cultural, Learning and
Motivational Styles
• Non-traditional
• Traditional
– Social interactions
– Peer cooperation
– Performance
– Visual perception
– Symbolic expression
– Narrative
– Independence
– Competition
– Verbal skills
Cultural, Learning and
Motivational Styles
• Females
– affiliation
– relationships
– collaborativecooperative
interaction
• Males
– separation
– autonomy
– competitive
achievements
Learning Styles
Relational
–
–
–
–
–
holistic, global
intuitive
social
verbal
nonacademic task
oriented
– affected by opinions
– withdraw from drill
– style conflicts with
school environments
Analytical
–
–
–
–
–
–
focus on detail
sequential
impersonal
abstract
academic task oriented
not affected by
opinions
– persist in drills
– styles matches school
environments
Experiential Learning Model
Concrete Experience
Testing Implications
of Concepts in New
Situations
Observations and
Reflections
Formation of Abstract
Concepts and Generalizations
Experiential Learning Model
Concrete Experience
Testing Implications
of Concepts in New
Situations
Observations and
Reflections
Formation of Abstract
Concepts and Generalizations
Experiential Learning Model
Visual
Concrete Experience
Testing Implications
Observations and
of Concepts in New
Reflections
Situations
Connected
Separate
Formation of Abstract
Concepts and Generalizations
Verbal
Learning Styles and
Strategies
Felder and Soloman Model
Active/Reflective
Sensing/Intuitive
Visual/Verbal
Sequential/Global
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f
/felder/public/ILSpage.html
Effective Teaching Strategies
• Concrete Experience- readings, examples,
fieldwork, problems, observations, simulations, primary
texts, films, games
Effective Teaching Strategies
• Concrete Experience- readings, examples,
fieldwork, problems, observations, simulations, primary
texts, films, games
• Reflective Observation - logs, journals, discussion,
brainstorming, thought/rhetorical questions
Effective Teaching Strategies
• Concrete Experience- readings, examples,
fieldwork, problems, observations, simulations, primary
texts, films, games
• Reflective Observation - logs, journals, discussion,
brainstorming, thought/rhetorical questions
• Abstract Conceptualization - lecture, papers,
projects, analogies, model building
Effective Teaching Strategies
• Concrete Experience- readings, examples,
fieldwork, problems, observations, simulations, primary
texts, films, games
• Reflective Observation - logs, journals, discussion,
brainstorming, thought/rhetorical questions
• Abstract Conceptualization - lecture, papers,
projects, analogies, model building
• Active Experimentation - projects, fieldwork,
homework, laboratory, case study, simulations
UCLA Freshman Survey
1998 33rd year
sampled: 383,815 students,
668 Two & Four Year
Institutions
adjusted: 275,811 students,
469 Institutions
represent: 1.6 M entering 1st year
students
UCLA Freshman Survey
• 82.9%
tool
• 65.9%
• 54.2%
• 72.9%
• 80.4%
Internet – educational, research
email
chat rooms
“other”
play computer games
UCLA Freshman Survey
private
email in HS
homework
80.1%
90.2
public black colleges
41.4%
77.6
UCLA Freshman Survey
Interest in:
Politics
Law
1998 – 25.9%*
3.0%*
1997 – 26.7
3.3
1966 – 57.8
1989 – 5.4
* record low
UCLA Freshman Survey
Volunteerism in HS:
1998 – 74.2*
1997 – 73.1
1989 – 62.0
* record high
UCLA Freshman Survey
Academic Disengagement:
(“bored in class” in HS)
1998 – 37.7*
1997 – 36.0
1985 – 26.4
* record high
Implementing the Principles of
Good Practice
for Diverse Learning Styles
Technology as the Lever
Promising Instructional
Technologies
Visual Materials
– artifacts
– overhead projector and slides
– computer graphic presentation
– movies, video, videodisk
Promising Instructional
Technologies
Visual Materials
– artifacts
– overhead projector and slides
– computer graphic presentation
– movies, video, videodisk
Auditory Materials
– tapes
– instruments
– human voices
Classroom Technologies
“Smart” Classrooms (HEFT)
• see, hear, breathe
• equipment:
– overhead, ceiling, 16 mm, slides
