Europe
Leading countries
according to GDP
 Switzerland
 Luxembourg
 Sweden
Leading countries
according to Land Size
 Ukraine
 France
 Spain
Leading countries
according to population
 Germany
 United Kingdom
 Italy
 France
PHYSICAL CHARATERISTICS
 Part of a large landmass called
EURASIA
 Europe includes four
peninsulas
A peninsula is a body of land
surrounded by water on three
sides
 Europe’s peninsulas are the
Iberian, Italian,
Scandinavian,and the
Jutland
 Europe also has three
ISLANDS
 an island is a body of land
completely surrounded by
water
 Europe’s main three islands are
Great Britain, Ireland and Sicily
 Europe is also home to many
FJORDS
 A fjord is a narrow valley or inlet
from the sea--originally carved
out by glaciers
 Two Major mountain ranges
exist in Europe
Alps-Central Europe
Pyrenees- border between
France and Spain
 The largest physical
characteristic in Europe is the
North European Plain
 The North European Plain is a
large flat fertile stretch of land
important for agriculture,
especially in Western Europe
 Rivers also play an important
role in Europe.
 They are or were used for
transportation, power, and
trade.
 The most important are the
Danube (Germany), Rhine
(Germany), Seine (France),
and the Thames (United
Kingdom)
 Seas
Oceans
Adriatic
Atlantic
Aegean
Arctic
Mediterranean
Baltic
Black
North
 Landmarks
Strait of Gibraltar- separates
Europe from Africa at the
mouth of the Mediterranean
Sea
 Climates
varied climate regions-everything from tundra to
mediterranean
Europe’s climate is also
affected by the North
American Drift and the
prevailing westerlies
 North American Drift is a
powerful ocean current that
carries tropical water toward
the coast of Europe.
 The winds which blow across
the North American Drift are
known as the prevailing
westerlies.
 Combined they help to
produce a warm, moist
climate in most of Europe
Economic Characteristics
 The Mountain regions of
Europe are famous for tourism,
recreation and mineral
resources.
 Many areas of Europe are
threatened by air and water
pollution.
Forests--Black Forest of
Germany (acid rain)
Cities--Venice,Italy
Rivers--Danube, Rhine, and
Seine
 Many of Europe’s largest
industrial and transportation
centers developed near mineral
deposits, especially coal and
iron ore
Ruhr Valley (Germany)
Po Valley (Italy)
 Rivers and canals served
as the major transportation
links
 There are oil reserves in the
North Sea. Great Britain has
claimed many of them.
 Most countries of Europe,
especially Western Europe,
have a well educated
workforce.
 Most are industrial or
technological societies
(Switzerland specializes in
banking).
 The countries of Western
Europe also use advanced
farming techniques which gives
them high crop yields.
 Fertile soils and the chernozem
(black earth of Russia) are also
found in Europe.
 Most of Europe has a well
developed infrastructure.
 Infrastructure is things such
as roads, power companies
railroads and air carriers
 France and Great Britain
have built the Chunnel to
provide a railroad
transportation between
their countries.
 Western Europe and Eastern
Europe have different
industrial systems and different
industrial development
because of different economic
and political systems since
1945.
 Most of western Europe
belongs to the Economic
Union today. Eastern Europe
is slowly catching up after
changing their systems in the
early 1990s
 The Economic Union is a
economic union used to tie the
economies of Europe together
for the benefit of all members.
It is an ECONOMIC
ALLIANCE.
 Trade is important in Europe,
especially to the island nations.
 Sweden and Denmark allow
their governments to play a
large role in their economies.
 Eastern Europe has begun
the switch from communism
to capitalism
 the Netherlands grows crops
on land reclaimed from the
sea (Polders)
 Their demographics are typical
of a developed nations.
 High per capita GDP
 High literacy rate
 high life expectancy
 low infant mortality
 low percentage of the
population under the age of
15
Cultural Characteristics
 Europe is the birthplace to the
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
was the switch from hand or
manual labor to using
machines for labor
England was the center of
the Industrial Revolution
 Europe is the home to many
ethnic groups

 each group brings different
languages, religions and
customs
 This has led to sporadic conflict
among the groups
 such as war and revolution
 Europe is the birthplace of
modern democracy
 Greece is the home of
Democracy
 Europe has spread its’ culture
to other parts of the world
through
exploration
colonization
 imperialism
 Europe is highly urbanized
 It is one of the most densely
populated areas of the world
 Most of Western Europe is a
member in the political/military
alliance called the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (NATO)
 All of the following cities act as
centers for culture and trade in
Europe
 Berlin, Germany
 London, England
 Madrid, Spain
 Athens, Greece
 Warsaw, Poland
Rome, Italy
Paris, France
Cultural Landscape
 In Paris the following cultural
icons can be found:
Notre Dame, Arc de
Triomphe, Louvre, Eiffel
Tower
 In Italy the following
cultural icons can be found:
Colosseum, Leaning
Tower of Pisa, St. Peter’s
Basilica
 In Greece—the Parthenon
 In England--Westminster Abbey
and Big Ben
 In Europe in general--windmills
(Netherlands) and castles
Parthenon in Greece
Arc de Triomphe in Paris
Notre Dame
Eiffel Tower -- Paris
Colosseum--Italy
Leaning Tower of Pisa-Italy
Big Ben--England
Westminster Abbey
St. Peter’s Basilica
Windmills and Castles
Louvre
Fjord
Alps
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Europe - University of Missouri–St. Louis