– VCR, CD/Video disk
– computer connections
– audio tape player/recorder
Video Conferencing
“Open your Classroom to the World”
languages, cultures, literature, film
Students at a Distance
Research, Meetings, Seminars
“EXTRA-classroom”
Instructional Technologies
• Electronic data bases
– library
– web-based
• Graphic Data
• Statistical Data
“EXTRA-classroom”
Instructional Technologies
•
•
•
•
•
•
Email
Listserv
newsgroups/discussion groups
“chat rooms” real time
web-based materials
on-line courses
Uses of Email
• Communication - Q&A, “virtual” office hours
• Information distribution - FAQ’s,
announcements
• Course Organization - homework,
assignments
• Content Enrichment
Intro to Macro & Micro
Economics
http://TeachX.rutgers.edu/gag
Biomedical Issues of AIDS
http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~devanas/AIDS
Student’s Listserv Discussions
•
megan wrote: just a question to ponder.... how do you think life will change if a
cure is found. do you think people will change their attitudes …
•
In respone to megan if there was a cure i think people will have another excuse
to hace unprotected sex. I know many people who refuse to use…
•
For the past week or so, I have received many emaill messages about a
conspiracy theory. It bothered me to hear that people had that little faith in their
government…..
•
in response to what megan wrote...i think people will still have protected sex
because the cure for AIDS is going to be very expensive, and besides …
•
I must say that for those of you who believe that our government would not
withhold the cure for AIDS, have to much faith in their government…
Listserv Discussion Groups
•
Group 2: Should convicted criminals be required to disclose their
HIV status and/or be tested for HIV?
•
Many people agreed that, for the majority of cases, a criminal should
not be forced to be tested and therefore disclose their information.
Afterall, as someone stated, "having your personal medical records
made public is not part of the sentence." Others felt that it would be too
expensive to test everyone in prison and that the money could be used
elsewhere. The fact is that other inmates would discriminate against the
HIV positive person and a great deal of violence would occur. If you
think about it, why should criminals be forced to be tested and/or forced
to disclose their personal medical history just because they are in jail?
Afterall, they don't test you for any other diseases in jail- why only HIV?
Conferencing Software
• Conferencing - Web-Based Discussion
– Nicenet (http://www.nicenet.org)
– NetscapeProfessional, Allaire Forum
• WebCT (https://webct.rutgers.edu/)
– conferencing
– organization
– testing
Testing Software
• Half-Baked Potato Software
–
–
–
–
http://web.uvic.ca/hrd/halfbaked/
JBC on-line quizzes (multiple choice)
JQuiz (short answers)
Markin (annotate text)
• PerfectMatch (beta preview)
– http://biomedia.bio.purdue.edu/PerfectMatch/
– match image with concept
Precautions for using
Instructional Technologies
• Purpose
• Evaluation of Effectiveness
– teaching
– learning
• Back-up plans
• Reliance on Infrastrucure
“Highly Interactive” Learning
Model
• Bork Model
• “New Learning Structures”
• learning and evaluation blended
– frequent interaction (20 sec)
– Socratic format
– memory of learning style
http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/html/erm9946.html
Assessment
•
•
•
•
•
Student survey
Instructor satisfaction
Attendance
Graduates
quantitative scores
“Seven Principles of Good
Practice”
Increase Contact
Cooperation
Active Learning
Feedback
Time on Task
High Expectations
Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning
Chickering and Ehrmann 1996 IMPLEMENTING THE SEVEN
PRINCIPLES: Technology as Lever. AAHE Bulletin
Teaching Effectiveness Goal
Research - Strategies - Assessment
“Multicultural Teaching Repertoire” is….
…effective teaching for all students
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Cultural Diversity and its Effects on Learning and Teaching